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Educational attainment, Bolivia

Codes and Frequencies

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      class Educbo:public Editor {

    Educbo(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::bo1992a:
            if (BO1992A_0428() == 9 && BO1992A_0404() >= 6)
                a = 110;




EDUCBO indicates the person's educational attainment in Bolivia in terms of the level of schooling completed.

Comparability — General

Bolivia's education system changed across censuses, and these changes are reflected in the coding for educational attainment:

  • Before the 1970s, the structure was 6-6, including 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary.
  • From 1971 to 1993, the education system changed to a 5-3-4 structure, with 5 years of basic, 3 years of intermediate, and 4 years of middle.
  • In 1994, the structure was modified to a 8-4 system, with 8 years of primary and 4 years of secondary.
  • After 2010, the structure is 6-6, with 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary.

The Bolivian samples span four different educational systems, and these are reflected in the data. The 1976 sample includes coding for both the (old) 6-6 and the 5-3-4. The 1992 census only refers to the 5-3-4 education system, given that persons educated before 1970 reported their educational attainment in a compatible manner to this 5-3-4 system. In 2001, both the 5-3-4 and 8-4 educational systems are recorded. For this sample, persons aged between 6 and 13 who were educated under the 8-4 system also reported their highest educational level completed under the past 5-3-4 system. The 2012 sample includes three educational systems: 5-3-4, 8-4, and current 6-6 systems. Most people educated under the old 6-6 system answered their educational attainment based on the 5-3-4 system.

Preschool education is identified in the 2001-2012 samples, but not for the previous years.

Normal (teacher's) school is coded consistently within technical education, but in 2001 it is specifically post-secondary, while in earlier years the level was not indicated.

Technical education was not identified in 1976. In 2001 and 2012, two types of technical education were recorded: technical degree and technical institute, and these are reflected in the coding structure. The technical degree is identified as a "university-level technician", while technical institute education can be pursued after completing primary or secondary (separate unharmonized source variables identify the corresponding entry requirements in 2001 and 2012). The 1992 sample identifies technical schooling but it does not indicate whether it was post-secondary; therefore, these responses were classified along with the technical institute education available in more recent samples.

The 1992 sample recorded a small number of cases with many years of technical and normal school. These were top-coded to 4+ years.

Police and military training are only recorded in 2001 and 2012. This type of education is considered post-secondary, but there are a small number of respondents with less than a secondary educational background.

University (higher) education is identified in each sample, although the year top-code varies across samples. The 2012 sample additionally distinguished between undergraduate and graduate degrees.

The age universe differs slightly across samples: from age 5 and older in 1976, to 6 and older in 1992, to 4 and older in 2001 and 2012.


  • Bolivia 1976: Persons age 5+
  • Bolivia 1992: Persons age 6+
  • Bolivia 2001: Persons age 4+
  • Bolivia 2012: Persons age 4+


  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001, 2012