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Codes and Frequencies

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      class Hotwater : public Editor {

  Hotwater(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
  void edit() {

    long a = getRecoded();
    switch (dataSet) {
    case dataset_id::kg1999a: {
      if (KG1999A_0056() == 2 && KG1999A_0057() == 1)
        a = 2;
    } break;




HOTWATER indicates whether the housing unit had a water heater.

Comparability — Index

Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Puerto Rico
South Africa
United States

Comparability — General

There is some difference among samples concerning whether the dwelling had a central hot water tank for all plumbing or localized heat only to the shower or bath.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

The universe has changed slightly over time.

Comparability — Chile [top]

The 1960 census only has information for heads of households but reports household data for all people, therefore, there are many households without information.
The 1960 and 1970 censuses asked only about the availability of hot water in the bath or shower. In 2002, the question referred to the presence of a hot water tank in the dwelling.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

Electric hot-water showerheads are not included; they were recorded in a separate variable.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

The 1963 and 1973 censuses asked about a hot water heater, but the instructions stated that it could be of any time, including a simple appliance placed in the bath. The 1984 and 2000 censuses asked separately about hot water tanks and hot water for the shower head. The 2011 census asked about hot water. For comparability with the earlier years, the presence of any type of heater is coded "yes" for HOTWATER. The universes are comparable across time.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The context of the questionnaire and instructions imply that the question refers to water heaters specifically, although the literal translation of the questionnaire text is "heater." This variable is only available for 1981. Electric and non-electric heaters are distinguished in the source variable.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The instructions of 1986 and 1986 specify that the purpose of tenure of this appliance must be for use and not commerce.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The census question in 2007 and 2014 refers to the number of hot water systems owned by the household.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The 1971 census asked if the household had hot water available from one or more of three sources: gas-flow heater, electric boiler, and/or a central hot water system. The 1981 census asked if the household had a hot water supply, with no further detail given.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The 2011 sample was asked of the source of energy used for heating water. For households which had no means of heating water, it was assumed that they had no water heater.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The census question in 1964 asks about the availability of a water heater in the household.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

Any kind of hot water supply, for kitchen or bath, is reported.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The census question asks if the household has access to a hot water tap.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The census questions in 1972 and 1983 asked about the principal arrangement for heating water in the bath. It needed to be a fixed device connected to the water pipe. The 2008 sample specifically asks for the availability of solar water heater, thus it is not completely comparable to other samples that may include other water heater types.

Comparability — Italy [top]

The census question indicated whether the dwelling had hot running water in the bathroom or kitchen via a fixed system.

Comparability — Kyrgyzstan [top]

The census includes hot water from both central heating and from individual boilers.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The question simply asked if the dwelling had a hot water heater with no stipulations about what plumbing it applied to.

In the 2015 and 2020 samples, the census questions distinguish between hot water generated from boiler or water heater, and water generated using solar power. These two variables are combined in HOTWATER.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The census question indicated the presence of a "water heater/solar boiler."

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The 1992 census has two questions: one is about the presence of water heater for shower, and the other is about the presence of termocalefon, which provides hot water with a pipe to a shower, wash basin, tub and/or kitchen sink but lacks a storage tank. The 2002 census asked about the presence of water heater. In order to be comparable with other countries/years, the information of 1992 corresponds to the presence of a termocalefon.

In 1992 the question was asked of occupied households with members present while in 2001 the question was asked to private or multi-household dwellings.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The 1978, 1988, and 2002 questionnaires ask whether there is running hot water in the dwelling.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The 1970 sample asked whether the household had complete plumbing (including hot water), other Puerto Rico samples directly indicate whether there was hot and cold water.

There is a slight variation in universe for this variable. It includes vacant dwellings in 1980, 1990 and 2010.

Comparability — Romania [top]

The Romanian censuses emphasize the character of the installation. It must be from either a public supply or an installation within the dwelling that delivers hot water to both kitchen and bathroom.

