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DISMNTL
Mental disability

Codes and Frequencies



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      class Dismntl:public Editor {

public:
    Dismntl(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::ug2002a:
        {
            if (UG2002A_0416() == 22)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::my2000a:
        {
            if (MY2000A_0436() == 5 || MY2000A_0437() == 5)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::lc1991a:
        {
            if (LC1991A_0471() == 1 || LC1991A_0472() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ir2006a:
        {
            if (IR2006A_0443() > 0 && (IR2006A_0444() == 9 || IR2006A_0445() == 9))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::jm1991a:
        {
            if (JM1991A_0414() == 99 && JM1991A_0412() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::sv1992a:
        {
            if ((SV1992A_0431() >= 0 && SV1992A_0431() <= 3 || SV1992A_0431() >= 4 && SV1992A_0431() <= 5) && (SV1992A_0432() == 4 || SV1992A_0433() == 4))
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::mx2010a:
        {
            if (MX2010A_0421() == 2 && MX2010A_0422() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ke2009a:
        {
            if (KE2009A_0429() == 5 || KE2009A_0430() == 5)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::ie2011a:
        {
            if (IE2011A_0440() == 1 || IE2011A_0441() == 1)
                a = 1;
            if (IE2011A_0440() == 2 && IE2011A_0441() == 2)
                a = 2;
            if (IE2011A_0440() == 9 && IE2011A_0441() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::zm2010a:
        {
            if (ZM2010A_0473() == 99 && ZM2010A_0417() == 9)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::tt2011a:
        {
            if (TT2011A_0415() == 0 || TT2011A_0415() == 3)
                a = 0;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::bj2013a:
        {
            if (BJ2013A_0461() == 1 || BJ2013A_0462() == 1)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::rw2012a:
        {
            if (RW2012A_0414() == 5 ||
			RW2012A_0416() == 5 ||
			RW2012A_0418() == 5 ||
			RW2012A_0420() == 5 ||
			RW2012A_0422() == 5)
                a = 1;
        }
        break;
        case dataset_id::mu1990a:
        {
			if (MU1990A_0412() < 98 && MU1990A_0413() < 98 && MU1990A_0414() < 98)
				a = 2;
            if (MU1990A_0412() == 6 || MU1990A_0413() == 6 || MU1990A_0414() == 6)
                a = 1;
			if (MU1990A_0412() == 98 || MU1990A_0413() == 98 || MU1990A_0414() == 98)
                a = 9;		
		}
        break;
        case dataset_id::mu2000a:
        {
			if (MU2000A_0416() < 98 && MU2000A_0417() < 98 && MU2000A_0419() < 98)
				a = 2;
            if (MU2000A_0416() == 6 || MU2000A_0417() == 6 || MU2000A_0419() == 6)
                a = 1;
			if (MU2000A_0416() == 98 || MU2000A_0417() == 98 || MU2000A_0419() == 98)
                a = 9;		
		}
        break;
		}


        setData(a);
    }
};

    

Description

DISMNTL indicates whether the person suffered a mental disability in the form of diminished capacity.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Bangladesh
Benin
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Ghana
Guatemala
Haiti
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Jamaica
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Malaysia
Mali
Mauritius
Mexico
Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Nepal
Panama
Paraguay
Philippines
Portugal
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan
Sudan
Suriname
Tanzania
Thailand
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
Uganda
United States
Uruguay
Vietnam
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Comparability — General

In all samples only permanent conditions of diminished mental capacity were to be considered disabilities. The questions were not aimed at identifying psychological disorders. Record of psychological or psychiatric impairments can be found in DISPSYC.

Several samples have variables that explicitly encompass both diminished mental capacity and psychological disability. They are not included in DISMNTL but can be found among the unharmonized source variables.

Persons with multiple (non-specified) impairments are coded "unknown" in all samples in which they are identified.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

In the 2011 sample, a person is considered disabled if he/she responds as having any mental difficulty (retardation).

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2002 census only indicates an unspecified mental disability. The 2013 census had separate response categories for down syndrome, autism, and mental impairment or retardation. Those are combined in the harmonized DISMNTL, but are available separately in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

All samples asked about mental retardation or abnormal intellectual functioning. In 1991 and 2001, mental retardation was categorized as either moderate or severe and both levels are considered as "yes" for DISMNTL.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The 1991 sample specified irreversible mental deficiency determined in childhood. The 2000 instructions were more explicit, noting "difficulties or shortcomings associated with two or more areas of adaptive skills, such as: communication, personal care, self-determination, care for health and safety, learning, leisure, work, etc.", which prevented the performance of routine activities. Mental illness did not qualify as a disability in either year.

