Codes and Frequencies
GQ identifies households as vacant dwellings, group quarters, or private households. Group quarters -- collective dwellings -- are generally institutions and other group living arrangements such as rooming houses and boarding schools.
Institutions often retain persons under formal supervision or custody, such as correctional institutions, military barracks, asylums, or nursing homes. Educational and religious group dwellings (e.g., boarding schools, convents, monasteries, etc.) are also included in the institutional classification.
Group quarter designations are often useful for understanding the universe of households that answered questions about household characteristics. Censuses will often exclude group quarters from such questions.
Comparability — Index
Comparability — General
Group quarters are not consistently identified across samples. Many samples contain only private households. Others indicate group quarters status, but the concept may be ill-defined. Some samples do not give any clear way of identifying residents of group quarters.
In many samples large dwellings/households are broken up and sampled as 1-person units. The common threshold is 30 or more persons, but it can be larger. Some samples were produced by statistical agencies in this way. If IPUMS carried out this processing and the original unit was not already classified as a group quarters, the 1-person units are given a distinct code within "group quarters" in GQ.
The second digit of GQ distinguishes institutions from other types of group quarters for selected samples. The basis upon which a given sample distinguishes between institutions and other group quarters is not always known. In many cases it depends entirely upon the terminology used, rather than explicit definitions. When the division was especially unclear, institutional and non-institutional group quarters are coded together even when detail was available. Oftentimes, institutional group quarters and other group living arrangements are combined in a single category in the original source variable. For example, many samples do not distinguish institutions such as boarding schools from non-institutional university student housing or nursing-homes from non-institutional hospitals. University dormitories and general-care hospitals, if identified separately, are not considered institutions and are categorized as other group quarters. When combined with institutional group quarters, individuals residing in these facilities are included in the institution category. See the unharmonized source variables for the full categorizations.
The variable UNREL counts the number of persons unrelated to the household head in each household. It can be used to impose a more consistent definition of group quarters across samples.
Country-specific considerations are discussed below. Omitted countries are comparable across time.
Comparability — Argentina [top]
The 1970 and 1980 samples do not distinguish institutions from group quarters, but the 1991 and 2001 samples make this distinction. In both the latter samples, institutions include military bases, prisons, and homes for children and elderly.
Comparability — Armenia [top]
The 2001 sample does not include group quarters. Group quarters are identified in the 2011 sample.
Comparability — Belarus [top]
The 1999 sample distinguishes between normal households, institutional households and other collective dwellings. The 2009 sample combines institutions and non-institutional collectives.
Comparability — Bolivia [top]
The samples are generally consistent in their identification of institutions and other group quarters. Institutions are military installations and prisons in all years, but 2001 also includes retirement homes and orphanages that must be included among the other group quarters in earlier samples.
Comparability — Botswana [top]
All samples identify collective dwellings, combining institutions and non-institutions, such as hotels.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
The Brazilian samples distinguish regular households from improvised households, which include structures not intended for residential habitation to homeless persons. Group quarters are consistently defined as institutions and living arrangements determined by business or other non-domestic relations.
The 2010 sample provides additional detail about the type of collective housing unit, so distinctions are made between institutional and other types of group quarters.
Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]
The sample does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Cambodia [top]
The 1998 and 2008 samples distinguish between normal households, institutional households and other group quarters. The other group quarters includes homeless households, transient population and the boat population. The 2004 and 2013 samples do not identify group quarters.
Comparability — Cameroon [top]
In 1976 and 1987, censuses distinguish only between collective and non-collective households. The 2005 sample includes additional information about the type of collective housing.
Comparability — Canada [top]
The 2011 sample is the only year which does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Chile [top]
Institutions are only differentiated from other group quarters in 1982 and 1992. Among the specified types of units qualifying as institutions are: hospitals, boarding schools, convents, and military barracks.
Comparability — China [top]
All samples identify normal households and collective households.
Comparability — Colombia [top]
The current samples for Colombia 1973-2005 contain only ordinary households, not group quarters. Vacant dwellings are included in 1985 and 1993. Group quarters status is not known for the 1964 data, which samples individuals rather than households. The indigenous population is excluded from all datasets.
Comparability — Costa Rica [top]
Institutions are only identified separately from other group quarters in 2000 and 2011. The types of collective dwellings identified vary from 2000 to 2011. See the unharmonized source variables for more detail.
Comparability — Cuba [top]
Collective dwellings are identified in the data, but the only distinction made among them is whether they were work locations. This information is available in the unharmonized source variable. Collectives include both institutions with permanent residents and hotels, hospitals, guest houses and the like.
Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]
There are no group quarters identified in the 1960 or 1970 samples of individuals. Individuals from group quarters are not included in the 1981 sample. In in the 1987 sample, except for those created by breaking up very large units.
