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LABFORCE
Labor force participation

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

LABFORCE is a dichotomous variable identifying whether a person participated in the labor force. Labor force participation generally means working or seeking work within a specified reference period.

For most samples LABFORCE is a recode of EMPSTAT (employment status). A consistent lower age universe of 15 or older has been applied to increase comparability across samples. Full detail is retained in EMPSTAT, which should be used for any study of child labor.

Comparability — General

A consistent lower age universe of 15 or older has been applied to all samples. Some universe differences still persist, however. A small number of samples use age 16 or older as the lower bound, and some samples apply a maximum age as well. Other small universe differences also exist. See the universe tab for details.

The reference period for the employment status question can differ as well. See the EMPSTAT (employment status) comparability discussion for details.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Argentina 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Argentina 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Argentina 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Argentina 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Armenia 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Armenia 2011: Persons age 15-75
  • Austria 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Austria 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Bangladesh 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Bangladesh 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Bangladesh 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Benin 1979: Persons age 10+ from private households
  • Benin 1992: Persons age 10+ from private households
  • Benin 2002: Residents age 6+
  • Benin 2013: Residents age 6+
  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 15+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 15+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Botswana 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Botswana 2001: Persons age 15+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Botswana 2011: Persons age 15+ except institutionalized non-residents
  • Brazil 1960: Persons age 15+
  • Brazil 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Brazil 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Brazil 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Brazil 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Brazil 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Burkina Faso 1985: Household residents age 15+
  • Burkina Faso 1996: Household residents age 15+
  • Burkina Faso 2006: Persons age 15+
  • Cambodia 1998: Persons age 15+
  • Cambodia 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Cameroon 1976: Persons age 15+
  • Cameroon 1987: Persons age 15+ in private households
  • Cameroon 2005: Household residents age 15+
  • Canada 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1960: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1982: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 1992: Persons age 15+
  • Chile 2002: Persons age 15+
  • China 1982: Persons age 15+
  • China 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 1964: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 1973: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 1985: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 1993: Persons age 15+
  • Colombia 2005: Persons age 15+
  • Costa Rica 1963: Persons age 15+
  • Costa Rica 1973: Persons age 15+
  • Costa Rica 1984: Persons age 15+
  • Costa Rica 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Costa Rica 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Cuba 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 1960: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 1962: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 1974: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 1982: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Ecuador 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Egypt 1986: Persons age 15+
  • Egypt 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 15+
  • El Salvador 1992: Persons age 15+
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons age 15+
  • Ethiopia 2007: Long form respondents age 15+
  • Fiji 1976: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 1986: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Fiji 2007: Persons age 15+
  • France 1962: Persons age 15+
  • France 1968: Persons age 15+
  • France 1975: Persons age 16+
  • France 1982: Persons age 15+
  • France 1990: Persons age 15+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+
  • France 2006: Persons age 15+
  • France 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Germany 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Germany 1987: Persons age 15+
  • Ghana 1984: Persons age 15+
  • Ghana 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Ghana 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Greece 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Greece 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Greece 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Greece 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Greece 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Guinea 1983: Persons age 15+
  • Guinea 1996: Residents age 15+
  • Haiti 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Haiti 1982: Persons age 15+
  • Haiti 2003: Persons age 15+
  • Honduras 1961: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 1974: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 1988: Persons age 10+
  • Honduras 2001: Persons age 7+
  • Hungary 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Hungary 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Hungary 2011: Persons age 15+
  • India 1983: Persons age 15+
  • India 1987: Persons age 15+
  • India 1993: Persons age 15+
  • India 1999: Persons age 15+
  • India 2004: Persons age 15+
  • India 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1976: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1985: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Indonesia 2010: Persons age 15+ in permanent households in regular and remote enumeration areas
  • Iran 2006: Persons age 15+
  • Iran 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Iraq 1997: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1986: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons age 15+
  • Israel 1972: Persons age 15+
  • Israel 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Jamaica 1982: Persons age 15+ in private households or select institutions
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons age 15+ in private households or select institutions