In 1991, persons with more than one disability condition are coded "Unknown" for DISMNTL, because the exact disabilities in those cases are not known. See DISABLED to identify these cases.

In 2010, the affirmative response to the question indicates a permanent mental or intellectual disability. A mental disability is a delayed intellectual development and is characterized by the difficulty that the person has to communicate with others, to care for her, to do household chores, learn, work, play, etc.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

In 1996, the question identifies persons with "mental retardation". The samples do not distinguish between temporary and permanent disabilities.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The 2008 census question defines a mental disability as lacking age-appropriate comprehension skills, mental retardation, or insanity. The 2013 census does not include insanity in the definition.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The questionnaires differed in specific terminology, but are roughly comparable in meaning.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

In 2000 the questionnaire asked if the person has a "mental disability", while the 2011 census asked about "intellectual difficulty".

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

Persons with mental disabilities are identified in the 1981 sample. Since no specific details were provided in the available documentation, we assume that the variable does not consider psychological disabilities.

In 2002, the variable identifies persons with mental retardation or deficiency. The 2010 sample specifies whether the person has any permanent difficulty remembering or concentrating.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

In the 2010 sample, a person is classified as mentally disabled if he/she is mentally retarded.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

All samples include mental retardation as a category within a question about the type of disability. The "yes" response included a serious mental deficiency and subnormal mental capacity. Persons with multiple unidentified disabilities are coded as "unknown" for DISLOWR, because the exact disabilities in those cases are not specified. See DISABLED to identify these cases.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The universe changes from all persons in the 1992 sample to persons in private households in the 2007 sample.

The 1992 sample refers to persons with mental retardation, while the 2007 sample identifies a permanent mental delay or impairment.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The 2007 question wording referred to learning difficulties. The 1984 and 1994 censuses explicitly included psychological problems among mental disabilities and they are therefore not included in this variable.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The variable indicates whether a person has any serious intellectual disability that limits his/her full participation in life activities.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The 1981 census did not include instructions beyond "mental impediment." The 1994 census has more extensive language speaking to learning, understanding or physical deformity.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

In the 2003 sample, a person is classified as mentally disabled if he/she is mentally retarded.

Comparability — Iran [top]

The variable indicates whether a person has a mental disorder, defined as having an "IQ less than normal so that they have retardation". The definition also cites weakness in learning and dependency as indicators of a mental disorder.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The variable indicates whether a person has an intellectual disability or a long-lasting difficulty with learning, remembering or concentrating. The question is only asked of persons present at the time of the census.

Comparability — Israel [top]

In 2008, the census question asks for difficulty in remembering or concentrating. The response "does not have difficulty or has a mild difficulty" is coded as "no" in DISMNTL.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

In both samples, the variable indicates slowness at learning or understanding (as demonstrated through medical testing), or mental retardation (born with mental problem). These are defined as conditions that restrict the ability to perform activities in the "manner considered normal for a human being". Mental illness (acquired mental problem) is a separate category, integrated in DISPSYC.

Those with multiple disabilities, due to the inability to determine the type of disability, are grouped in the unknown category. See DISABLED to identify these cases.

There are slight variations on the question universes but the samples are otherwise comparable.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

In the 2009 sample, a mental disability affects the ability to perform activities like other persons of similar age groups. They may have difficulty in remembering things or concentrating on what he/she is performing. It includes many different functions such as our abilities to pay attention, learn and retain information, solve problems, and use language to express thoughts. This disability hampers clear thoughts in the mind. It also exhibits problems in comprehending any new ideas or opinions or finding solutions and therefore restrains a person from learning or even coordinating functions/activities.

Comparability — Lesotho [top]

The 2006 census indicates mental retardation.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

The 2008 sample identifies persons with mental retardation. In 2008, persons with more than one disability are coded "Unknown" because the exact disabilities in those cases are not known.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The census allowed the recording of up to three separate disabilities, so respondents did not have to choose the most debilitating one.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 2009 sample identifies persons with mental disabilities. A mental disability or special need is a difficulty related to the nervous system. The instructions do not provide further details.

In 2009, persons with more than one disability are coded "Unknown" because the exact disabilities in those cases are not known.

Comparability — Mauritius [top]

The 1990, 2000, and 2011 samples relate to disabilities in learning. The 1990 and 2000 harmonized variables are constructed from the first, second, and third reported disabilities. The 2011 sample reports different levels of difficulty in "remembering, concentrating, or acquiring education and learning", where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The 2000 and 2010 samples consider persons with mental retardation or deficiency. In the 2010 sample, persons with difficulties paying attention or learning simple things are separately identified, and included in the "Yes" category. Both samples refer to a disability that limits the person's ability to carry out daily life activities.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The 2014 sample indicates whether the person has any difficulty in remembering or focusing, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Mozambique [top]

The 1997 census question refers to "mental retardation". The 2007 census specified only "mental" disability, which is interpreted here as intellectual deficiency.

