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LIT
Literacy

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

LIT indicates whether or not the respondent could read and write in any language. A person is typically considered literate if he or she can both read and write. All other persons are illiterate, including those who can either read or write but cannot do both.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Bangladesh
Belarus
Bolivia
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Ghana
Greece
Guinea
Haiti
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Italy
Jordan
Kenya
Kyrgyz Republic
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Mongolia
Morocco
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Pakistan
Palestine
Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Romania
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Sudan
Spain
Sudan
Tanzania
Thailand
Turkey
Uganda
Ukraine
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

Samples provide differing criteria with respect to the level of ability that should constitute literacy. These differences are generally evident in the varying wording of the instructions to the census enumerators. Typically, the instructions appear to be aimed at distinguishing persons who have memorized how to write their signature or recognize certain words from those that can truly write and comprehend text they read. The precise thresholds vary among samples, and it is never certain to what extent the application of the standards was realized in practice during enumeration.

There are significant age differences across samples, particularly concerning the bottom code of persons who were asked the literacy question. Some samples ask the question only to those below a certain education level. Persons above this level are assumed to be literate.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

Literacy indicates the ability to read and write in any language in all censuses. The 2010 census was more explicit in requiring the ability to read, write and understand a simple phrase.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

Only persons who did not complete elementary education were asked about literacy, defined as the ability to read and understand some language. All individuals who completed elementary education are included in the literate category.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

All censuses define literacy as the ability to write a letter.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

Literacy status was a category of educational attainment, and it is not clear how an illiterate person who had some schooling would have answered the question.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The universe differs across the three censuses in terms of age. The 1976 sample required that the person be able to both read and write. The later samples specified the ability to read or write a basic document.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

All samples agree that, to be considered literate, a person must be able to read and write a simple note in any language. Persons are not literate if they can only write their name or if they once learned to read and write but have since forgotten.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

The age universe for the question includes ever-younger people each census.

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write any language fluently.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

In both samples, literacy indicates the ability to read and write a simple message in any language. A person is considered illiterate if he or she is capable of reading only his/her own name or numbers. A literate person who can no longer read and write at the time of the census due to physical defects or illness is still considered literate.

The 2008 data are constructed from separate responses for literacy in the Kyhmer language and literacy in some other language. The details are preserved in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write in any language.

Comparability — Chile [top]

From 1970 to 1992, persons with a certain level of educational attainment were automatically considered literate. In the 1970 sample, anyone who completed more than primary education was considered literate. In the 1982 and 1992 samples, persons with 4 or more years of primary education were considered literate.

The 1970 instructions define literacy as the ability to read and write a simple paragraph. Other years simply state that the person should know how to read and write.

Comparability — China [top]

In 1982 and 1990, the enumeration instructions supplied explicit criteria for defining literate and semi-literate persons. The questionnaire provided response boxes for various levels of formal schooling and one for illiterate and semi-literate persons. The instructions stated that illiterate and semi-literate persons were those who know fewer than 1500 words and cannot read "simple language books and newspapers or write a simple message". A person with formal schooling who could not meet these criteria should have been recorded as "illiterate". Also, persons who could meet these literacy criteria were to respond that they had primary schooling, regardless of whether they actually attended school.

In 2000, the instructions indicate that city residents and employees of villages or township enterprises are considered as literate if they are capable of reading 2,000 Chinese characters, and rural residents are considered as literate if they can read 1,500 Chinese characters. Additionally, full-time primary students are considered to be literate.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The 1964 enumerator instructions state that a literate person is one able to read and write a simple paragraph. In 1973, a literate person was one who could read, write, and comprehend text. In 1985, a literate person was one who could read and write a paragraph or a simple piece in his/her mother tongue, even though he or she did it slowly. In 1993 and 2005, a literate person was one who could read and write.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The universe changes over time. The instructions for all samples state that literacy means the ability to read and write simple text or a paragraph. In the 2000 sample, persons with greater than primary education are automatically considered literate.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

In 1960 a person is considered to be literate if he or she is able to read and write a simple paragraph in any language. Other censuses only define literacy as knowing both how to read and how to write, without further details. The universe for 1960 is all persons; in 1970 and 1981 it is persons age 5 or more; and in 2002 and 2010 it is persons age 3 or more.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The age universe for the question changes slightly between samples. No sample gave a specific definition of literacy beyond the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The census did not define literacy in 1996. Literacy is derived from the educational attainment question in the 1986 and 2006 samples, and implies the ability to read and write.

