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      class Sewage:public Editor {

public:
    Sewage(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::ar1991a:
        {
            if (AR1991A_0037(0) == 9 && AR1991A_0046(0) != 99)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bo1992a:
        {
            if (BO1992A_0044(0) == 9 && BO1992A_0042(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bo2001a:
        {
            if (BO2001A_0055(0) == 9 && BO2001A_0053(0) == 2)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::de1971a:
        {
            if (DE1971A_0042(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0044(0) == 1)
                a = 20;
            if (DE1971A_0042(0) == 9 && DE1971A_0044(0) == 8)
                a = 99;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1963a:
        {
            if (UY1963A_0057(0) == 9 && UY1963A_0055(0) == 4)
                a = 20;
            if (UY1963A_0057(0) == 9 && UY1963A_0055(0) == 8)
                a = 99;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1985a:
        {
            if (UY1985A_0057(0) == 0 && UY1985A_0055(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1996a:
        {
            if (UY1996A_0050(0) == 9 && UY1996A_0048(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
            if (UY1996A_0050(0) == 9 && UY1996A_0048(0) == 8)
                a = 99;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1963x:
        {
            if (UY1963X_0057(0) == 9 && UY1963X_0055(0) == 4)
                a = 20;
            if (UY1963X_0057(0) == 9 && UY1963X_0055(0) == 8)
                a = 99;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1985x:
        {
            if (UY1985X_0057(0) == 0 && UY1985X_0055(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy1996x:
        {
            if (UY1996X_0050(0) == 9 && UY1996X_0048(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy2011a:
        {
            if (UY2011A_0048(0) == 0 && UY2011A_0046(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::uy2011x:
        {
            if (UY2011X_0048(0) == 0 && UY2011X_0046(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
		case dataset_id::gt2002a:
        {
            if (GT2002A_0045(0) == 0 && GT2002A_0044(0) == 2)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bo2012a:
        {
            if (BO2012A_0043(0) == 9 && BO2012A_0042(0) == 3)
                a = 20;
        }
        break;
		}


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

SEWAGE indicates whether the household has access to a sewage system or septic tank.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Egypt
France
Germany
Ghana
Greece
Guatemala
Honduras
Hungary
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Jamaica
Liberia
Mali
Mexico
Morocco
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Palestine
Panama
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
South Africa
Spain
Togo
Uruguay
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

The first digit of SEWAGE indicates whether the household has access to a modern sewage disposal system. This information is generally comparable across all samples. When more detail is available, the second digit distinguishes households connected to a sewage system from those with a septic tank. A septic tank implies the waste is treated in some way, but terminology and interpretations inevitably differ somewhat across samples.

All dry methods of waste disposal are classified as not being connected to a sewage disposal system. Further details on these methods are available for many samples and are retained in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The treatment of cesspools/cesspits differs. They are included with septic tanks in 1980 but are in "no access" in later samples. The 1991, 2001 and 2010 census questions appear comparable, but there is a decline in the number of households with septic tanks.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The 2011 census question includes responses for both public and private sewerage systems. "Connected to the centralized sewerage system" indicates a household's connection to a public system, whereas "Local system" indicates that a dwelling unit has its own local or private network for drainage.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The 2009 sample only indicates whether or not a household is connected to a sewer system.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The "septic tank" category of the 2013 sample is not comparable with the same category of 1992 and 2002 samples because it comprises those dwellings that use the public sewage system.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The variable is comparable across samples, with some minor universe discrepancies.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The 2010 sample includes data for private households with a bathroom for exclusive use, while the 1960-2000 samples include all private households.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The variable is comparable across samples.

Comparability — Chile [top]

Some samples combine responses for public sewage and septic systems, while others distinguish them.

The 1960 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The census questions vary. The 1973-1985 censuses identified dwelling sewage or septic tank connections.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The 1984 sample does not distinguish between public sewage and septic systems. The 2000 and 2011 samples do distinguish between public and private systems, and lists other methods of disposal that are not connected to a sewage system such as a hole or latrine.

