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Type of work contract (indefinite or fixed term)

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Wrkcontrct:public Editor {

    Wrkcontrct(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::es2005h:
		case dataset_id::es2005i:
		case dataset_id::es2005j:
		case dataset_id::es2005k:
        case dataset_id::es2006h:
		case dataset_id::es2006i:
		case dataset_id::es2006j:
		case dataset_id::es2006k:
        case dataset_id::es2007h:
		case dataset_id::es2007i:
		case dataset_id::es2007j:
		case dataset_id::es2007k:
        case dataset_id::es2008h:
		case dataset_id::es2008i:
		case dataset_id::es2008j:
		case dataset_id::es2008k:
        case dataset_id::es2009h:
		case dataset_id::es2009i:
		case dataset_id::es2009j:
		case dataset_id::es2009k:
        case dataset_id::es2010h:
		case dataset_id::es2010i:
		case dataset_id::es2010j:
		case dataset_id::es2010k:
        case dataset_id::es2011h:
		case dataset_id::es2011i:
		case dataset_id::es2011j:
		case dataset_id::es2011k:
        case dataset_id::es2012h:
		case dataset_id::es2012i:
		case dataset_id::es2012j:
		case dataset_id::es2012k:
        case dataset_id::es2013h:
		case dataset_id::es2013i:
		case dataset_id::es2013j:
		case dataset_id::es2013k:
        case dataset_id::es2014h:
		case dataset_id::es2014i:
		case dataset_id::es2014j:
		case dataset_id::es2014k:
        case dataset_id::es2015h:
		case dataset_id::es2015i:
		case dataset_id::es2015j:
		case dataset_id::es2015k:
        case dataset_id::es2016h:
		case dataset_id::es2016i:
		case dataset_id::es2016j:
		case dataset_id::es2016k:
        case dataset_id::es2017h:
		case dataset_id::es2017i:
		case dataset_id::es2017j:
		case dataset_id::es2017k:
        case dataset_id::es2018h:
		case dataset_id::es2018i:
		case dataset_id::es2018j:
		case dataset_id::es2018k:
        case dataset_id::es2019h:
		case dataset_id::es2019i:
		case dataset_id::es2019j:
		case dataset_id::es2019k:
        case dataset_id::es2020h:
		case dataset_id::es2020i:
		case dataset_id::es2020j:
		case dataset_id::es2020k:  {
			long fixed = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				ES2005H_0436_ref, ES2005I_0436_ref, ES2005J_0436_ref, ES2005K_0436_ref,
				ES2006H_0436_ref, ES2006I_0436_ref, ES2006J_0436_ref, ES2006K_0436_ref,
				ES2007H_0436_ref, ES2007I_0436_ref, ES2007J_0436_ref, ES2007K_0436_ref,
				ES2008H_0436_ref, ES2008I_0436_ref, ES2008J_0436_ref, ES2008K_0436_ref,
				ES2009H_0436_ref, ES2009I_0436_ref, ES2009J_0436_ref, ES2009K_0436_ref,
				ES2010H_0436_ref, ES2010I_0436_ref, ES2010J_0436_ref, ES2010K_0436_ref,
				ES2011H_0436_ref, ES2011I_0436_ref, ES2011J_0436_ref, ES2011K_0436_ref,
				ES2012H_0436_ref, ES2012I_0436_ref, ES2012J_0436_ref, ES2012K_0436_ref,
				ES2013H_0436_ref, ES2013I_0436_ref, ES2013J_0436_ref, ES2013K_0436_ref,
				ES2014H_0436_ref, ES2014I_0436_ref, ES2014J_0436_ref, ES2014K_0436_ref,
				ES2015H_0436_ref, ES2015I_0436_ref, ES2015J_0436_ref, ES2015K_0436_ref,