In 1986, the universe includes persons aged 6 or older. In the later samples, the universe includes persons aged 10 or older.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write at least a paragraph. Persons who only know how to write their name or a few numbers are considered illiterate.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

In 1984 and 1994, literacy is derived from the educational attainment source variables which included illiterate as response categories. Individuals who are in school but not yet literate are included in the illiterate category. The 2007 sample includes a separate literacy variable. In all samples, literacy is defined as the ability to read and write clearly in any language, not the ability to simply write one's name.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

This question relates to the respondent's ability to both read and write in any language. A respondent is considered literate if he or she could read and write a simple statement with understanding, not only write or distinguish letters of the alphabet or count numbers. Persons literate in the past, but not at the time of the interview, are considered illiterate. The source variables identify literacy in English, Ghanaian languages, and other languages. The universe for 2000 is persons age 15 or more, while in 2010 it is persons age 11 or more.

Comparability — Greece [top]

From 1971 to 1991, the universe statement includes persons aged 10 or older. In 2001, the universe statement includes persons aged 5 or older; and in 2011 it includes persons aged 6 or older.

For 1981 to 2011, literacy was a category of the educational attainment question. In the 1981 and 2001 samples, respondents who attended school could choose whether to report literacy or their highest level of schooling. In the 1991 sample, persons who did not complete primary school could report themselves as either literate or illiterate. All persons who completed primary schooling were considered literate.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

Literacy is defined in both samples as the ability to read and write in any language.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write simple text, not simply to write one's name. There is a slight difference in the age universe between samples.

Comparability — India [top]

In all samples, literacy is defined as the ability to read and write a simple message in any language.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a simple sentence using any character set. Disabled persons are recorded as "Literate" if, prior to the disability, they were literate. In many samples, the unharmonized source variables distinguish the type of characters of literacy (e.g. Latin, Arabic, other).

The universe changes significantly, from all persons up to the 1980 sample, to persons age 5 or older in subsequent samples.

Comparability — Iran [top]

In 2006, literacy indicates that a person can read and write a simple text in any language. The 2011 enumeration instructions indicate that an individual is considered as literate if he or she can read and write simple Farsi text. This definition was also applied to persons with disabilities (deaf, blind, or with speaking disorders), who were not automatically assumed to be illiterate.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

Persons without an educational certificate were asked whether they could read and write at least a paragraph in any language. Persons with an educational certificate were assumed to be literate. The sample recorded separate responses for reading only and reading and writing (see the unharmonized source variable). Only persons who could both read and write are coded as "literate".

Comparability — Italy [top]

Only persons who did not have a primary education certificate were asked about literacy, which was defined as the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Jordan [top]

The question was asked to persons age 15 or older who were not attending school. Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write, and was only recorded for people with less than an elementary education.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The instructions state that a literate person is one who is able to read and write a simple statement.

In 1989, persons in group quarters (i.e., travelers and short questionnaire respondents) have a missing response for literacy.

Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]

Literacy is defined as the ability to read in 1999 and to read and write in 2009. In both years, the question was only asked of persons with less than a primary education. All persons who completed primary are coded literate.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The variable differs significantly between samples. In both years a literate person is one who can read and write. But in 1974 the question refers to reading and writing in English only, while 2008 applies to ability in any language.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a simple statement in Chichewa or English in 1987. In other samples, it refers to literacy in any language.