Comparability — Cuba [top]

The variable is comparable across samples. In 2002 and 2012, sewage disposal includes removal of waste and waste water.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The samples are largely comparable apart from extra detail in the 1981 sample. The 2002 and 2010 samples do not distinguish toilets connected to sewers or toilets connected to septic tanks.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

In the 1996 census, the question was asked to all households but was asked to only private households in the 2006 census. The 2006 sample contains more detail on households not connected to the sewage disposal network and distinguishes public "networks" from private "networks", the latter coded as "septic tank".

Comparability — France [top]

The 1968 French sample treats septic tanks differently than the 1975 and 1982 samples. In 1968, households with septic tanks are separately identified and are classified as having access to a sewage system, which is consistent with the coding of other countries. In 1975 and 1982, households with septic tanks are included with all other households not connected to a sewage system. The question was only asked to overseas departments in the 2006 and 2011 census and is not included in this variable.

Comparability — Germany [top]

This variable is available only in the 1971 and 1981 samples and are reported at the building level. Buildings indicating an "own building" sewage disposal system were coded as using a septic tank, whereas those reporting other methods were coded as not connected.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

This variable is available for the 2010 sample only.

Comparability — Greece [top]

In all samples sewage "sinks" are interpreted as not having access to a sewage system, but these might include septic tanks.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The data come from a census question on toilet facility type, and are generally comparable across years. In 1981, 1994, and 2002, the "washable toilet" is interpreted as not connected to the sewage system or to a septic tank.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The samples are comparable.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The 1970, 1980, and 2011 categories for "septic tank" also includes desiccators and cesspools, which would be coded as "not connected" in other samples where such information is available, including 1990 and 2001 Hungary.

A non-response in 1970 is interpreted as no access to a sewage system, which might inflate that category.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The data come from a census question on toilet facility type, and are generally comparable across years. They indicate whether the household has a private facility with septic tank; households that have shared or public facilities are classified as not having a connection, as the data do not separate these responses by disposal type, except in 2010 where this distinction can be found in the unharmonized source variables.

Although the questionnaires use the words "septic tank," the detail from enumerator instructions suggests that this represents any type of sewage disposal system.

Comparability — Iran [top]

In this sample, the census question distinguished the types of private sewage disposal of the household. Refer to the unharmonized variable to identify households with private sewage disposal provided by a town or a private building and those that drain into a septic tank.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

This variable is inferred from type of sanitary facility in 1971, 1981 and 1991. The 2002, 2006, 2011, and 2016 samples have questions specifically about sewage facility. The 1971 and 1981 samples only distinguish flush toilets from other types not connected to sewer or septic facilities. The 1991, 2002, 2006, 2011, and 2016 samples distinguish between households connected to the public sewage system and those with private disposal systems. Households reporting individual systems other than public and septic tanks are interpreted as not connected to the sewage disposal system in this variable.

In 1971-1991, this question was not asked of households living in caravans or mobile homes. In 2002-2016, information is available for private households.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

Private sewage disposal includes drainage into septic tanks or absorption pits. The question was asked of all households in the 1982 census but changed to private households in subsequent censuses.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

This variable is available for the 2008 sample only.

Comparability — Mali [top]

This variable is available for the 2009 sample only.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The census questions speak to the elimination of waste water.

The 1960 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The responses in the 2004 sample are constructed from questions about toilet facilities that identified toilets connected to the sewer system and to septic tanks. Multiple responses were allowed for the 2004 census question, so there are some cases in which households indicate having a public sewage system connection and a septic tank. These cases were coded into the public system category.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

SEWAGE is constructed from the type of toilet facilities in the household. In 2001, flush/modern toilet facilities are by definition linked to the sewage system or a septic tank.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The samples are comparable with slight differences in the universes. The disposal systems are coded according to use, regardless of ownership of the toilet facility.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The data are comparable across samples.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The census question was asked of all households in 1997, but it excluded households in the Gaza strip in 2007.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The data are comparable across samples.