In 2002, responses indicating the presence of hot water outside the dwelling but within the building are coded to "no."

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 2016 questionnaire asks for the availability of a geyser providing hot water.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The data for Spain are not comparable. In 1991, all dwellings with hot water are counted as "yes," but in 2001 and 2011 only central hot water systems qualify.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

The 2016 questionnaire asks about the availability of a boiler or gas-operated water heater.

Comparability — United States [top]

Each of the U.S. samples asked about the presence of hot and cold running water in the housing unit.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The 1985 and 1996 samples indicate the presence of a gas or electric hot water heater. The 2006 and 2011 samples specify any type of hot water heater whatever the energy source, and including instant hot water heaters. See source variables for further details.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The 1971-1981 censuses simply asked whether the household had a hot water heater. The 2001 census stated that gas or electric central or individual units qualified, including hot water showerheads.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The 2019 sample refers to the usage of a water heater, whether or not it is owned by the household.


  • Belarus 1999: All households
  • Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
  • Chile 1960: Households in which the head was sampled
  • Chile 1970: Occupied dwellings
  • Chile 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 2005: All households
  • Costa Rica 1963: Private dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1973: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1984: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2000: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2011: Private dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Egypt 1986: All households
  • Fiji 2007: All households
  • Fiji 2014: All households
  • Germany 1971: Private households
  • Germany 1981: Occupied households
  • Greece 2011: All households
  • Guatemala 1964: All households
  • Hungary 1990: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2001: Non-collective dwellings
  • Hungary 2011: Occupied private households, seasonal, and non-residential housing units
  • Ireland 1981: Private households in non-mobile dwellings
  • Israel 1972: Dwellings that filled household questionnaire and had bath or shower
  • Israel 1983: Regular households with bath or shower
  • Israel 2008: Private households
  • Italy 2001: Private households
  • Italy 2011: Private households with water
  • Kyrgyzstan 1999: Non-collective dwellings
  • Malaysia 1980: Non-collective households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2010: Private dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Private dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2020: Private dwellings built for habitation
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Paraguay 1992: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 2002: Private occupied households
  • Poland 1978: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Poland 1988: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Poland 2002: Private dwellings excluding provisional or mobile housing
  • Puerto Rico 1970: All households except group quarters
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Private and vacant dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Private and vacant dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Private and vacant dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 2015: Private households
  • Romania 1977: All households
  • Romania 1992: All households
  • Romania 2002: All households
  • Romania 2011: All households
  • Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
  • South Africa 2016: All households
  • Spain 1991: All dwellings except lodgings
  • Spain 2001: Buildings that are not businesses or lodgings
  • Spain 2011: Buildings designed mainly or exclusively as dwellings
  • Suriname 2012: All households
  • Switzerland 1970: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1980: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1990: Occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 2000: Occupied buildings except emergency shelters
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed the interview
  • United States 1960: Private households
  • United States 1970: Private households
  • United States 2010: Private households
  • United States 2015: Private households
  • United States 2020: Private households
  • Uruguay 1985: Occupied private dwellings with dwellers present
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private households
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Occupied private households
  • Venezuela 1971: Non-collective occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Vietnam 2019: All households


  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 2002
  • Colombia: 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981
  • Egypt: 1986
  • Fiji: 2007, 2014
  • Germany: 1971, 1981
  • Greece: 2011
  • Guatemala: 1964
  • Hungary: 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Ireland: 1981
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 2008
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Kyrgyzstan: 1999
  • Malaysia: 1980
  • Mexico: 2000, 2010, 2015, 2020
  • Palestine: 1997
  • Paraguay: 1992, 2002
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2010, 2015
  • Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Senegal: 2013
  • South Africa: 2016
  • Spain: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1990, 2000
  • United States: 1960, 1970, 2010, 2015, 2020
  • Uruguay: 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 2001
  • Vietnam: 2019