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ECLASSWK
Status in employment (class of worker), Europe

Codes and Frequencies



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Description

ECLASSWK refers in European Samples to the status of an economically active person with respect to his or her employment -- that is, the type of explicit or implicit contract of employment with other persons or organizations that the person has in his/her job. In general, the variable indicates whether a person was self-employed, or worked for someone else, either for pay or as an unpaid family worker.

ECLASSWK is related to EEMPSTAT (employment status), which is used to define the universe for the variable in many samples.

ECLASSWK has been classified according to the recommendations given by the Conference of European Statisticians for the 2010 Population and Housing Censuses. "Class of worker" is referred to as "Status in Employment" in the CES recommendations. The former term is used to maintain concordance with IPUMS practice.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Austria
France
Germany
Greece
Hungary
Ireland
Italy
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Russia
Spain
Switzerland
United Kingdom

Comparability — General

ECLASSWK is comparable across samples.

The universe of persons to whom the question applies varies across the samples. For most censuses, the question applied to employed persons, but some samples also include persons who had worked at some time in the past, and others include all persons above a certain age.

Category Descriptions:

Employee. Is a person who works in a "paid employment" job, that is a job where the explicit or implicit contract of employment gives the incumbent a basic remuneration, which is independent of the revenue of the unit in which he/she works (this unit can be a corporation, a non-profit institution, government unit or a household).

Employer. Is a person who, working on his or her own account or with a small number of partners, holds a "self-employment" job and, in this capacity, on a continuous basis (including the reference period) has engaged one or more persons to work for him/her as "employees."

Own-account worker. Is a person who, working on his/her own account or with one or few partners, holds a "self-employment job" and has not engaged, on a continuous basis, any "employees"

Contributing family worker. Is a person who holds a "self-employment" job in a market-oriented establishment operated by a related person living in the same household, and who cannot be regarded as a partner (that is an employer or own account worker) because the degree of commitment to the operation of the establishment, in terms of working time or other factors to be determined by national circumstances, is not at a level comparable to that of the head of the establishment.

Member of producer's co-operatives. Is a person who holds a "self-employment" job in a establishment organized as a co-operative, in which each member takes part on an equal footing with other members in determining the organization of production, sales and/or other work, investments and the distribution of the proceeds among the members.

Person not classifiable by status. Includes those "economically active" persons for whom insufficient information is available, and/or who cannot be included in any of the preceding categories (for example unpaid workers assisting a family member in the completion of a "paid employment" job).

Comparability — Austria [top]

The data are comparable. ECLASSWK reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — France [top]

There are no major comparability problems in terms of universe and category availability. The class of worker variable for the 1962-1990 French datasets was already integrated across the samples by the French statistical agency. The 2006 sample contains more detail on type of employee and apprentice contracts than other samples.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The universe includes persons currently employed but is slightly modified with regards to exclusion of students and apprentices across years.

The age universe includes persons 15+ in the 1970 and 1987 samples and persons 14+ in the intervening samples.

The question includes a repsonse for members of cooperatives in 1971 and 1981. It is unclear as to the category members of cooperatives would have been included in 1970 and 1987 censuses.

Comparability — Greece [top]

The age universe changed in 2011, but all samples are targeting person who are economically active or seeking a job.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The 2001 census had a response for working members of non-cooperative partnerships. This is coded among "own-account" workers in ECLASSWK and results in a higher proportion in that category than in other samples. It is unclear where such persons would have been coded in earlier censuses.

The 2001 census reports a much smaller labor force than the earlier samples, with a larger NIU category.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The universe is consistent with the exception of 1971 and 2002 and later. In 1971, the

Subsequent to 1971, the age universe changes from 14+ to 15+. From 2002 onwards, the universe excluded absent persons.

ECLASSWK is not available for the 1979 sample.

Comparability — Italy [top]

In all years the "employer" category is constructed using a separate variable on whether the person has employees.

Comparability — Netherlands [top]

Samples are comparable across years. Unpaid family workers are combined with employees in all years.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The 2002 sample distinguishes between employers and own-account workers, while these are both presumably included in the "self-employed" category in 1978 and 1988.

The category for employees includes those employed in socialized and non-socialized economies in 1978-1988, both part-time and full-time paid employees in 2002, as well as commissioner or agent, and "homeworker" or "cottage worker."