In sample from 2002 and 2010, institutions are listed by type and include military quarters, prisons, religious institutions, boarding schools and barracks. Collective dwellings include hotels and other lodging quarters.
Comparability — Ecuador [top]
The 1962 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only "households" composed of a head have a known group quarters status.
In 1974 and 1982 prisons are not identified and are therefore included among "other group quarters"; in other years they are coded as institutions. In all years, military barracks, hospitals, and religious institutions are included among "institutions."
The 1974 sample oversamples individuals in group quarters, and this is compensated for in the weight variable, PERWT.
Comparability — Egypt [top]
There are no group quarters in the 1986 and 1996 samples. The 2006 sample includes private households, institutions (orphanages, prisons, homes for the elderly) and other group quarters.
Comparability — El Salvador [top]
Both samples identify institutional dwellings; 1992 identifies other types of collectives as well.
Comparability — Ethiopia [top]
The 1984 and 1994 samples do not identify institutions but do distinguish persons living in hotels and other group quarters from homeless and nomadic persons in the unharmonized source variables. The 2007 sample further distinguishes among persons living in institutions, persons living in hotels and other group quarters, and homeless and nomadic persons. University student housing is grouped with boarding schools and is included in the institution category.
Comparability — Fiji [top]
The 1986, 1996, 2007 and 2014 samples are roughly comparable, but only separate hotels and lodging houses from regular households. The 1966 sample distinguishes between institutional and non-institutional collective dwellings. The 1976 sample makes no distinction.
Comparability — France [top]
The French samples consistently distinguish between "ordinary households" and group quarters, which include persons in institutions, members of the armed forces, and persons enumerated away from their households.
The 1990 French sample separately distinguishes persons in institutions from those in other forms of non-household living arrangements.
Comparability — Germany [top]
The 1970-1981 samples distinguish between private and collective dwellings. The 1981 sample identifies more group quarters than the earlier German samples.
There are no group quarters in the 1987 sample, except for those created by breaking up very large units.
Comparability — Ghana [top]
The samples are comparable across time. Institutions include educational and religious living quarters, orphanages, prisons, and army and refugee camps. University student housing is grouped with boarding schools and orphanages and is included in the institution category.
Comparability — Greece [top]
The samples for Greece do not contain group quarters.
Comparability — Guatemala [top]
The 1964 sample does not identify collective dwellings. The 1973 and 1994 samples separate institutions from other group quarters, while these are grouped in 1981 and 2002.
In 1973, institutions include military housing, reformatories, penitentiaries, prisons, convents, seminaries, and other religious housing; while other group quarters in 1973 and 1994 comprise hotels, hospitals, guest houses, boarding schools, camps, and other (non-institutional) collective dwellings.
Comparability — Guinea [top]
The 1983 sample distinguishes between types of group quarters, but there are very few cases. There were many households with zero or multiple heads which appeared structurally corrupt. These are broken up into 1-person units and identified as a group quarters household.
Comparability — Haiti [top]
The 1971 and 1982 samples identify institutions and the 2003 sample identifies collective households.
Comparability — Hungary [top]
The variable is consistent across samples.
Comparability — India [top]
All samples do not contain group quarters.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
All of the census samples (1971, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) identify collective dwellings; the survey-based samples do not (1976, 1985, 1995, 2005).
Not all group quarters are identified as such in the 2010 sample. Some group quarters are included with "households" because they filled out the same form as regular households.
Comparability — Iran [top]
Both samples include data on group quarters and private households but offer no detail on the type of group quarters.
Comparability — Iraq [top]
Institutions include orphanages and similar facilities, prisons, and jails.
Comparability — Ireland [top]
The samples consistently distinguish private and collective households.
Comparability — Israel [top]
Households in Kibbutzim are coded as "other group quarters". In 1983, there is a category for regular household residing in a Kibbutzim. This indicates families that are not members of the Kibbutz.
Comparability — Italy [top]
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
The 1982 sample provides more detail about types of institutions and group quarters; see the unharmonized source variable.
Comparability — Jordan [top]
Private households include those living in public housing units.
Comparability — Kenya [top]
The 1989 sample identifies persons who received the short questionnaire (travelers and some persons living in group quarters). The 1999 sample identifies persons living in institutions, but it does not currently include other people in group quarters/special populations (including travelers and persons in hotels), who received a different questionnaire. The 1969 and 2009 samples do not identify group quarters. The 1979 data is a sample of individuals.
Comparability — Kyrgyz Republic [top]
Group quarter status is comparable across samples.
Comparability — Laos [top]
In 2005, collective households are defined to include enterprises, factories, schools, temples, hospitals, and similar accommodations, where the enumerated person is registered in a common registration book. Persons in tied accommodation are usually considered to be private not collective households.
