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PHONE
Telephone availability

Codes and Frequencies



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      class Phone:public Editor {

public:
    Phone(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::de1970a:
        {
            a = 1;
            for (int i = 1; i <= countPeople(); i++) {
                if (DE1970A_0469(i) == 1)
                    a = 2;
            }
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ng2008a:
        {
            if (NG2008A_0046(0) == 2 && NG2008A_0052(0) == 1)
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ng2009a:
        {
            if (NG2009A_0050(0) == 2 && NG2009A_0056(0) == 1)
                a = 2;
        }
        break;
        }


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

PHONE indicates the availability of a telephone in the dwelling.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
Germany
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Malawi
Malaysia
Mexico
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Puerto Rico
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Suriname
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Uganda
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

Depending on the sample, PHONE indicates whether the household had access to a telephone, had a telephone line installed in the dwelling, or had a telephone (or similar device) in its housing unit. Whether the household had exclusive use of the phone is often unstated.

Many samples in more recent censuses implicitly or explicitly include cellular phones in this variable. Check the country-specific comparability text to see if cellular phones are included in this variable for a specific sample. For selected samples, the variable CELL separately indicates access to a cellular phone.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

Prior to 2010, land lines and cellular phone are included. In the 2010 census, this variable refers to whether the household has a landline telephone only.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The 2001 census question simply indicates the presence of a telephone of some kind in the dwelling unit. The 2011 sample refers specifically to the presence of a fixed telephone in the housing unit.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

Across samples the census question refers to a telephone connected to a phone line or a radio telephone.

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2013 census asked whether the household owns a landline that is in functional condition.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The question includes both cellular phones and landlines in 2001 and 2012.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The 2001 sample does not specify the type of telephone in the household. The 2011 sample refers to a land line telephone in the household; cellular phones are asked about separately.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The Brazil samples include extension lines from other households. The 1991 census explicitly stated that the question dealt with telephone lines or extensions, not telephone receivers. The 2010 sample specifies that this refers to a landline telephone in the housing unit.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

In the 2006 sample, the variable indicates whether a landline telephone was owned by members of the household.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The underlying data report the number of land-line phones owned by the household.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The 1993 sample includes radio-telephones or other forms of electronic communication. The 2005 sample specifies a land telephone line.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

In 2002, "Yes" indicates the presence of a landline or cellular phone in the household. In 2010, "Yes" indicates the presence of a landline only.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The 2010 sample indicates whether a "conventional" telephone service is available to the household.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The underlying data report the number of land-line phones owned by the household.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

In 2007 the question explicitly refers to land-line telephones, but no distinction was made in 1992.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

Only the 2007 sample specifies a fixed or wireless telephone line, while excluding a mobile phone. The other samples simply ask if there is a telephone in the unit.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

In the 1996 sample, the question does not specify whether it refers to a landline or cellular telephone. In 2007 and 2014, the question refers only to landline telephones; cellular phones are asked about separately.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The data are perhaps based off of whether there is an number entry in the person census for "private telephone number in dwelling"; the data is then extrapolated to where if one person in the household is counted as having a phone, the entire household is as well.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The 1964 and 1981 samples ask only whether the household has a telephone.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

This variable indicates whether a telephone of any kind was used in the housing unit.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

In 2001, the census question includes telephones even if they are found in poor working condition awaiting repair.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

In 2005 the question explicitly includes both land-line and cellular phones, but the type of phone was not differentiated in enumeration. The concept of the question was about usage and whether or not a dwelling had access to a phone regardless of the type. In 2010 both land-line and cellular phones are explicitly included in the question, but unlike in 2005, the type of phone (land-line, cellular, or both) a dwelling had access to was differentiated in enumeration. The type of phone is preserved in the unharmonized variable. For this variable access to any kind of phone is coded as "Yes."

Comparability — Iran [top]

The census question refers explicitly to a land-line service. A separate unharmonized variable indicates if the phone available in the household was in use or not.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

The census question does not specify the type of phone.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The census questions are comparable across the 1972, 1983, and 1995 samples, without a mention of cell phones. The 2008 sample identifies separately cell phones from landlines; the information on cell phones is harmonized into CELL.

The census question in 2008 provides detail on whether the household had one or more than one landline, which is available in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The 2011 census asked whether a household member possesses at least one landline with active service.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The census instructions are inconsistent with the questionnaire labels; we privilege the questionnaire in our interpretation. We assume that cellular phones are not included in the response we code "yes" in this variable. Households that had access to a phone only via a neighbor's facility are coded to "no". See the unharmonized source variable for the original categories.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

In the 2009 sample, the variable indicates whether the household owned a landline telephone.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

The data include any kind of telephone, including telephones in communal flats for common use.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The census question does not specify the type of phone owned by the household and may include cellular phones.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The 1970-1990 samples indicate that the household had a working telephone of some kind. The 2000 sample specifies a fixed telephone line; there was a separate question for mobile telephones.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

In 2000, cell phones are included, unless owned by an employer. In 2010 and 2015, however, this question is specifically about land-lines only and cell phones are not included.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

The census question indicates the presence of a telephone of some kind.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

In 2004 and 2014, the census question includes only landlines.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The data in the 2007 sample specifies to the household having a landline.