Comparability — Poland [top]

A local system is defined as a septic tank servicing and owned by one (or more) neighboring buildings and it is categorized as "Septic tank (private sewage disposal)".

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The variable is comparable across samples.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The variable is fully comparable across samples. Septic tanks include cesspools, which may imply the waste was not necessarily treated.

Comparability — Romania [top]

In the 1977, 1992, and 2002 samples, dwellings with piping for their "own system" of disposal are classified as having septic tank systems. In 2011, this corresponds to connections to a private sewage disposal plant.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The dwellings that use sumps were classified as not connected to the sewage disposal system.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The responses for both samples are derived from census questions on toilet facilities, which identified water closets linked to sewers. Water closets not linked to a sewer (1980) or to a cesspit or septic tank (1991) are interpreted as connected to a septic system.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The responses for the 1988, 2002, and 2013 samples are derived from census questions about toilet facilities, which identified toilets connected to the sewage system and to septic tanks.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

In 2001 and 2016, the responses are derived from census questions about toilet facilities, which identified toilets connected to the sewage system and to septic tanks.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The data is comparable across samples apart from changes in universes. The samples do not distinguish between public or private sewage systems.

Comparability — Togo [top]

The response for both samples are derived from census questions on toilet facilities. Connection to sewage is only identified by septic tank in 1960 and sewage system in 2010, other alternatives were considered as not having such connection.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

Cesspools are included with septic tanks in all years. The source variable for 1963 allows them to be separated in that year. The 1985 sample also contains a category for sewage connection to a private networks -- this is assumed to be a private sewage system and is merged with responses indicating a public sewage connection, separate from septic tank responses.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

There are no problems of comparability across the Vietnam samples. SEWAGE is constructed from responses to the "type of toilet" question. The categories on the form and the instructions seem to suggest that flush toilets indicate a sewage system.

Many households in the Vietnam 1989 sample lack dwelling information, including all households in some provinces.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

Group quarters are included in the universe in the 2000 sample; only private households are included in the 1990 and 2010 samples.