Comparability — Malawi [top]
The 1987 and 1998 samples only distinguished between private households and group quarters. The 2008 sample provides slightly more detail in the unharmonized source, but it still does not separate institutions from other collectives.
Comparability — Malaysia [top]
Institutions were not consistently separable from other group quarters in any census year. The 2000 sample does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Mali [top]
The 1987 sample does not identify group quarters, though there are some very large dwellings/compounds which were broken up into 1-person units for sampling.
The 1998 sample identifies collective dwellings, but they are very few in number, and some have normal family relationships among the inhabitants. Non-institutionalized persons within collectivities, such as directors and their families, were to have been enumerated as normal households. Institutions include hospitals, homes of the elderly, boarding schools, hotels, convents, barracks, etc.
The 2009 sample does not identify group quarters, though a small number of large dwellings or compounds were divided into 1-person units for sampling.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
There is no indication of group quarters status in 1960. "Collective" households are identified in 1970, but there is no indication of their type. The 1990-2015 samples include only private households.
Comparability — Mongolia [top]
We interpreted "other public apartments" as households in 2000 for consistency with 1989. In both samples institutions included public and student dormitories.
Comparability — Morocco [top]
None of the samples contain group quarters.
Comparability — Mozambique [top]
In both samples, university student housing is grouped with boarding schools and is included in the institution category. Homeless persons are included in the other group quarters category.
Comparability — Nepal [top]
The 2001 and 2011 samples do not include group quarters.
Comparability — Netherlands [top]
None of the samples contain group quarters.
Comparability — Nicaragua [top]
All of the samples identify group quarters. Institutions can be separately identified from other collective dwellings in 1995 and 2005.
Comparability — Nigeria [top]
The data are from household surveys and samples do not include group quarters.
Comparability — Pakistan [top]
The samples do not include group quarters. Large dwellings in 1998 were samples as 1-person units. The "other group quarters" in 1973 are actually multi-headed households that we broke up into one-person units, because their rosters were compromised. The 1973 sample also has many households with no head identified, but no action was taken in those cases.
Comparability — Palestine [top]
There are no group quarters in either sample, except for those created by breaking up very large units in 1997.
Comparability — Panama [top]
The 1960, 2000, and 2010 samples differentiate between institutions (prisons, barracks, reformatories, boarding schools, convents) and other group quarters. The 1980 and 1990 samples do not specify type of group quarters. There are no group quarters in the 1970 sample, except for those created by breaking up very large units.
Comparability — Paraguay [top]
The 1962 sample distinguishes group quarters from private households but offers no detail on type of group quarters. The 1972, 1982, 1992, and 2002 samples identify type of group quarters allowing distinction between institutions and other group quarters. In the 1972, 1982, and 2002 samples, hospitals are grouped with asylums and other health care facilities and are included in the institution category. The 1992 sample identifies hospitals separately; they are categorized as institutions to facilitate comparison across time. Prisons, religious communities, orphanages, and retirement homes are identified separately in the 1992 and 2002 samples and included in the institutions category. These facilities are not identified separately in the 1972 and 1982 samples are likely included in the other group quarters category. In the 2002 sample, homeless persons are included in the other group quarters category. See the unharmonized source variables for more detail.
Comparability — Philippines [top]
For the 1990 and 2000 samples, group quarters status is provided indirectly via variables for building type, the categories of which do not always speak directly to the distinction underlying GQ. As a result, the unknown category for GQ is relatively large for these samples.
Comparability — Poland [top]
The 2000 sample distinguishes institutions from other types of group quarters. The 2011 sample does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Portugal [top]
The 1981, 1991, and 2001 samples distinguish group quarters from private households but offer no detail on type of group quarters. The 2011 sample identifies type of group quarters allowing distinction between institutions and other group quarters. See the unharmonized source variable for more detail.
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
The 2005 sample does not include group quarters. All other samples distinguish between institutions and other group quarters. Institutions include prisons, orphanages, nursing homes, military barracks and similar places.
Comparability — Romania [top]
The samples for Romania do not contain group quarters.
Comparability — Russia [top]
The 2002 and 2010 Russia samples do not include group quarters.
Comparability — Rwanda [top]
Institutions include prisons, military camps, and orphanages.
Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]
Both samples include a small number of group quarters but they are not identified.
Comparability — Senegal [top]
The samples do not include group quarters.
Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]
The unharmonized source variable offers more detail about types of institutions and other group quarters.
Comparability — South Africa [top]
The identification of institutions is fairly consistent in the 1996, 2001, and 2007 samples. They include orphanages, prisons, homes for the aged and disabled, military barracks, and boarding schools. The 2011 sample distinguishes group quarters from private households but offers no detail on type of group quarters.