The 1978 and 1988 source data assigned status in employment to non-workers based on who "supported" them, but ECLASSWK reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The age universe changes from 12+ in 1981-1991 to 15+ in 2001-2011. The data are otherwise comparable.

Comparability — Russia [top]

The 2010 sample applies an age universe maximum of 72; the 2002 sample has no age maximum.

Comparability — Spain [top]

The universe differs with each census. The 1991 sample includes retired persons in the universe, making its NIU category notably smaller than the other samples.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The data are comparable. ECLASSWK reports data only for economically active persons.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The universe differs between samples, with 2001 applying a maximum age of 74 years.

Universe

  • Austria 1971: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 1981: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 1991: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 2001: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Austria 2011: Persons age 15+ who are economically active
  • Belarus 1999: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Belarus 2009: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • France 1962: Employed civilians, age 14+
  • France 1968: Employed civilians, age 14+
  • France 1975: Employed civilians, age 16+
  • France 1982: Employed civilians, age 14+
  • France 1990: Employed civilians, age 14+
  • France 1999: Persons age 15+ who were working
  • France 2006: Persons age 14+ currently employed
  • Germany 1970: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Germany 1971: Persons age 14+ who were economically active
  • Germany 1981: Persons age 14+ who were economically active
  • Germany 1987: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Greece 1971: Persons born before 1961 who were working or seeking work
  • Greece 1981: Persons born before 1971 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 1991: Persons born before 1981 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 2001: Persons born before 1991 who were working or seeking a job
  • Greece 2011: Persons who worked or were seeking work last week
  • Hungary 1970: Employed persons age 14+
  • Hungary 1980: Persons who were economically active or who worked more than 90 days in agriculture in 1979
  • Hungary 1990: Economically active and under childcare fee or allowance
  • Hungary 2001: Employed persons
  • Ireland 1971: Persons age 14+ excluding unemployed and retired
  • Ireland 1981: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1986: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1991: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 1996: Persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2002: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2006: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Ireland 2011: Non-absent persons age 15+ who ever worked
  • Italy 2001: Persons age 15+ who worked for pay or as contributing family members
  • Italy 2011: Persons age 15+ who worked or were absent from a job last week
  • Italy 2011Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2012Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2013Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2014Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2015Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2016Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2017Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Italy 2018Q1: Employed persons age 15+
  • Netherlands 1960: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 1971: Economically active persons
  • Netherlands 2001: Employed persons
  • Netherlands 2011: Persons age 15+
  • Poland 1978: Present persons who are economically active
  • Poland 1988: Present persons who are economically active
  • Portugal 1981: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 1991: Persons age 12+ who are employed or looking for a job
  • Portugal 2001: Persons age 15+ who are employed or looking for a new job
  • Portugal 2011: Persons age 15+ who are employed or looking for a new job
  • Romania 1992: Persons who were employed, or were seeking work not for the first time
  • Romania 2002: Persons who had at least one job
  • Romania 2011: Persons who were employed, or were seeking work not for the first time
  • Russia 2002: Persons age 15+ who had a job
  • Russia 2010: Persons age 15 to 72 who had a job
  • Spain 1981: Persons who were working or had worked
  • Spain 1991: Persons who were employed, unemployed but worked before, or were retired
  • Spain 2001: Persons age 16+ who were working or studying last week
  • Spain 2005Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2005Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2005Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2005Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2006Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2006Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2006Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2006Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2007Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2007Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2007Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2007Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2008Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2008Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2008Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2008Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2009Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2009Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2009Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2009Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2010Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2010Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2010Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2010Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2011Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2011Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2011Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2011Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2012Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2012Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2012Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2012Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2013Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2013Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2013Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2013Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2014Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2014Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2014Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2014Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2015Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2015Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2015Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2015Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2016Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2016Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2016Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2016Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2017Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2017Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2017Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2017Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2018Q1: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2018Q2: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2018Q3: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Spain 2018Q4: Persons age 16+ who worked for pay
  • Switzerland 1970: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1980: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 1990: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • Switzerland 2000: Persons age 15+ who were employed
  • United Kingdom 1991: Persons age 16+ currently employed
  • United Kingdom 2001: Persons age 16-74 currently employed, excluding non-resident students

Availability

  • Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2006, 2011
  • Germany: 1970, 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2011
  • Italy: 2001, 2011, 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1
  • Netherlands: 1960, 1971, 2001, 2011
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Romania: 1992, 2002, 2011
  • Russia: 2002, 2010
  • Spain: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001