Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
MIG1_P_ID indicates the person's province of previous residence within Indonesia. The migration could have occurred at any time in the past.
Click on the Source Variables tab for information on place of residence for each sample year. Source variables may contain more geographic unit detail but are not suitable for cross-temporal comparison.
Comparability — General
Where boundaries changed over time, units were harmonized to create units with boundaries that remain stable over time.
Boundary changes and confidentiality issues:
- East Timor was a province of Indonesia between December 1975 and October 1999. It became independent and separated from East Nusa Tenggara in 1999.
- In 1999, North Maluku split from Maluku.
- In 2000, Bangka Belitung split from South Sumatra; Banten split from West Java; and Gorontalo split from North Sulawesi.
- Kepulauan Riau was created from Rieu in 2002 though it does not appear in the samples until 2005.
- Papua Barat was created from Papua in 2003, though it does not appear in the samples until 2010.
- In 2004, Sulawesi Barat was created from Sulawesi Selatan although changes do not appear on maps until 2010.
Missing provinces: Some provinces are missing altogether in specific sample years:
- The province of Aceh in 2005
- All provinces of Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua in 1995
- East Timor was a province of Indonesia between December 1975 and October 1999. It became independent and separated from East Nusa Tenggara in 1999. Census microdata for East Timor are included in the 1985, 1990, and 1995 samples and coded as "360626" - the last 3 digits denoting the ISO country code for present day Timor-Leste.
The universes differ across years. The 1971, 1980, and 1990 samples enumerate persons who have ever lived in another province; the 1985, 1995, and 2005 samples enumerate persons who have ever lived in another regency/municipality (the unit one level smaller than provinces).
The variable is otherwise comparable across samples. In several instances provinces have been merged to make the units entirely consistent over time: Riau and Kepulauan Riau; South Sumatra and Bangka Belitung; West Java and Banten; North Sulawesi and Gorontalo; South Sulawesi and West Sulawesi; Maluku and North Maluku; Papua and West Papua.
It is also possible to get the migration information without the merging mentioned above (i.e., the data are not recoded for comparability over time). The unharmonized source variables for each sample retain the original full geographic detail in that year for both province of residence and province of previous residence.
Some samples also provide information on regency/municipality of previous residence: see the unharmonized source variables for 1985, 1995 and 2005. Regencies are smaller geographic units than provinces.
For province of residence five years prior to the census, see MIG1_5_ID.
- Indonesia 1971: Persons who have lived in another province
- Indonesia 1980: Persons who have lived in another province
- Indonesia 1985: Persons who have lived in another regency/municipality
- Indonesia 1990: Persons who have lived in another province
- Indonesia 1995: Persons who have lived in another regency/municipality
- Indonesia 2005: Persons who have lived in another regency/municipality
- Indonesia: 1971, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005