  • Jamaica 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Jordan 2004: Persons age 15+
  • Kenya 1989: Persons age 15+
  • Kenya 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Kenya 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 1999: Persons age 16+
  • Kyrgyz Republic 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Lesotho 1996: Persons age 10+
  • Lesotho 2006: Persons age 10+
  • Liberia 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Malawi 1987: Persons age 15+
  • Malawi 1998: Persons age 15+
  • Malawi 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Malaysia 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Malaysia 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Malaysia 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Malaysia 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Mali 1987: Persons age 15+
  • Mali 1998: Persons age 15+
  • Mali 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Mexico 2015: Persons age 15+
  • Mongolia 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Morocco 1982: Persons age 15+
  • Morocco 1994: Persons age 15+
  • Morocco 2004: Persons age 15+
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents age 15+
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents age 15+
  • Netherlands 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Netherlands 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Nicaragua 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Nicaragua 1995: Persons age 15+
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 15+
  • Nigeria 2006: Persons age 15+
  • Nigeria 2007: Persons age 15+
  • Nigeria 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Nigeria 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Nigeria 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Pakistan 1973: Persons age 15+
  • Palestine 1997: Persons age 15+
  • Palestine 2007: Persons age 15+ except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Person age 15+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1970: Person age 15+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1980: Person age 15+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 15+ in private households
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 15+
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Persons age 10+
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1962: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1972: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1982: Persons age 10+
  • Paraguay 1992: Persons age 15+
  • Paraguay 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Peru 1993: Persons age 15+
  • Peru 2007: Persons age 15+
  • Philippines 1990: Persons age 10+
  • Poland 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 16+
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 16+
  • Romania 1992: Persons age 15+
  • Romania 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Romania 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Rwanda 1991: Non-visitors age 15+
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors age 15+
  • Rwanda 2012: Persons age 5+
  • Saint Lucia 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Saint Lucia 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Senegal 1988: Persons age 15+
  • Senegal 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Sierra Leone 2004: Persons age 15+
  • Slovenia 2002: Persons age 15+
  • South Africa 1996: Persons age 15+ in private households
  • South Africa 2001: Persons age 15 to 65
  • South Africa 2007: Persons age 15 to 65 in private households
  • South Africa 2011: Persons age 15 to 64 in private households
  • South Sudan 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Spain 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Spain 1991: Persons age 15+
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 15+ who reside in the household
  • Spain 2011: Persons age 16+
  • Sudan 2008: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Tanzania 1988: Persons age 15+
  • Tanzania 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Tanzania 2012: Persons age 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: Persons age 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: Persons age 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons age 15+ in private households
  • Turkey 1985: Persons age 15+
  • Turkey 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Turkey 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Uganda 1991: Persons age 15+ and students
  • Uganda 2002: Persons age 15+
  • Ukraine 2001: Persons age 15+
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16-74 who are not non-resident students
  • United States 1960: Persons age 15+
  • United States 1970: Persons age 15+
  • United States 1980: Persons age 16+
  • United States 1990: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2005: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2010: Persons age 16+
  • United States 2015: Persons age 16+
  • Uruguay 1963: Persons age 15+
  • Uruguay 1975: Persons age 15+
  • Uruguay 1985: Persons age 15+
  • Uruguay 1996: Persons age 15+
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons age 15+
  • Uruguay 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Venezuela 1971: Persons age 15+
  • Venezuela 1981: Persons age 15+
  • Venezuela 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Venezuela 2001: Persons age 15+
  • Vietnam 1989: Persons age 15+
  • Vietnam 1999: Persons age 15+
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 15+
  • Zambia 1990: Persons age 15+
  • Zambia 2000: Persons age 15+
  • Zambia 2010: Present household members and visitors age 15+
  • Zimbabwe 2012: Persons age 15+

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2008
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • China: 1982, 1990
  • Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Cuba: 2002
  • Denmark: 1787, 1801
  • Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 2007
  • Fiji: 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1819, 1970, 1987
  • Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Iceland: 1703, 1729, 1801, 1901, 1910
  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2010
  • Iran: 2006, 2011
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Israel: 1972, 1995
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
  • Lesotho: 1996, 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Netherlands: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Norway: 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
  • Pakistan: 1973
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990
  • Poland: 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • Slovenia: 2002
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002
  • Ukraine: 2001
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911, 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012