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Codes and Frequencies

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      class Kitchen:public Editor {

    Kitchen(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::hu2001a:
            if (HU2001A_0033(0) >= 1 && HU2001A_0033(0) <= 4)
                a = 20;
        case dataset_id::it2001a:
            if (IT2001A_0028(0) == 0 && IT2001A_0029(0) == 1)
                a = 20;
        case dataset_id::hn2001a:
            if (HN2001A_0052(0) == 1 && HN2001A_0053(0) == 2)
                a = 25;




KITCHEN indicates whether the household had a kitchen, cooking facilities, or room dedicated to food preparation.

Comparability — Index

Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
El Salvador
Puerto Rico
United States

Comparability — General

The major distinctions made are whether there is a dedicated space (not makeshift) for food preparation, and within that, whether the space is indoors or outdoors, and whether it is for exclusive use of the household or shared. In some cases, however, it is ambiguous whether outdoor cooking spaces were designated or makeshift. A few samples make distinctions based on size; rooms are designated "kitchens" regardless of size in KITCHEN. More detail is available in the unharmonized source variables.

Samples differ in terms of what physical characteristics a space must have to count as a kitchen (i.e. whether it must also meet the definition of a room, have walls, roof etc.), as well as what cooking amenities it must have (i.e. stove, sink).

For some samples, the variable indicates whether the room used for cooking is also used for other purposes. Such households are coded as "no kitchen" in KITCHEN, although further detail is preserved when possible.

See the enumeration instructions for varying definitions of kitchens.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

A kitchen has a sink and is used primarily for cooking. It can be outside the dwelling.

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

For all samples the census question indicates the presence of a separate room designed for food preparation. The 2001 and 2012 censuses specified that it should be a room used exclusively for cooking.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The enumeration instructions define the kitchen as a space equipped for the preparation of the "principal meals" of the day.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The Colombian censuses focus on rooms specifically intended for cooking, and they exclude rooms that were also used for other purposes, particularly sleeping. Households reporting cooking in a patio, corridor, shelter or outside are coded as not having kitchens.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

Kitchens include rooms also used for dining.

Comparability — Cuba [top]

A kitchen is a separate room dedicated to food preparation. It is not required to meet the census definition of a room, but it must have walls. The 2002 and 2012 samples distinguish whether the kitchen was used exclusively by the household or was shared.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The 1981 and 2002 samples do not provide a definition of kitchen. In the 2010 sample, a kitchen is defined as a room or area designated only for cooking purposes. In all samples, kitchens can be located inside or outside of the household. The 1981 sample specifies that spaces with roofs that are meant for cooking should be counted as kitchens outside the dwelling.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The 1962 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

In the 1962 and 1974 samples, only rooms used exclusively for cooking are counted as kitchens. Later samples explicitly state that a room may be counted as a kitchen if also used for dining, but not for other purposes. The 1990 sample does not count kitchens that are shared with other household; the other samples do not specify how shared kitchens are coded.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

Kitchens are rooms intended for food preparation.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

A kitchen is only counted when it is used exclusively for cooking and when it is enclosed by walls.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

In all years, a kitchen is defined as such if the room's primary function is as a kitchen, even if the room is also used for sleeping. In 1984, the census records whether kitchens were private (exclusive) or shared. In 1994, the distinction between private and shared kitchens is only available for urban areas. In 2007, the question includes information about whether a kitchen was inside or outside but not information about whether a kitchen was shared or private.

Comparability — France [top]

In 1968, 1975 and 1982 the censuses asked the existence and extension of the kitchen in squared meters. The 2006 and 2011 censuses recorded information about kitchens only for households in overseas departments. That information can be found in the source variables but is not included here because it pertained to so few people from the full population.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The 1971 and 1981 (East Germany) samples are comparable, and indicate the presence of a kitchen or kitchenette within the dwelling (in where there may be multiple households). The kitchen may be used for other purposes, e.g. eating, sleeping. Temporary cooking facilities, however, are not kitchens.

The 1987 (West Germany) sample also indicates the presence of a kitchen or kitchenette within the dwelling; no further details on the classification of a kitchen are given.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

This variable is comparable across census years. The questionnaire had detailed responses for cooking situations outside of the dwelling, which are all coded as kitchens located outside the dwelling for this variable. See the unharmonized source variable for original codes.

Comparability — Greece [top]

For all samples the census question indicates the presence of a regular room designed for cooking, whether or not it also served some other purpose. In 2011, the household is classified as preparing their food in a non-kitchen room if the cooking facilities are provided in the only room in the dwelling, in a space that does not meet the requirements for a regular room, or outside the dwelling.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The census question in 1981, 1994, and 2002 asked whether the household had a room used only for cooking and equipped for preparing meals. The 1981 census distinguishes between those of exclusive use and those shared by multiple households.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The kitchen is defined as the room designated for food preparation. In 2001, it is possible to distinguish between exclusive or shared use of the kitchen.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

Both kitchens and kitchenettes (less than 4 square meters) are included. They are spaces built and used for cooking, even if also used for other purposes. The information of 2001 refers only to kitchenettes. The 2011 sample indicates the availability of kitchen or kitchenette but it does not provide the number of them. The data are top-coded at 4 kitchenettes in 2001.

