Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
LANGRW indicates foreign languages spoken in Rwanda in addition to Kinyarwanda, the principal native language. The variable records combinations of French, Swahili, English, and "other" languages.
Comparability — General
The census questions for 1991 and 2002 differed, and there is some incompatibility in the variable. The 1991 census asked for "foreign languages spoken" in addition to mother tongue. There was no response for Kinyarwanda on the form. The 2002 census asked about all languages, including Kinyarwanda. We have interpreted the absence of a foreign language in 1991 as an indication of speaking Kinyarwanda, although it is possible that the person had some other mother tongue.
Young children were not asked the language question in 1991.
- Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors age 6+
- Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
- Rwanda: 1991, 2002