Data Cart

Your data extract

0 variables
0 samples
View Cart
Imputed relationship to household head


This variable is not available for any of the currently selected samples.

Explore how IPUMS created this variable


IMPREL reports the person's imputed relationship to the head of household. The variable was created for the 1850-1870 samples because these censuses did not collect the explicit family interrelationship information available for all other years (see RELATE). IMPREL relationships are the result of logical inference and statistical imputation, not direct transcriptions from the census forms. IMPREL is constructed in identical fashion for 1910 as well, to facilitate comparisons.

The most important IMPREL determinants are the order in which names appeared on the census form, surname similarity, age, sex, occupation, and birthplace. For about 75 percent of cases, the IPUMS assigns IMPREL according to logical rules based upon these determinants. For the remaining cases, the IPUMS uses a hot deck allocation procedure that examines a wider set of determinants to probabilistically assign IMPREL. See Family Interrelationships for more information. 

Comparability — General

This variable is only available for United States in 1850, 1860, 1870, and the 1910 datasets.


No universe descriptions are currently available.


  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1910