Comparability — Myanmar [top]

The 2014 sample includes only landlines.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

In 2011, this question is specifically about land-lines; cell phones are reported in a separate variable.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The question only included land-lines.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

The 2006 and 2007 samples have a single source variable concerning landline telephones in the household with "access" and "owns" as separate response categories. Households with access to or ownership of a landline telephone are included in the "yes" category in the integrated variable.

The 2008 and 2009 samples have two source variable concerning landline telephones in the household. One variable records whether the household owns a landline telephone. The other variable records whether the household has access to a landline telephone. Households that own or have access to a telephone are included in the "yes" category in the integrated variable. See source variables for detail on ownership versus access.

The 2010 sample records whether there is a landline telephone in working condition in the dwelling unit.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

In 2007 the question explicitly refers to a land-line service, but it may include cell phones in 1997.

Comparability — Panama [top]

Before 2010, the census questions simply indicate the presence of a telephone of some kind. In 2010, this variable refers to "residential" telephones; there was a separate question for cellular phones.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The 2002 sample includes both installed telephone lines and cellular telephones in the responses.

Comparability — Peru [top]

The data in both samples refer to having a land-line telephone in the household.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The 2010 census asks whether the household owns a landline or wireless telephone in working condition.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

In 1970, the variable indicates whether the housing unit had access to a telephone on which they could receive calls. For the 1980-1990 samples, the variable indicates whether there is a telephone in the housing unit. For the 2000-2010 samples, the variable indicates whether there is telephone service available in the dwelling from which they can both make and receive calls, including cell phones.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

In 2002, land lines and cellular phones are included. The 2012 census asked whether the household has a fixed line in functioning condition.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The variable indicates if there is telephone service in the household.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 1988 sample indicates the presence of a telephone line in the household. The 2002 sample indicates whether the household owns a telephone, including presumably a cellular phone. In 2013, the census question refers to a landline and a separate variable records information on cell phones. For information about cell phone availability in 2013, see CELL.

In 2002 and 2013, data is also collected on a telephone or fax-machine used for production purposes, which are included in PHONE.

The number of phones in 1988 is available in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The data report ownership of a land-line phone.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

In the 1996 sample, fixed-line phones and cell phones are included together. The question asked whether household members usually used a telephone in the dwelling. In this sample, answers indicating access to a telephone that was not located in the dwelling are classified as "no". See the unharmonized source variable for the original categories.

The 2001, 2007, 2011, and 2016 censuses asked separately about landline telephones and cell phones. This variable reports the presence of a functioning landline telephone in the household. For information about cell phone availability, see CELL.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

This variable refers to whether a member of the household owns a landline telephone. Mobile phones are asked about separately.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The variable refers to a land-line service.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

The 2012 sample includes only landlines. A separate variable records information on cell phones, which is harmonized into CELL.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2002 sample indicates whether the household owns a telephone of any kind. The 2012 sample specifies ownership of a land-line phone; cellular phones are asked about separately.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The 1980 sample indicates if the household normally possesses a phone. The 1990 and 2000 samples indicate the number of phone lines, which is preserved in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Togo [top]

In 2010, this question refers specifically to land-lines; cell phones are reported in a separate variable.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The 1990 and 2000 samples do not specify the type of telephone in the household.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

The 2014 sample asks for the number of fixed-phones in the house, which are coded to yes/no responses in PHONE. Details on the number of phones are available in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — United States [top]

For 1960-1970, the variable indicates whether the housing unit had access to a telephone on which they could receive calls; the telephone could be located anywhere within or outside the housing unit, even in another building. For 1980-2005, an affirmative response means that the telephone was actually within the housing unit. The 2005 sample explicitly includes cellular phones. The 2010 and 2015 sample refers to a telephone service from which the household can both make and receive calls, and explicitly includes cellular phones.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

Both 1985 and 1996 do not specify what type of phone the dwelling had access to.
The 2011 sample has one source variables concerning landlines and one source variable concerning cellular phones. In 2011, only landlines are reported in the integrated variable.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The 1970-1981 samples indicate the presence of a working telephone appliance; the 1990-2001 samples indicate telephone land-line service to the household.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The question asked about "usage" of a phone and includes cellular telephones.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The data are comparable across samples.

