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Educational attainment, Panama

Codes and Frequencies

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EDUCPA indicates the person's educational attainment in Panama in terms of the level of schooling completed and the number of years completed at that level.

Comparability — General

The variable is largely comparable across the 1960-1990 samples. The 1960-1980 samples record only the level of schooling in "regular education," which does not count years of vocational and technical training.

The 1990-2010 samples include post-secondary non-university study.

Post-secondary non-university education includes two-year and similar technical degrees from non-vocational institutes.

Vocational education includes vocational training of two to three years in length and has as a prerequisite the possession of a certificate of completion of primary.

For the "Doctorate – Year unknown" category in the 2010 sample, persons with an educational attainment of doctorate - 1 or 2 years were included due to confidentiality reasons.


  • Panama 1960: Persons age 7+ not in indigenous groups
  • Panama 1970: Persons age 6+
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 5+
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 4+
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 4+


  • Panama: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010