				ES2016H_0436_ref, ES2016I_0436_ref, ES2016J_0436_ref, ES2016K_0436_ref,
				ES2017H_0436_ref, ES2017I_0436_ref, ES2017J_0436_ref, ES2017K_0436_ref,
				ES2018H_0436_ref, ES2018I_0436_ref, ES2018J_0436_ref, ES2018K_0436_ref,
				ES2019H_0436_ref, ES2019I_0436_ref, ES2019J_0436_ref, ES2019K_0436_ref,
				ES2020H_0436_ref, ES2020I_0436_ref, ES2020J_0436_ref, ES2020K_0436_ref});
			long indef = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				ES2005H_0434_ref, ES2005I_0434_ref, ES2005J_0434_ref, ES2005K_0434_ref,
				ES2006H_0434_ref, ES2006I_0434_ref, ES2006J_0434_ref, ES2006K_0434_ref,
				ES2007H_0434_ref, ES2007I_0434_ref, ES2007J_0434_ref, ES2007K_0434_ref,
				ES2008H_0434_ref, ES2008I_0434_ref, ES2008J_0434_ref, ES2008K_0434_ref,
				ES2009H_0434_ref, ES2009I_0434_ref, ES2009J_0434_ref, ES2009K_0434_ref,
				ES2010H_0434_ref, ES2010I_0434_ref, ES2010J_0434_ref, ES2010K_0434_ref,
				ES2011H_0434_ref, ES2011I_0434_ref, ES2011J_0434_ref, ES2011K_0434_ref,
				ES2012H_0434_ref, ES2012I_0434_ref, ES2012J_0434_ref, ES2012K_0434_ref,
				ES2013H_0434_ref, ES2013I_0434_ref, ES2013J_0434_ref, ES2013K_0434_ref,
				ES2014H_0434_ref, ES2014I_0434_ref, ES2014J_0434_ref, ES2014K_0434_ref,
				ES2015H_0434_ref, ES2015I_0434_ref, ES2015J_0434_ref, ES2015K_0434_ref,
				ES2016H_0434_ref, ES2016I_0434_ref, ES2016J_0434_ref, ES2016K_0434_ref,
				ES2017H_0434_ref, ES2017I_0434_ref, ES2017J_0434_ref, ES2017K_0434_ref,
				ES2018H_0434_ref, ES2018I_0434_ref, ES2018J_0434_ref, ES2018K_0434_ref,
				ES2019H_0434_ref, ES2019I_0434_ref, ES2019J_0434_ref, ES2019K_0434_ref,
				ES2020H_0434_ref, ES2020I_0434_ref, ES2020J_0434_ref, ES2020K_0434_ref});
			if (fixed == 9 && indef == 1) {
                a = 10;
		case dataset_id::it2011h:
		case dataset_id::it2012h:
		case dataset_id::it2013h:
		case dataset_id::it2014h:
        case dataset_id::it2015h:
		case dataset_id::it2016h:
		case dataset_id::it2017h:
		case dataset_id::it2018h:
		case dataset_id::it2019h:
		case dataset_id::it2020h: {
			long fixed = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				IT2011H_0447_ref,IT2012H_0447_ref,IT2013H_0447_ref,IT2014H_0447_ref, IT2015H_0447_ref, IT2016H_0447_ref, IT2017H_0447_ref, IT2018H_0447_ref, IT2019H_0447_ref, IT2020H_0447_ref});
			long indef = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				IT2011H_0444_ref, IT2012H_0444_ref, IT2013H_0444_ref, IT2014H_0444_ref, IT2015H_0444_ref, IT2016H_0444_ref, IT2017H_0444_ref, IT2018H_0444_ref, IT2019H_0444_ref, IT2020H_0444_ref});
			if (fixed == 99 && indef == 2) {
                a = 10;
        case dataset_id::mx2005h:
        case dataset_id::mx2005i:
        case dataset_id::mx2005j:
        case dataset_id::mx2005k:
        case dataset_id::mx2006h:
        case dataset_id::mx2006i:
        case dataset_id::mx2007i:
        case dataset_id::mx2008i:
        case dataset_id::mx2009h:
        case dataset_id::mx2010h:
        case dataset_id::mx2011h:
        case dataset_id::mx2012h:
        case dataset_id::mx2013h:
        case dataset_id::mx2014h:
        case dataset_id::mx2015h:
        case dataset_id::mx2016h:
        case dataset_id::mx2017h:
        case dataset_id::mx2018h:
        case dataset_id::mx2019h:
        case dataset_id::mx2020h: {
			long wrtcntr = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				MX2005H_0636_ref, MX2005I_0636_ref, MX2005J_0636_ref, MX2005K_0636_ref,
				MX2006H_0636_ref, MX2006I_0636_ref, MX2007I_0636_ref, MX2008I_0636_ref,
				MX2009H_0636_ref, MX2010H_0636_ref, MX2011H_0636_ref, MX2012H_0636_ref,
				MX2013H_0636_ref, MX2014H_0636_ref, MX2015H_0636_ref, MX2016H_0636_ref,
				MX2017H_0636_ref, MX2018H_0636_ref, MX2019H_0636_ref, MX2020H_0636_ref});
			if (wrtcntr == 2) {
                a = 97;
        case dataset_id::mx2006j:
        case dataset_id::mx2006k:
        case dataset_id::mx2007h:
        case dataset_id::mx2007j:
        case dataset_id::mx2007k:
        case dataset_id::mx2008h:
        case dataset_id::mx2008j:
        case dataset_id::mx2008k:
        case dataset_id::mx2009i:
        case dataset_id::mx2009j:
        case dataset_id::mx2009k:
        case dataset_id::mx2010i:
        case dataset_id::mx2010j:
        case dataset_id::mx2010k:
        case dataset_id::mx2011i:
        case dataset_id::mx2011j:
        case dataset_id::mx2011k:
        case dataset_id::mx2012i:
        case dataset_id::mx2012j:
        case dataset_id::mx2012k:
        case dataset_id::mx2013i:
        case dataset_id::mx2013j:
        case dataset_id::mx2013k:
        case dataset_id::mx2014i:
        case dataset_id::mx2014j:
        case dataset_id::mx2014k:
        case dataset_id::mx2015i:
        case dataset_id::mx2015j:
        case dataset_id::mx2015k:
        case dataset_id::mx2016i:
        case dataset_id::mx2016j:
        case dataset_id::mx2016k:
        case dataset_id::mx2017i:
        case dataset_id::mx2017j:
        case dataset_id::mx2017k:
        case dataset_id::mx2018i:
        case dataset_id::mx2018j:
        case dataset_id::mx2018k:
        case dataset_id::mx2019i:
        case dataset_id::mx2019j:
        case dataset_id::mx2019k:
        case dataset_id::mx2020j: {
			long wrtcntr = valueFromFirstAvailable({
				MX2006J_0634_ref, MX2006K_0634_ref, MX2007H_0634_ref, MX2007J_0634_ref,
				MX2007K_0634_ref, MX2008H_0634_ref, MX2008J_0634_ref, MX2008K_0634_ref,
				MX2009I_0634_ref, MX2009J_0634_ref, MX2009K_0634_ref, MX2010I_0634_ref,
				MX2010J_0634_ref, MX2010K_0634_ref, MX2011I_0634_ref, MX2011J_0634_ref,
				MX2011K_0634_ref, MX2012I_0634_ref, MX2012J_0634_ref, MX2012K_0634_ref,
				MX2013I_0634_ref, MX2013J_0634_ref, MX2013K_0634_ref, MX2014I_0634_ref,
				MX2014J_0634_ref, MX2014K_0634_ref, MX2015I_0634_ref, MX2015J_0634_ref,
				MX2015K_0634_ref, MX2016I_0634_ref, MX2016J_0634_ref, MX2016K_0634_ref,
				MX2017I_0634_ref, MX2017J_0634_ref, MX2017K_0634_ref, MX2018I_0634_ref,
				MX2018J_0634_ref, MX2018K_0634_ref, MX2019I_0634_ref, MX2019J_0634_ref,
				MX2019K_0634_ref, MX2020J_0634_ref});
			if (wrtcntr == 2) {
                a = 97;