Comparability — Israel [top]

A "cooking corner" is not considered a kitchen.

Comparability — Italy [top]

Both kitchens and kitchenettes qualify. A "cooking corner" is not considered a kitchen.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The data indicate whether the household uses a kitchen or kitchenette, regardless of where the kitchen(ette) is located within the dwelling.

Comparability — Jordan [top]

The census refers to the availability of an independent kitchen in the housing unit.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

This variable indicates the presence of a room used for cooking. The 1970 sample stipulates that rooms also used for sleeping were not to be counted as kitchens, but in all other samples, the kitchen may also be used for other functions including as a living room and sleeping room.

The 1990 and 2000 samples have separate questions about whether the kitchen is also used for sleeping; see unharmonized source variables for details.

The 2015 sample includes a separate unharmonized source variable that identifies the place where a household cooks if there is not a kitchen in the dwelling.

Comparability — Mongolia [top]

The data appear to be comparable between samples. Both samples identify whether there was a separate kitchen in the dwelling and whether the household had exclusive use of it.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The kitchen must be used only for preparing food. Across all samples, the variable distinguishes whether the kitchen was used exclusively by the household or was shared.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The samples differ in what is counted as a kitchen. The 1971 census distinguishes between having a separate room for a kitchen versus just a space for cooking -- the latter coded as "food prepared in a non-kitchen room." The 1995 census asked a separate question for whether the kitchen was also used for sleeping; such cases are also coded as food preparation in a non-kitchen room. The 2005 census only counts kitchens that are only used for cooking.

Comparability — Pakistan [top]

A kitchen is a separate room for food preparation; a "cooking corner" or courtyard is not considered a kitchen.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The data are comparable across samples except for slight differences in the question universes, and indicate the presence of a kitchen, regardless of its connection to piped water. The unharmonized variables for each sample provide detail about whether or not a kitchen has piped water.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The nature of the census questions differs. The 1980 census reported rooms designed for cooking and not used for other purposes. The 2000 census indicates only the presence of a cook stove in the dwelling.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

In all years (1972, 1982, and 1992), the census recorded whether the house had a room designated for cooking. In 1972 and 1982, the census included information about whether or not the designated room was shared or exclusive. In 1992, the distinction was not made and enumerators were instructed to record "yes" for shared or exclusive-use kitchens.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The census question asks about the number of rooms that are used as kitchen in the dwelling. In 1978, only kitchens with a window and floor space of 4 square meters or more are counted. In 1988 and 2002, the census question includes both kitchens with or without a window, in addition to those with floor space either above or below 4 square meters. In 2002, the kitchens that are part of another room are classified as households with food being prepared in a non-kitchen room. The data are top-coded at 5 kitchens in 1978, 4 kitchens with window in 1988, 3 kitchens without window in 1988, and 4 rooms that are kitchens in 2002.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

Both kitchens and kitchenettes are included. Both are required to be spaces built and used for cooking, even if also used for other purposes. The kitchen could be separated from the dwelling's living space.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The census aimed to identify complete kitchen facilities. In 1970 this meant a range, stove or portable cooking equipment used regularly for cooking. In later samples, kitchen facilities require a sink with piped water, non-portable cooking equipment (a range or cookstove), and a refrigerator. The universe of the 2010 sample includes information about vacant housing units.

Comparability — Romania [top]

All samples identify a separate room designed for food preparation. Responses in 1992-2002 that indicate the presence of a kitchen outside the dwelling are interpreted as not having a kitchen. The 1977 and 2011 source variables do not identify whether the kitchen is inside or outside the dwelling.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

Both kitchens and kitchenettes are included. Both are required to be spaces built and used for cooking, even if also used for other purposes.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

Kitchens include rooms also used for other purposes. Terraces and verandas are not classified as kitchens in this variable, but are distinguished in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The question asks if the household has a kitchen located inside or outside the dwelling. Both affirmative responses are coded as having a kitchen; "outside the dwelling" implies that the kitchen is detached from the dwelling but still an enclosed space on the property. The definition of a kitchen does not specify whether it must be used exclusively for food preparation.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

This variable is comparable across samples and distinguishes primarily the location of the kitchen (outside or inside). A kitchen is defined as a room or outbuilding used predominantly for cooking. Verandas and other open spaces are not counted as kitchens.

Makeshift or open spaces are coded as "no kitchen" in 2002 and 2014. The 2014 sample also distinguishes if food is prepared inside but there is no kitchen.

Comparability — United States [top]

Households that shared a kitchen with other households were classified as not having a kitchen in 1960 and as having one in subsequent censuses.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The data reflect whether the household had a kitchen for private or shared use with a kitchen sink and faucet. The 2006 and 2011 samples specify that kitchenettes are to be counted as kitchens. In the 1975 and 1985 samples, there are related questions that can be found in the unharmonized source variables that distinguish kitchens without installations. The documentation suggests that a kitchen is only counted if its use is reserved for cooking.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The samples offer differing levels of detail. The 1971 sample indicates whether cooking took place in or out of the dwelling or in a dedicated room. 1990 indicates the presence or absence of a separate room for cooking, but not its location. The 2001 sample distinguishes between a kitchen and non-kitchen situation, but does not identify instances where there was no kitchen. For all samples, "outside the dwelling" or "other location" has been classified as "no kitchen" for the purposes of this variable.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

A kitchen must meet the definition of a room, and is equipped and intended primarily for the preparation of meals. A shared kitchen is recorded as belonging to only one household that uses it.