The universe statement for the 1987 and 1998 samples includes persons age 5 or older. In the 2008 sample, the universe includes persons age 3 or older and excludes visitors.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

In the 1970 and 1980 samples, respondents were considered literate if they could both read a newspaper or letter and write a simple letter. Only persons who could do both were coded as "Literate". The 2000 sample asked if the respondent could read and write in any language.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The universe includes persons age 6 or older the 1987 sample, and persons age 12 or older in the 1998 and 2009 samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to read, write, and understand a brief written text in any language.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The 1970 enumeration form had separate questions for ability to read and ability to write. All combinations of responses -- except "Reads and writes" -- were coded as "Illiterate".

The 1980-2015 samples asked if the person was able to read and write a short message.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

Literacy is the ability to read and write in any language. In 1989, it was recorded only for persons with no education. Children in second or third grade were considered literate. In 2000, the question was addressed to persons with less than primary education. It asked about a person's ability to read and write a short, simple statement.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a simple paragraph. The unharmonized source variables preserve the language(s) -- Arabic, French, and/or other -- in which a person is literate.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write simple text in any language. The unharmonized source variables distinguish individuals who can read and write from those who can only read. Individuals who can only read are included in the illiterate category in LIT.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a message or paragraph. The universe statement changes. For the 1995 and 2005 samples, it includes persons age 5 or older. These later samples also distinguish between reading ability only and reading and writing ability. These details are preserved in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

In all samples literacy is the ability to read and write in any language. In 2006-2009 instructions refer to carrying out simple activities such as writing letters or engaging in a simple conversation. The universe changes from all persons for 2006-2009 to persons age 5 or older in 2010.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

The universe statement for age is consistent across samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to both read and write in any language, even if the person has not attended to school to acquire such skills.

In 1981 and 1998, the question asks explicitly whether the person can read a newspaper and can write a simple letter.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

Literacy was asked as part of a larger educational level question in both samples. It implies the ability to both read and write.

Comparability — Panama [top]

In all samples, a person must know how to both read and write to be considered literate. In 1970-1980, any person who passed third grade of the primary education system was considered literate. In 1990-2000, any person who passed the fourth grade of the primary education system was considered literate. Those with fewer than four years had to be able to read and write a simple passage. In 2010, literacy was defined as the ability to read and write a message; there was no consideration of level of schooling.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

This variable is only available for the 1962, 1972, and 1982 samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write correctly in any language.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

In both samples, literacy is defined as the ability to read and write a simple message in any language.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

In all samples, literacy indicates the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The universe statement includes persons age 10 or older in the 1970 sample, and persons age 5 or older in the following samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write in any language.

Comparability — Romania [top]

Literacy indicates the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The samples define literacy as the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The universe statement is comparable between samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write in any language.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write in any language, irrespective of attendance at a formal education institution.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a simple sentence in any language.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The 1991 sample has a universe statement of age 10 or older; the 1981 and 2001 samples have no age restriction.

The 1981 sample asked a separate question on the ability to both read and write. For the 1991 and 2001 samples, literacy was a category of educational attainment. Apparently, the illiteracy status was restricted to persons who did not complete primary school.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a simple sentence in any language.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

In 1988, the question asks only whether people can read and write in Kiswahili. In later samples, the question asks whether the person can both read and write in any language.

The universe statement includes persons age 5 or older in 1988 and 2002, while it includes persons age 4 years or older in 2012.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The universe statement is comparable between samples. Literacy is defined as the ability to read and write in any language.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

Literacy refers to the ability to read and write a message or paragraph in Turkish or any foreign alphabet. Persons who are literate in the "old Turkish alphabet" only are considered illiterate.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

Literacy indicates the ability to read and write. The specific instructions differed somewhat between censuses.

Comparability — Ukraine [top]

Literacy is derived from a question aimed at educational attainment. Persons with primary general or further education are implicitly considered literate.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

In all samples literacy is defined as the ability to read and write. The instructions for 1975-1996 refer to any language, while in 2006 and 2011 they require being able to read and write at least a complete paragraph. In 2011 those who completed four years or more of primary education are assumed to be literate.

The universe statement changes across samples: persons age 6 or older in the 1963-1985 samples, persons age 3 or older in 1996, all persons in 2006, and persons age 10 or older in 2011.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The universe statement changes: from age 5 or older to age 3 or older in the 1990 sample.