Comparability — Myanmar [top]

The 2014 sample indicates whether the person has any difficulty in remembering, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Nepal [top]

The 2011 census defines intellectual disability to include mental and social development. Persons with more than one disability condition are coded "Unknown", because the exact disabilities in those cases are not known.

Comparability — Panama [top]

All samples specified "mental retardation". The 1980 sample limited the question to persons age 40 and younger.

In the 2010 sample, a person with intellectual capacity below normal is identified as having mental retardation. This is evidenced by a poor school performance, adaptive and behavioral problems, and delayed mental and social development. Cerebral palsy is also recorded in the source variable (PA2010A_0414), but was not classified as mentally disabled here. There is also another category that was not included in the previous samples. Cases in these categories are included in the no category but can be distinguished in the unharmonized source variables

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

In 1992 the "yes" response refers to "mental retardation" while 2002 explicitly mentions Down syndrome.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The census questions are roughly comparable across 1990, 1995, and 2000, recording intellectual impairment.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The question is aimed at identifying diminished intellectual ability, including mild retardation or autism.

There was a single question on type of disability. If a person had more than one disability, the one causing the greatest degree of incapacity was chosen.

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

There is a minor universe difference between samples.

For the 2002 sample, there was a single question on type of disability. If a person had more than one disability, the most severe one was to be reported. This is not the case for the 2012 sample where respondents can list up to six types of disabilities.

There were no specific instructions beyond the category name of "mental deficiency" in 2002 census. The 2012 census indicates whether the person had difficulty learning or concentrating.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The data are a combination of two variables for "slowness at learning" and "mental retardation". An affirmative response for either is interpreted as a disability. To identify these cases separately see the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 2013 census question reports different levels of difficulty in remembering or concentrating. Persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes" in 2013. These details are preserved in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

The variable indicates if the person's most serious disability is mental retardation. Therefore, a person may go unrecorded yet still have mental difficulties because it is not his/her most "serious" disability (subjective).

Mental illness is recorded separately and is integrated in the DISPSYC variable.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The samples are comparable. The 1996 question notes "mental disability", while the 2001-2007 questions go on to add "such as serious difficulties learning". The 2016 sample indicates whether the person has any difficulty remembering, with DISMNTL coding as a disability any amount of difficulty. The level of difficulty reported is preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

The 1996 and 2007 samples did not address the question to persons in collective dwellings. The 2016 sample has this information only for persons age 5+.

Comparability — South Sudan [top]

The variable indicates whether the person has any difficulty in learning, which the census records as a mental disability.

Comparability — Sudan [top]

The variable indicates whether the person has any difficulty in learning, which the census records as a mental disability.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

The 2012 sample reports different levels of difficulty in remembering, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes". The difficulty levels are preserved in the corresponding unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 2012 census question asked whether the person had any difficulty in remembering or concentrating.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The variable indicates mental retardation.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The 2000 and 2011 census questions asked whether the respondent had a learning disability or intellectual difficulties. In 2011, a learning disability is specifically defined as having a disability in remembering or concentrating.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

In the 1985 sample, persons with a mental disability are coded as "yes", referring to a slow-down, interruption, and retardation of mental, psycho-motor, social, maturity, and development functions. The 2000 sample refers to persons with learning and comprehension less developed or slowed down due to a mental deficiency (retardation), which makes then unable to adapt to the normal requirements of living. Persons with more than one disability in the 2000 sample, due to the inability to determine the type of disability, are grouped in the unknown category.

Comparability — Uganda [top]

There were no specific instructions in 1991 beyond indicating "retardation". In 2002, the instructions specifically mentioned both retardation and "learning difficulties" that left them less well developed than others their age.

The 2014 sample asks for difficulty in remembering. It reports different levels of difficulty, where persons with any level of difficulty are classified as "yes"; these details are preserved in the unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — United States [top]

The variable indicates whether the person has any cognitive difficulty: serious difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions, because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The 2006 sample identifies persons with permanent limitations that make learning difficult and affect the ability to perform daily life activities. Data are only available for persons interviewed in the third trimester of the household survey.

In 2011, persons report whether they have a permanent difficulty understanding or learning.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The census question asks for the self-reported level of difficulty (the level is preserved in the unharmonized data) in remembering or paying attention. A person is classified as disabled if he/she responds as having any level of difficulty.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The 1990 and 2000 samples identify persons with mental retardation. The 2010 sample identifies persons with intellectual disabilities and mental retardation.