Universe

  • Argentina 1980: Private dwellings
  • Argentina 1991: Private dwellings
  • Argentina 2001: Private dwellings
  • Argentina 2010: Households with a bathroom
  • Armenia 2011: All households
  • Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
  • Benin 1992: Private households
  • Benin 2002: All households
  • Benin 2013: All households
  • Bolivia 1976: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2012: Private occupied dwellings
  • Brazil 1960: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 1970: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 1980: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 2000: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 2010: Occupied permanent private housing units with a bathroom for exclusive use
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All households
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All households
  • Cambodia 2004: All households
  • Cambodia 2008: Regular households
  • Cambodia 2013: All households
  • Cameroon 2005: Ordinary households
  • Canada 1971: Private households
  • Chile 1960: Households in which the head was sampled
  • Chile 1970: Occupied dwellings
  • Chile 1982: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Chile 1992: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Chile 2002: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 1973: All households
  • Colombia 1985: Occupied (not vacant) dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1963: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1973: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1984: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2000: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2011: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Cuba 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Cuba 2012: Private occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Primary household in occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied designated households
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 1974: Private dwellings
  • Ecuador 1982: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 1990: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 2001: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 2010: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Egypt 1996: All households
  • Egypt 2006: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Occupied private dwellings
  • El Salvador 2007: Occupied private dwellings with people present
  • France 1968: Not group quarters
  • France 1975: Not group quarters
  • France 1982: Not group quarters
  • Germany 1971: Households in private dwellings in residential buildings
  • Germany 1981: Occupied households in residential buildings
  • Ghana 2010: Occupied private households
  • Greece 1971: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1981: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1991: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2001: Regular dwellings
  • Guatemala 1964: All households
  • Guatemala 1981: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 1994: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 2002: Private occupied households
  • Honduras 1988: Private households
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Hungary 1970: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 1980: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 1990: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2001: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2011: Occupied private households, seasonal and non-residential housing units
  • Indonesia 1980: All households
  • Indonesia 1985: All households
  • Indonesia 1990: All households
  • Indonesia 1995: All households
  • Indonesia 2005: All households
  • Indonesia 2010: Permanent households in regular and remote enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: All households
  • Iraq 1997: Private dwellings
  • Ireland 1971: Private non-mobile households
  • Ireland 1981: Private non-mobile households
  • Ireland 1991: Private non-mobile households
  • Ireland 2002: Private households
  • Ireland 2006: Private households
  • Ireland 2011: Private households
  • Ireland 2016: Private households
  • Jamaica 1982: All households
  • Jamaica 1991: Private households
  • Jamaica 2001: Private households
  • Jordan 2004: Not hotel or public housing units
  • Kenya 1989: Not group quarters
  • Kenya 1999: All households
  • Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Non-collective dwellings
  • Liberia 2008: All households
  • Mali 2009: All households
  • Mexico 1960: Households in which the head was sampled
  • Mexico 1970: All households
  • Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
  • Mexico 1995: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2005: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Morocco 2004: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2014: All households
  • Nepal 2001: All households
  • Nepal 2011: All households
  • Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
  • Nicaragua 1995: Private occupied households with people present
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with inhabitants present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
  • Nigeria 2006: All households
  • Nigeria 2007: All households
  • Nigeria 2008: All households
  • Nigeria 2009: All households
  • Nigeria 2010: All households
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Palestine 2007: All households except Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Private occupied households
  • Panama 1980: Private occupied households
  • Panama 1990: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2000: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2010: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 2002: Private or multi-household dwellings with bathroom
  • Peru 1993: Private occupied dwellings
  • Peru 2007: Private occupied dwellings
  • Poland 1988: Dwellings only
  • Poland 2002: First enumerated dwelling in the building
  • Portugal 1981: Non-collective occupied households
  • Portugal 1991: Private households in dwelling of usual residence
  • Portugal 2001: Private households in dwelling of usual residence
  • Portugal 2011: Private households in dwelling of usual residence
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Private occupied dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Private occupied dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Private occupied dwellings
  • Romania 1977: All households
  • Romania 1992: All households
  • Romania 2002: All households
  • Romania 2011: All households
  • Rwanda 2012: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All households
  • Senegal 1988: All households
  • Senegal 2002: All households
  • Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
  • South Africa 2001: Non-homeless households
  • South Africa 2016: All households
  • Spain 2001: Buildings that are not businesses or lodgings
  • Spain 2011: Buildings designed mainly or exclusively as dwellings
  • Togo 1960: All households
  • Togo 2010: All households
  • United States 1960: Not group quarters, not in cities with 50,000+ residents
  • United States 1970: Not group quarters, only for year-round units
  • United States 1980: Not group quarters
  • United States 1990: Not group quarters
  • Uruguay 1963: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 1975: Occupied households
  • Uruguay 1985: Occupied private dwellings with people present
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Occupied private dwellings
  • Venezuela 1971: Non-collective occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1990: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Vietnam 1989: All households
  • Vietnam 1999: All households
  • Zambia 1990: Occupied private households
  • Zambia 2000: All households
  • Zambia 2010: All households

Availability

  • Argentina: 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2011
  • Belarus: 2009
  • Benin: 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001, 2012
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 2005
  • Canada: 1971
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002, 2012
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • France: 1968, 1975, 1982
  • Germany: 1971, 1981
  • Ghana: 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Honduras: 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Indonesia: 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2016
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Mali: 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Morocco: 2004, 2014
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Poland: 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002, 2013
  • South Africa: 2001, 2016
  • Spain: 2001, 2011
  • Togo: 1960, 2010
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010