Universe

  • Argentina 2001: Non-collective dwellings and not homeless
  • Argentina 2010: All households
  • Armenia 2001: All households
  • Armenia 2011: All households
  • Belarus 1999: All households
  • Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
  • Benin 2013: All households
  • Bolivia 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2012: Private occupied dwellings
  • Botswana 2001: Private households
  • Botswana 2011: Private households
  • Brazil 1980: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 2000: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
  • Brazil 2010: Occupied permanent private housing units
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All households
  • Cambodia 2008: Regular households
  • Cambodia 2013: All households
  • Chile 1982: Private occupied dwellings with people present
  • Chile 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Chile 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 1993: Not vacant dwellings
  • Colombia 2005: All households
  • Costa Rica 1973: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1984: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2000: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2011: Private occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied designated households
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 1990: Private occupied dwellings with persons present during enumeration
  • Ecuador 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 2010: Private households
  • Egypt 2006: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Occupied private households
  • El Salvador 2007: Occupied private dwellings with people present
  • Ethiopia 1984: Urban households
  • Ethiopia 1994: Urban households with information collected
  • Ethiopia 2007: Household units that responded to the long form
  • Fiji 1996: All households
  • Fiji 2007: All households
  • Fiji 2014: All households
  • France 1968: Not group quarters
  • France 1975: Not group quarters
  • France 1982: Not group quarters
  • Germany 1970: All households
  • Ghana 2010: Occupied households
  • Greece 1991: Regular dwelling
  • Guatemala 1964: All households
  • Guatemala 1981: Private occupied households
  • Haiti 2003: Occupied private dwellings
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Indonesia 2005: All households
  • Indonesia 2010: Households in regular enumeration areas and enumerated apartments in remote areas
  • Iran 2006: All households
  • Iraq 1997: Private dwellings
  • Israel 1972: Dwellings that filled household questionnaire
  • Israel 1983: Regular households
  • Israel 1995: Private and Kibbutz households
  • Israel 2008: Private households
  • Italy 2001: Private households
  • Italy 2011: Private households
  • Jamaica 2001: Private households
  • Jordan 2004: Not hotel or public housing unit
  • Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Non-collective dwellings
  • Lesotho 2006: All households
  • Malawi 2008: Private households excluding homeless
  • Malaysia 1970: All households
  • Malaysia 1980: Private households
  • Malaysia 1991: Private households
  • Malaysia 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mongolia 2000: All households
  • Morocco 2004: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2014: All households
  • Mozambique 2007: Occupied private households
  • Myanmar 2014: Conventional households
  • Nepal 2011: All households
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with inhabitants present or hotel, boarding house and guest house
  • Nigeria 2006: All households
  • Nigeria 2007: All households
  • Nigeria 2008: All households
  • Nigeria 2009: All households
  • Nigeria 2010: All households
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Palestine 2007: All households except Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1980: Private occupant-present non-condemned households
  • Panama 1990: Private occupied households with occupants present
  • Panama 2000: Private occupied households with occupants present
  • Panama 2010: Non-collective households
  • Paraguay 1992: Occupied private households
  • Paraguay 2002: Occupied private households
  • Peru 1993: Occupied private dwellings
  • Peru 2007: Occupied private dwellings
  • Philippines 1990: All households
  • Philippines 2000: All households
  • Philippines 2010: All households
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Occupied private households
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Occupied private households
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Occupied private households
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Occupied private households
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Occupied private households
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Occupied private households
  • Rwanda 2002: Private households
  • Rwanda 2012: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All households
  • Senegal 1988: All households
  • Senegal 2002: All households
  • Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All households
  • Slovenia 2002: All households
  • South Africa 1996: Private households
  • South Africa 2001: Non-homeless households
  • South Africa 2007: Private households
  • South Africa 2011: Households in housing units or converted hostels
  • South Africa 2016: All households
  • South Sudan 2008: All households
  • Spain 2001: Buildings that are not businesses or lodgings
  • Spain 2011: Buildings designed mainly or exclusively as dwellings
  • Sudan 2008: All households
  • Suriname 2012: All households
  • Tanzania 2002: Private households
  • Tanzania 2012: All households
  • Thailand 1980: Private households
  • Thailand 1990: Private households
  • Thailand 2000: Private households
  • Togo 2010: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed the interview
  • Uganda 2002: Private households
  • Uganda 2014: All households
  • United States 1960: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 1970: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 1980: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 1990: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 2000: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 2005: Not group quarters or vacant units
  • United States 2010: Private occupied households
  • United States 2015: Private occupied households
  • Uruguay 1985: Occupied private dwellings with dwellers present
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private households
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Occupied private households
  • Venezuela 1971: Non-collective occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1990: Non-collective permanent occupied dwellings, not including "other type" private dwellings
  • Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Vietnam 2009: All households
  • Zambia 2000: All households
  • Zambia 2010: All households

Availability

  • Argentina: 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 2013
  • Bolivia: 2001, 2012
  • Botswana: 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 2006
  • Cambodia: 2008, 2013
  • Chile: 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1996, 2007, 2014
  • France: 1968, 1975, 1982
  • Germany: 1970
  • Ghana: 2010
  • Greece: 1991
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1981
  • Haiti: 2003
  • Honduras: 2001
  • Indonesia: 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995, 2008
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Malawi: 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mexico: 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 2004, 2014
  • Mozambique: 2007
  • Myanmar: 2014
  • Nepal: 2011
  • Nicaragua: 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002, 2013
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011, 2016
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Tanzania: 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 2002, 2014
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009
  • Zambia: 2000, 2010