  • Argentina 2001: Non-collective dwellings and not homeless
  • Bolivia 1976: Occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2012: Private occupied dwellings
  • Cambodia 2013: All households
  • Chile 1970: Occupied dwellings
  • Chile 1982: Private occupied dwellings
  • Chile 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Chile 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 1973: Not vacant dwellings
  • Colombia 1985: Not vacant dwellings
  • Colombia 1993: Not vacant dwellings
  • Colombia 2005: All households
  • Costa Rica 1984: Private occupied dwellings
  • Cuba 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Cuba 2012: Private occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Primary household in occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 1962: Households in which a head was sampled
  • Ecuador 1974: Private dwellings
  • Ecuador 1982: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 1990: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 2001: Private occupied dwellings
  • Ecuador 2010: Private occupied dwellings
  • Egypt 1986: All households
  • Egypt 1996: All households
  • Egypt 2006: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Private occupied households
  • El Salvador 2007: Private occupied households with people present
  • Ethiopia 1984: All households
  • Ethiopia 1994: All households
  • Ethiopia 2007: Households that responded to the long form
  • France 1968: Not group quarters
  • France 1975: Not group quarters
  • France 1982: Not group quarters
  • Germany 1971: Households in private dwellings
  • Germany 1981: Occupied households
  • Germany 1987: All households
  • Ghana 2000: Private occupied households
  • Ghana 2010: Private occupied households
  • Greece 1971: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1981: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1991: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2001: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2011: All households
  • Guatemala 1981: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 1994: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 2002: Private occupied households
  • Honduras 1988: Private households
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Hungary 1970: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 1980: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 1990: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2001: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2011: Occupied private households, seasonal and non-residential housing units
  • Iran 2006: All households
  • Iraq 1997: Private dwellings
  • Israel 1972: Dwellings that filled household questionnaire
  • Italy 2001: Private households living in a dwelling
  • Italy 2011: Private households
  • Jamaica 2001: Private households
  • Jordan 2004: Not a hotel, tent or public housing unit
  • Mexico 1970: All households
  • Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
  • Mexico 1995: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mongolia 1989: Households living in houses
  • Mongolia 2000: Households living in houses
  • Morocco 1982: All households
  • Morocco 1994: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2004: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2014: All households
  • Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
  • Nicaragua 1995: Private occupied households with people present
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with people present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
  • Pakistan 1998: All households
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Palestine 2007: All households except those in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1980: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1972: Private occupied dwellings
  • Paraguay 1982: Private occupied dwellings
  • Paraguay 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Peru 1993: Private occupied dwellings
  • Poland 1978: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Poland 1988: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Poland 2002: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Portugal 1981: Non-collective conventional and occupied households
  • Portugal 1991: Private, usual residence, conventional households
  • Portugal 2001: Private, usual residence, conventional households
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Private households
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Private households
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Private households
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Private households
  • Puerto Rico 2005: All households
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Private households and vacant housing units
  • Romania 1977: All households
  • Romania 1992: All households
  • Romania 2002: All households
  • Romania 2011: All households
  • Spain 1991: All dwellings except lodging
  • Switzerland 1970: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1980: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1990: Private households and occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 2000: Private households and occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • Thailand 1980: Private households
  • Thailand 1990: Private households
  • Turkey 2000: Housing units
  • Uganda 1991: Not institutions
  • Uganda 2002: Private households
  • Uganda 2014: All households
  • United States 1960: Not group quarters
  • United States 1970: Not group quarters
  • United States 1980: Not group quarters
  • United States 1990: Not group quarters
  • United States 2000: Not group quarters
  • United States 2005: Not group quarters
  • United States 2010: Not group quarters
  • United States 2015: Not group quarters
  • Uruguay 1975: Occupied households
  • Uruguay 1985: Private occupied dwellings with people present
  • Uruguay 1996: Private occupied households
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Private occupied households
  • Venezuela 1971: Non-collective occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1990: Private permanent occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 2001: Private permanent occupied dwellings
  • Zambia 1990: Occupied residential households
  • Zambia 2000: All households
  • Zambia 2010: All households


  • Argentina: 2001
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001, 2012
  • Cambodia: 2013
  • Chile: 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1984
  • Cuba: 2002, 2012
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • France: 1968, 1975, 1982
  • Germany: 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guatemala: 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Honduras: 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Israel: 1972
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Mexico: 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Mongolia: 1989, 2000
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004, 2014
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Pakistan: 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1980
  • Paraguay: 1972, 1982, 1992
  • Peru: 1993
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Spain: 1991
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Thailand: 1980, 1990
  • Turkey: 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1990, 2001
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010