The 1971, 1981, and 2001 samples indicated that literacy means the ability to read and write a simple paragraph. The 1990 sample gave no further instructions beyond the ability to read and write.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

A literate person is one who can read, write, and understand a simple sentence in any language. In addition, in 1999, persons with 5 or more years of schooling are considered literate. Persons who can only read and write numbers and their names, or who learned a sentence by heart, are coded as "Illiterate". In 2009, persons with more than primary education level are automatically considered literate.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

In all samples literacy is the ability to read and write in any language, including local languages.

In 1990 and 2000, the question was asked of all persons age 5 and older. In 2010, the question was asked of present household members and visitors age 5 and older. The 1990 and 2000 enumeration instructions indicate that this question should have been asked only of present household members and visitors, but literacy is reported for almost all absent household members; they are included in the universe.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Argentina 1991: All persons
  • Argentina 2001: All persons
  • Argentina 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 5+
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 7+
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 5+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 6+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Brazil 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Residents age 10+
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Persons age 6+
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 3+
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons age 7+
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons age 7+
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons age 11+ in private households
  • Cameroon 2005: Non-visitors age 12+
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 5+
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 5+
  • China 1982: Persons age 6+
  • China 1990: Persons age 6+
  • China 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 3+
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 7+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 10+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 10+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 1960: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 3+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 3+
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 6+
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 6+
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 10+
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 10+
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 5+
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1984: Household residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 1994: Household residents age 5+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents age 5+
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 11+
  • Greece 1971: Persons age 10+
  • Greece 1981: Persons born before 1970
  • Greece 1991: Persons born before 1981
  • Greece 2001: Persons born before 1995
  • Greece 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 6+
  • Guinea 1996: Persons age 6+
  • Haiti 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 6+
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 5+
  • India 1983: All persons
  • India 1987: All persons
  • India 1993: All persons
  • India 1999: All persons
  • India 2004: All persons
  • India 2009: All persons
  • Indonesia 1971: All persons
  • Indonesia 1976: All persons
  • Indonesia 1980: All persons
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 5+ in regular enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 6+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 6+
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 10+ not attending school
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 6+
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+ not attending school
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 6+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 6+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 6+
  • Liberia 1974: Persons age 5+
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 10+
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Malawi 2008: Non-visitors age 3+
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Mali 1987: Persons age 6+
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 12+
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 12+
  • Mexico 1960: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 5+
  • Mongolia 1989: Persons age 7+
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 7+
  • Morocco 1982: Persons age 10+
  • Morocco 1994: Persons age 10+
  • Morocco 2004: Persons age 10+
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents age 5+
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents age 5+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 6+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 5+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 5+
  • Nigeria 2006: All persons
  • Nigeria 2007: All persons
  • Nigeria 2008: All persons
  • Nigeria 2009: All persons
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Pakistan 1998: Persons age 5+
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 10+
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 10+
  • Panama 1960: Person age 7+
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 7+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 7+
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 5+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 3+
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Philippines 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Portugal 1981: All persons
  • Portugal 1991: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 10+
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Romania 1977: Persons age 10+
  • Romania 1992: Persons age 10+
  • Romania 2002: Persons age 10+
  • Romania 2011: Persons age 10+
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors age 6+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 6+
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 6+
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 6+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 6+
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Spain 1981: Persons age 6+
  • Spain 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Spain 2001: Persons who reside in the household
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 6+
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 5+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 4+
  • Thailand 1970: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 1980: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Thailand 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 6+
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 6+
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 6+
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 10+
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 10+
  • Ukraine 2001: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 6+
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 3+
  • Uruguay 2006: All persons
  • Uruguay 2011: Persons age 10+
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 5+
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 3+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 3+
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 5+
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 2010: Present members and visitors age 5+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1987, 2005
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990, 2000
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Italy: 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Liberia: 1974, 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006-2010
  • Pakistan: 1973, 1981, 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010