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RESIDENT
Residence status: de facto, de jure

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

RESIDENT identifies whether an enumerated person is a household resident or a visitor and whether she or he was present at the time of enumeration. This variable is available only in samples that enumerated both de facto and de jure residents. It can be used to eliminate the double-counting of persons who were enumerated both at their permanent residence and at the residence they were visiting on census night.

De jure population: present residents and absent residents.

De facto population: present residents and visitors/non-residents.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cameroon
Dominican Republic
Ethiopia
Guinea
Iraq
Ireland
Jamaica
Malawi
Mali
Mongolia
Mozambique
Pakistan
Rwanda
Senegal
South Africa
Spain
Uganda
United Kingdom

Comparability — General

Most censuses that enumerate both the de facto and the de jure population include an indicator to separately identify present residents, temporarily absent residents, and visitors. This information allows researchers to select and analyze either the de facto or the de jure population. The 2002 Uganda census distinguishes only between persons present on census night and residents who were absent. Several censuses (Jamaica 1982 and 1991, Iraq 1997, Mali 1987, and Rwanda 2002) collected additional details which are preserved in the unharmonized source variables. The 1981 Pakistan and 2008 Cambodia samples are de facto and de jure, but do not include an indicator of resident status.

The 2002, 2006, and 2011 samples for Ireland asked selected questions of absent residents. RESIDENT can be used to make those samples comparable to earlier Ireland samples, which included only the de facto population.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

Residence status is available for the 1960 and 1970 Brazilian censuses. In both years, present residents, absent residents, and non-residents can be distinguished. Microdata samples from later census years contain only the de jure population.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

Residence status is available for all samples and enumerates present residents, absent residents and visitors in all years. The 1985 and 1996 samples also include information about whether the absent residents are in Burkina Faso or are abroad.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

Residence status is available in all samples (1976, 1987, and 2005). The variable identifies present residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

Residence status is available in 1981. The variable identifies present residents, absent residents, and visitors (non-residents). Earlier census samples from 1960 and 1970 include only de facto population. Later census samples from 2002 and 2010 include only the de jure population.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

Resident status is reported for all three Ethiopian censuses (1984, 1994, 2007). The variable is comparable over time, identifying present residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

Residence status is available in Guinea for both census samples. The codes are generally comparable over time, separately identifying residents present on census night, absent residents, and non-residents. The 1983 sample includes a small number of persons with unknown resident status.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

The 1997 Iraq sample contains detailed resident status data. The unharmonized source variable contains additional detail on whether absent residents are in Iraq, abroad, in prison, or lost.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The 1971-1996 Ireland censuses enumerated only de facto residents. In 2002, 2006 and 2011, a limited number of questions were also asked of household residents who were absent on census night. For comparability with earlier samples, researchers should use case selection to include only the de facto population. Both censuses include individuals who were absent on census night, but are also identified as non-residents; only questionnaire items asked of absent residents are reported for these persons, but they have no reported place of usual residence. We have classified these persons as having unknown resident status.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The 1982 and 1991 Jamaica censuses used both de facto and de jure enumeration methods. Residents who were present on census night, absent residents, and visitors are separately identified in both samples. The 1982 sample includes a small number of persons with unknown resident status. Only usual residents were enumerated in 2001.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The 2008 Malawi census used both de facto and de jure enumeration methods. Residents who were present on census night, absent residents, and visitors are separately identified. Earlier censuses, enumerated only persons present on census night.

Comparability — Mali [top]

Resident status is available in both the 1987 and 1998 Mali census samples. Both samples distinguish between residents who are present, residents who are absent, and visitors on census night. The 1987 unharmonized variable also indicates whether absent residents are abroad or in Mali.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

The 1989 and 2000 Mongolian censuses enumerated all residents as well as visitors who reside in a different administrative unit (soum or district of the capital). Residence status in each year identifies present residents, absent residents, and non-residents.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

Resident status is reported for both the 1997 and 2007 censuses of Mozambique. The variable is comparable over time, identifying present (permanent) residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

The 1981 and 1998 Pakistan census enumerated both the de facto and de jure population, while the 1973 census enumerated only the de jure population. In 1981, residents and visitors cannot be separately identified. Residence status is available in the 1998 census and distinguishes between present residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

Both the 1991 and 2002 censuses in Rwanda enumerated de facto and de jure residents. Residents who were present on census night can be distinguished from absent residents and visitors in both census years. The 2002 unharmonized variable included additional detail identifying absent household heads who were in an institution at the time of the census.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

Resident status is reported for both the 1988 and 2002 Senegalese censuses. The variable is comparable over time, identifying present residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2007 South African census used both de facto and de jure enumeration methods. Residents who were present on census night, absent residents, and visitors are separately identified. Earlier censuses, 1996 and 2001, enumerated only persons present on census night. Unharmonized variables for these de facto censuses separately identify residents from visitors.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The 1981 Spanish census enumerated household residents as well as temporary residents and visitors from other municipalities. Only residents absent from the enumeration municipality were identified as absent. Residence status is available for the 1981 census and separately identifies present, absent, and temporary residents. In addition, all non-residents receive a person weight equal to zero. The 1991 and 2001 microdata samples contain only the resident population.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

In 2002, the Ugandan census enumerated all persons present during the enumeration period as well as any absent head. The resident status variable separately identifies persons who are part of the de facto population (present during census night) and those who are not (household residents who were absent on census night). Using case selection, the 2002 sample can be made comparable to the 1991 census which enumerated only the de facto population.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The 1991 census of the United Kingdom enumerated residents and visitors, while the 2001 census enumerated only the de jure population. Resident status in 1991 distinguishes between present residents, absent residents, and visitors.

Universe

  • All persons

Availability

  • Benin: 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 2013
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1852
  • Dominican Republic: 1981
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Iceland: 1901
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Malawi: 2008
  • Mali: 1987, 1998
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Norway: 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1998
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • South Africa: 2007
  • Spain: 1981
  • Togo: 1960, 2010
  • Uganda: 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 1991
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010