Comparability — South Sudan [top]
The sample does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Spain [top]
The 1981 and 2011 samples consist entirely of persons from private households. The 1991 sample does not contain a variable identifying group quarter status, so it is assumed that all persons in the sample are from private households. The 2001 sample contains both private households and group quarters.
Comparability — Sudan [top]
The sample does not include group quarters.
Comparability — Tanzania [top]
The 1988 and 2012 samples do not include group quarters; the 2002 sample includes group quarters, but does not identify the type.
Comparability — Thailand [top]
All samples distinguish between institutions and other group quarters. Institutions include military barracks and prisons.
Comparability — Togo [top]
The 1960 and 1970 samples do not include group quarters. The sample from 2010 identifies prisons, convents or monasteries, and boarding schools or orphanages as institutions.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
All samples distinguish group quarters from private households but offer no detail on type of group quarters.
Comparability — Turkey [top]
All of the samples identify group quarters, but they do not separate institutions from other types of collectives.
Comparability — Uganda [top]
Group quarters status is not directly available for 1991. The value of GQ for this sample is based on information computed by the IPUMS-International staff (see UG1991A_0022).
Comparability — Ukraine [top]
The data identify institutions, collective dwellings and the homeless population, but do not list specific types of institutions or facilities.
Comparability — United Kingdom [top]
The 1991 sample does not contain group quarters. The 2000 sample identifies group quarters but does not specify their nature.
Comparability — United States [top]
There are two slightly different definitions of group quarters in the U.S. samples. For 1960-1970, group quarters are units with five or more individuals unrelated to the householder. For 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, units with ten or more persons unrelated to the householder are considered group quarters. The 2005 U.S. sample does not contain persons from group quarters.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The 1963 sample identifies both institutions and other group quarters. The 1975-1996 identify group quarters, but do not have sufficient detail to separate institutions consistently. The 2006 survey data do not include group quarters. 2011 data include a variety of institutional and collective dwellings by type of institution or facility.
Comparability — Venezuela [top]
All group quarters are combined into one category in 1971 and 1981. The 1990-2001 samples identify group quarters by type: institutions include prisons, military barracks, psychiatric care centers, and homes for the disabled.
Comparability — Vietnam [top]
The 1989 sample distinguishes between private and collective households. There is no information available on group quarters status in the 1999 sample.
Comparability — Zambia [top]
Samples from 1990 and 2000 identify hospitals and prisons within institutions and hotels or hostels within other collective dwellings. The 2010 sample groups all collective or institutional quarters into one category.
- All households
- Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
- Armenia: 2001, 2011
- Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
- Belarus: 1999, 2009
- Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
- Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001
- Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
- Burkina Faso: 1985, 1996, 2006
- Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
- Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
- Canada: 1852, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
- China: 1982, 1990, 2000
- Colombia: 1964, 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
- Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
- Cuba: 2002
- Denmark: 1787, 1801
- Dominican Republic: 1960, 1970, 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
- Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
- Fiji: 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
- France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
- Germany: 1819, 1970, 1971, 1981, 1987
- Ghana: 1984, 2000, 2010
- Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Guatemala: 1964, 1973, 1981, 1994, 2002
- Guinea: 1983, 1996
- Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
- Honduras: 1961, 1974, 1988, 2001
- Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
- Iceland: 1703, 1729, 1801, 1901, 1910
- India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009
- Indonesia: 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
- Iran: 2006, 2011
- Iraq: 1997
- Ireland: 1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
- Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995
- Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Jordan: 2004
- Kenya: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009
- Kyrgyz Republic: 1999, 2009
- Laos: 2005
- Lesotho: 1996, 2006
- Liberia: 1974, 2008
- Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
- Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
- Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
- Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Mongolia: 1989, 2000
- Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004
- Mozambique: 1997, 2007
- Nepal: 2001, 2011
- Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
- Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
- Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
- Norway: 1801, 1865, 1875, 1900, 1910
- Pakistan: 1973, 1981, 1998
- Palestine: 1997, 2007
- Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
- Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
- Paraguay: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
- Peru: 1993, 2007
- Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
- Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002, 2011
- Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
- Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011
- Russia: 2002, 2010
- Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
- Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
- Senegal: 1988, 2002
- Sierra Leone: 2004
- Slovenia: 2002
- South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011
- South Sudan: 2008
- Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
- Sudan: 2008
- Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
- Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
- Tanzania: 1988, 2002, 2012
- Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
- Togo: 1960, 1970, 2010
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
- Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
- Uganda: 1991, 2002
- Ukraine: 2001
- United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1851c, 1861a, 1861b, 1871b, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911, 1991, 2001
- United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
- Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
- Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
- Vietnam: 1989, 1999, 2009
- Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
- Zimbabwe: 2012