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Language, Paraguay

Codes and Frequencies

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LANGPY indicates the language or languages spoken by the respondent.

Comparability — General

There are some comparability issues across samples. Detail is lost in the process of harmonization; IPUMS-I users are encouraged to review the source variables for the samples.

The 2002 sample allows for up to five recorded responses per respondent, whereas the 1962 and 1982 samples provide one response (Spanish only; Guaraní only; Spanish and Guaraní; and foreign language). The 2002 sample furthermore inquires about other indigenous languages native to Paraguay.

The 1962 sample asks about the language that is commonly used in the household. The 1982 and 2002 sample asks specifically about the respondent's language. For 1982, the language that a person currently speaks is that language that they use to communicate with others in the household, school, college, work, or in society.


  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 3+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 5+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 5+


  • Paraguay: 1962, 1982, 2002