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Province of previous residence, Panama; consistent boundaries, GIS

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Mig1_p_pa:public Editor {

    Mig1_p_pa(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::pa1970a:
            if (PA1970A_0412() < 1000 && PA1970A_0406() < 1000 && PA1970A_0412() == PA1970A_0406())
                a = 591099;




MIG1_P_PA indicates the person's province of previous residence in Panama.

Click on the Source Variables tab for information on place of residence for each sample year. Source variables may contain more geographic unit detail but are not suitable for cross-temporal comparison.

Comparability — General

Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.

Boundary changes:

  • In 1997 Comarca Ngobe Bugle was formed from parts of Bocas de Toro, Chiriqui, and Veraguas.
  • In 1983 Comarca Embera was formed from Darien.
  • In 2000 Comarca Kuna Yala (San Blas) was formed from Colon.

The 1980 sample excludes responses from those living in indigenous dwellings.

For the country of residence of international migrants in 2000 and 2010, see MIGCTRYP (Country of previous residence).


  • Panama 1960: Persons living outside district of birth
  • Panama 1970: Persons living outside district of birth
  • Panama 1980: Persons living in non indigenous dwellings outside district of birth
  • Panama 2000: Persons living outside district of birth
  • Panama 2010: Persons living outside district of birth


  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 2000, 2010