Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
MIGCAUSE indicates the reason why the person moved from their previous place of residence.
Comparability — Index
Comparability — General
The variable is conceptually comparable, although the categories and universes differ. Some samples restrict the question to persons who lived in a different place five years ago, some to people who moved within five years, and others ask all persons who ever migrated.
Comparability — Armenia [top]
Somewhat comparable information is available for 2001 Armenia in MIGFORCE.
Comparability — Cambodia [top]
The question was asked of persons who were born in a different village. The categories differ slightly.
Comparability — China [top]
The census question was asked of persons who lived in a different city or county five years ago.
In 2000, persons who moved due to demolition of the previous residence were considered to be moving due to housing problems, while those who moved to live with relatives or friends were coded as following relatives.
Comparability — Colombia [top]
The question was asked of persons who lived in a different locality five years ago.
Comparability — Egypt [top]
The 1986 universe only included persons who moved from a different previous residence (city or village). The census questions in 1996 and 2006 were asked specifically of persons who were born in a different locality.
The data in 1986 includes a considerably larger proportion of respondents indicating a "family move" with respect to 1996 and 2006, which could be possibly explained by the interpretation of enumeration instructions about the definition of migration.
Comparability — Greece [top]
In 2011, the census question was asked of persons who previously resided abroad. The sample includes two separate response categories for those who migrated seeking asylum or being a refugee. The Greece census does not specify whether these persons have migrated due to war, natural disaster, or other specific insecurity. For this reason, asylum seekers and refugees have been coded to a separate category: "refugee / asylum seeker, reason not specified."
Comparability — India [top]
The question was asked of persons born in a different place of enumeration.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
The availability of response categories and universes differ across years. The 1985 census asks persons who have ever moved, whereas other years restrict the universe to a 5-year reference period. In all samples, some response categories were combined into "other", which can be separated in the unharmonized source variables.
Comparability — Iran [top]
In 2006 and 2011, the census questions were asked of persons who changed city, village, or settlement of residency. The time period used differs across samples: the change of residence refers to the previous 10 years in the 2006 sample, while it refers to the previous 5 years in the 2011 sample.
The "other reason" category includes military service and the end of military service as reasons for moving. The details are retained in the unharmonized source variable.
Comparability — Iraq [top]
The question was asked of persons who were born in a different locality. See the unharmonized source variable for the original categories and instructions.
Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]
The question was asked of persons who were born in a different settlement.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
The question was asked of persons who lived in a different state five years ago.
Comparability — Nepal [top]
The answers of "agriculture", "business", and "employment" are integrated together under "work". The source variable retains the details.
Comparability — Palestine [top]
The question was asked of persons who ever resided elsewhere. This question excludes persons who lived in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967.
Comparability — Senegal [top]
The 2013 sample asked this question regarding migration within the last 5 years.
Comparability — South Africa [top]
The 2016 sample asked this question regarding migration since October 2011, which is roughly equivalent to the previous five years.
Comparability — Thailand [top]
There is a small difference in universe. All samples ask the question of people who have lived in their current residence for less than 5 years. In 1980, all children under age 5 are excluded. In 1990 and 2000, children under age 5 are included if they have changed residence. The unharmonized source variables have additional detail that is combined into "other reason" in this variable.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The question and answer options refer to the reason for leaving, implying a problem with the previous locality of residence. The answers "difficulty accessing education services" and "transportation/infrastructure problems" are both included within "other" reasons. The 2006 sample was a survey, and only a subset of persons was asked this question.
- Armenia 2011: Persons who have ever lived outside their current locality of residence
- Cambodia 1998: Persons born in a place different from their village of residence
- Cambodia 2004: Persons born in a place different from their village of residence
- Cambodia 2008: Persons born in a place different from their village of residence
- Cambodia 2013: Present persons born in a place different from their village of residence
- China 1990: Persons who resided in another city or county 5 years ago
- China 2000: Persons who resided in another city or county 5 years ago
- Colombia 2005: Persons who changed residence in the past 5 years
- Egypt 1986: Persons who changed residence
- Egypt 1996: Persons born elsewhere
- Egypt 2006: Non-visitors born elsewhere
- Greece 2011: Persons who have previously resided abroad
- India 1983: Persons born in a different enumeration place
- India 1987: Persons born in a different enumeration place
- India 1999: Persons born in a different enumeration place
- Indonesia 1976: Persons who resided in another regency/municipality 5 years ago
- Indonesia 1985: Persons who have ever resided in another regency/municipality
- Indonesia 1995: Persons who resided in another village 5 years ago
- Indonesia 2005: Persons who resided in another regency/municipality 5 years ago
- Iran 2006: Persons who changed residence in the past 10 years
- Iran 2011: Persons who changed residence in the past 5 years
- Iraq 1997: Persons born elsewhere
- Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons born elsewhere
- Mexico 2000: Persons who resided in a different state 5 years ago
- Nepal 2011: Persons born in a different district or country
- Palestine 2007: All persons except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967 who have ever resided elsewhere
- Senegal 2013: Residents age 5+ in ordinary households who moved within the last 5 years
- South Africa 2016: Persons who moved after October 2011 and with usual residence in South Africa
- Thailand 1980: Persons age 5+ who have been living in their current residence less than 5 years
- Thailand 1990: Persons who have been living in their current residence less than 5 years
- Thailand 2000: Persons who have been living in their current residence less than 5 years
- Uruguay 2006: Persons in the fourth sample trimester who resided in a different locality 5 years ago
- Armenia: 2011
- Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
- China: 1990, 2000
- Colombia: 2005
- Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
- Greece: 2011
- India: 1983, 1987, 1999
- Indonesia: 1976, 1985, 1995, 2005
- Iran: 2006, 2011
- Iraq: 1997
- Kyrgyz Republic: 2009
- Mexico: 2000
- Nepal: 2011
- Palestine: 2007
- Senegal: 2013
- South Africa: 2016
- Thailand: 1980, 1990, 2000
- Uruguay: 2006