In 2010, persons with more than one disability are coded "unknown" because the exact disabilities in those cases are not known.

Comparability — Zimbabwe [top]

The 2012 census asked whether the person had difficulty learning.

Universe

  • Bangladesh 2011: All persons
  • Benin 2002: All persons
  • Benin 2013: All persons
  • Botswana 1991: All persons
  • Botswana 2001: All persons
  • Botswana 2011: All persons
  • Brazil 1991: All persons
  • Brazil 2000: All persons
  • Brazil 2010: All persons
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All persons
  • Cambodia 2008: All persons
  • Cambodia 2013: Present persons
  • Chile 1992: All persons
  • Chile 2002: All persons
  • Colombia 1993: All persons
  • Colombia 2005: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2000: All persons
  • Costa Rica 2011: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2002: All persons
  • Dominican Republic 2010: All persons
  • Ecuador 2001: All persons
  • Ecuador 2010: All persons
  • Egypt 1986: All persons
  • Egypt 1996: All persons
  • El Salvador 1992: All persons
  • El Salvador 2007: Persons in private occupied dwellings
  • Ethiopia 2007: Persons with disabilities
  • France 1962: All persons
  • Ghana 2010: All persons
  • Guatemala 1981: All persons
  • Guatemala 1994: All persons
  • Haiti 2003: All persons
  • Iran 2006: All persons
  • Ireland 2011: Present persons
  • Israel 2008: Persons age 5+
  • Jamaica 1991: Persons in private households or selected institutions
  • Jamaica 2001: All persons
  • Jordan 2004: All persons
  • Kenya 2009: All persons
  • Lesotho 2006: All persons
  • Liberia 2008: All persons
  • Malaysia 2000: All persons
  • Mali 2009: All persons
  • Mauritius 1990: All persons
  • Mauritius 2000: All persons
  • Mauritius 2011: All persons
  • Mexico 2000: All persons
  • Mexico 2010: All persons
  • Morocco 2014: All persons
  • Mozambique 1997: Household residents
  • Mozambique 2007: Household residents
  • Myanmar 2014: All persons
  • Nepal 2011: All persons
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 40 or less
  • Panama 1990: All persons
  • Panama 2000: All persons
  • Panama 2010: All persons
  • Paraguay 1992: All persons
  • Paraguay 2002: All persons
  • Peru 1993: All persons
  • Philippines 1990: All persons
  • Philippines 1995: All persons
  • Philippines 2000: All persons
  • Portugal 2001: All persons
  • Rwanda 2002: Non-visitors
  • Rwanda 2012: All persons
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All persons
  • Senegal 2013: Residents age 1+ in ordinary households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All persons
  • South Africa 1996: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2001: All persons
  • South Africa 2007: Persons in private households
  • South Africa 2016: Persons age 5+
  • South Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Sudan 2008: All persons
  • Suriname 2012: All persons
  • Tanzania 2012: All persons
  • Thailand 1990: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: All persons
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Persons in private households living in Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turkey 1985: All persons
  • Turkey 2000: All persons
  • Uganda 1991: All persons
  • Uganda 2002: All persons
  • Uganda 2014: Persons age 2+
  • United States 2010: Persons 5+
  • United States 2015: Persons 5+
  • Uruguay 2006: Persons in third trimester
  • Uruguay 2011: All persons
  • Venezuela 1990: All persons
  • Venezuela 2001: All persons
  • Vietnam 2009: Persons age 5+
  • Zambia 1990: All persons
  • Zambia 2000: All persons
  • Zambia 2010: Present persons and visitors
  • Zimbabwe 2012: All persons

Availability

  • Bangladesh: 2011
  • Benin: 2002, 2013
  • Botswana: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996
  • Cambodia: 2008, 2013
  • Canada: 1852, 1891, 1911
  • Chile: 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 2007
  • France: 1962
  • Ghana: 2010
  • Guatemala: 1981, 1994
  • Haiti: 2003
  • Iran: 2006
  • Ireland: 2011
  • Israel: 2008
  • Jamaica: 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 2009
  • Lesotho: 2006
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malaysia: 2000
  • Mali: 2009
  • Mauritius: 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Mexico: 2000, 2010
  • Morocco: 2014
  • Mozambique: 1997, 2007
  • Myanmar: 2014
  • Nepal: 2011
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993
  • Philippines: 1990, 1995, 2000
  • Portugal: 2001
  • Rwanda: 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1991
  • Senegal: 2013
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2016
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Sweden: 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910
  • Tanzania: 2012
  • Thailand: 1990
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
  • United Kingdom: 1851a, 1851b, 1861a, 1861b, 1881a, 1881b, 1891a, 1891b, 1901a, 1901b, 1911
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880b, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012