WRKCONTRCT refers to the person's type of work contract, whether it is indefinite (permanent) or fixed-term (temporary).

Comparability — Index


Comparability — General

The concept of indefinite (permanent) contract indicates that there is no time limit in the work relationship, while a fixed-term (temporary) contract expires after a pre-determined time or specific event.

The first digit of WRKCONTRCT distinguishes between fixed-term and indefinite work relationships. The second digit specifies the type of fixed-term work contract, when this information is available.

The universe of persons to whom the question applies varies across the samples in age as well as labor force status. For most samples, the question applied to employed persons. There are variations in definitions used across samples and users should carefully inspect the country-specific comparability sections in order to make valid inferences.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

Seasonal or as needed workers includes both "seasonal" as well as "casual" workers, which are those who work on non-consecutive days (e.g. construction workers.).

The universe includes those who are economically active; persons currently unemployed report information about their last job.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The questionnaire does not specifically mention "contract", it instead refers to the type of work that the respondent performs.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The 2017 census asks about the nature of the person's contract for those who ever worked as a wage employee (including those currently unemployed); responses refer to their current or their previous job.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The 1980 and 1990 indicate only whether employment was permanent or temporary, while the 2000 and 2010 samples also identify persons contracted for a specific project separately from other fixed-term workers. Persons without a written contract are distinguished in the 2010 sample only.

The universe includes persons age 10+ who were economically active in 1980 and 1990. The 2000 and 2010 samples further require that respondents ever worked as employee (unemployed persons refer to their last job.)


  • Egypt 2006: Persons age 6+ who were economically active
  • Nicaragua 2005: Persons age 10+ who worked
  • Palestine 2017: Persons age 7+ who ever worked as a wage employee
  • Panama 1980: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Panama 1990: Persons age 10+ who were economically active
  • Panama 2000: Persons age 10+ who were economically active and who ever worked as employee
  • Panama 2010: Persons age 10+ who were economically active and who ever worked as employee


  • Egypt: 2006
  • India: 1993, 1999
  • Italy: 2011Q1, 2012Q1, 2013Q1, 2014Q1, 2015Q1, 2016Q1, 2017Q1, 2018Q1, 2019Q1, 2020Q1
  • Mexico: 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4, 2019Q1, 2019Q2, 2019Q3, 2019Q4, 2020Q1, 2020Q3
  • Nicaragua: 2005
  • Palestine: 2017
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Spain: 2005Q1, 2005Q2, 2005Q3, 2005Q4, 2006Q1, 2006Q2, 2006Q3, 2006Q4, 2007Q1, 2007Q2, 2007Q3, 2007Q4, 2008Q1, 2008Q2, 2008Q3, 2008Q4, 2009Q1, 2009Q2, 2009Q3, 2009Q4, 2010Q1, 2010Q2, 2010Q3, 2010Q4, 2011Q1, 2011Q2, 2011Q3, 2011Q4, 2012Q1, 2012Q2, 2012Q3, 2012Q4, 2013Q1, 2013Q2, 2013Q3, 2013Q4, 2014Q1, 2014Q2, 2014Q3, 2014Q4, 2015Q1, 2015Q2, 2015Q3, 2015Q4, 2016Q1, 2016Q2, 2016Q3, 2016Q4, 2017Q1, 2017Q2, 2017Q3, 2017Q4, 2018Q1, 2018Q2, 2018Q3, 2018Q4, 2019Q1, 2019Q2, 2019Q3, 2019Q4, 2020Q1, 2020Q2, 2020Q3, 2020Q4