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Codes and Frequencies



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Description

This variable indicates the dwelling's predominant roofing material.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Botswana
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Honduras
Indonesia
Jamaica
Kenya
Malawi
Mali
Mexico
Mozambique
Paraguay
Philippines
Tanzania
Uruguay
Zambia

Comparability — General

The variable is conceptually comparable across samples, but the categorization is not. The distinctions made at the variable's first digit are generally sustainable, with the exception of masonry, which spans two digits.

One of the difficulties is that the primary classification scheme is organized around underlying materials (wood or metal, for example), while some of the original census classifications included both underlying materials and stylistic or construction features. The primary example of the latter is tiles: some censuses did not define this term at all; others defined it to include several underlying materials (clay, wood, asbestos, etc.).

Little effort has been made to harmonize the variable beyond the first digit. Users must examine the available categories for the samples they are interested in and combine them appropriately.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The 2001 and 2011 samples include more response options than previous samples.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The variable is largely comparable across years. Asbestos was added in 1973 and remained, clay tile dropped out in 2000, but waste material was added.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The universe differs slightly across samples. The 1981 sample has the category of "tiles," which is not included in later samples.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The 2007 census adds a response category for fiber cement sheets.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The universe differs significantly across samples, including only urban households in 1984 and only households receiving the long questionnaire in 2007.

The 1994 integrated variable was made using two unharmonized variables- one for rural households and one for urban households. Asbestos roofing was omitted as a category from the 1994 sample. "Bamboo or reed" was added as a category for the 1994 and 2007 samples.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The 1961 census is a sample of individuals, not households. Information is only available for households consisting of a head.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The 1990 and 1995 censuses separate sheet metal into separate categories for zinc and asbestos, whereas asbestos is combined with zinc in other years.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

Roofing material was not enumerated in the 1982 sample. The 1991 and 2001 samples are comparable in both categories and universe statement.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The data are comparable across samples. The grass/makuti category from the 1989 census sample is split into two separate categories in latter samples.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

ROOF is not present in the 1998 sample. The 1987 sample has four variables for ROOF: one for each dwelling a respondent may own; this variable records roof materials of the first dwelling. Iron and tile are combined in both samples.

Comparability — Mali [top]

Tile roofs are included with sheet metal in 1987. In the 2009 sample, the unharmonized source variable differentiates roofs of sheet metal only and those that have sheet metal and a ceiling.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

In 2010 and 2015, the option "flat roof with wooden beams" is classified as "wood and other plant material".

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The categories are consistent across years.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

Most of the categories are consistent across years, with some variation.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The category "Wood" includes bamboo in the 1990-2010 samples.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

In 2012 there is a response category for people living in tents, which is categorized as "other".

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The unharmonized source variables distinguish masonry with or without a "flat roof"; the 2006 census further distinguishes concrete with or without "protection", which can be disaggregated using the source variable.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

Most of the categories are consistent across years. However, the 2010 sample added several categories that were not included in earlier samples.

Universe

  • Argentina 1980: Private households
  • Argentina 1991: Private households
  • Argentina 2001: Private households
  • Argentina 2010: Private households
  • Bangladesh 1991: All households
  • Benin 1979: All households
  • Benin 1992: Private households
  • Benin 2002: All households
  • Benin 2013: All households
  • Bolivia 1976: Occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Botswana 1981: Private households
  • Botswana 1991: Private households
  • Botswana 2001: Private households
  • Botswana 2011: Private households
  • Brazil 1980: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All households
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All households
  • Cameroon 1976: Occupied households
  • Cameroon 1987: Private households
  • Cameroon 2005: Ordinary households
  • Colombia 1973: All households
  • Costa Rica 1963: Occupied private dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1973: Occupied private dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1984: Occupied private dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2000: Occupied private dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2011: Occupied private dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Dwellings with independent exit
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Occupied households
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Private dwellings
  • Ecuador 2010: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Private households
  • El Salvador 2007: Private households
  • Ethiopia 1984: Urban households
  • Ethiopia 1994: Households with information collected
  • Ethiopia 2007: Households that responded to the long form
  • Ghana 2000: Private households
  • Ghana 2010: Private households
  • Guinea 1983: All households
  • Haiti 1971: All households
  • Haiti 2003: All households
  • Honduras 1961: Households consisting of a head
  • Honduras 1988: Private households
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Indonesia 1971: All households
  • Indonesia 1980: All households
  • Indonesia 1985: All households
  • Indonesia 1990: All households
  • Indonesia 1995: All households
  • Indonesia 2005: All households
  • Jamaica 1991: Private households
  • Jamaica 2001: Private households
  • Kenya 1989: Not group quarters
  • Kenya 1999: All households
  • Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
  • Lesotho 2006: All households
  • Liberia 2008: All households
  • Malawi 1987: Private households
  • Malawi 2008: Private households
  • Mali 1987: All households
  • Mali 1998: All households
  • Mali 2009: All households
  • Mexico 1970: All households
  • Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
  • Mexico 1995: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Morocco 1982: All households
  • Morocco 1994: Non-tent households
  • Mozambique 1997: Private dwellings
  • Mozambique 2007: Private dwellings
  • Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
  • Nicaragua 1995: Private occupied households with people present
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with people present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
  • Nigeria 2010: All households
  • Pakistan 1998: All households
  • Panama 1980: Private occupied households
  • Panama 1990: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2000: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2010: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1972: Private occupied dwellings
  • Paraguay 1982: Private occupied dwellings
  • Paraguay 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Paraguay 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Peru 1993: Private occupied dwellings
  • Philippines 1990: All households
  • Philippines 2000: All households
  • Philippines 2010: All households
  • Poland 1988: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Rwanda 2012: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All households
  • Senegal 1988: All households
  • Senegal 2002: All households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All households
  • South Africa 2011: Households in housing units or converted hostels
  • Tanzania 2002: Private households
  • Tanzania 2012: Private households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Private households
  • Uganda 1991: Private households
  • Uganda 2002: Private households
  • Uruguay 1963: Private occupied households
  • Uruguay 1985: Private occupied households with people present
  • Uruguay 1996: Private occupied households
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Private occupied households
  • Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Vietnam 2009: Households with a dwelling
  • Zambia 1990: All households
  • Zambia 2000: All households
  • Zambia 2010: All households

Availability

  • Argentina: 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Bangladesh: 1991
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1980, 1991
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Colombia: 1973
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 2010
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Guinea: 1983
  • Haiti: 1971, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1988, 2001
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005
  • Jamaica: 1991, 2001
  • Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 2008
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2010
  • Pakistan: 1998
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1988
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 2011
  • Tanzania: 2002, 2012
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2011
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1963, 1985, 1985, 1996, 1996, 2006, 2011, 2011
  • Venezuela: 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010