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      class Washer:public Editor {

    Washer(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        switch (dataSet) {
        case dataset_id::eg2006a:
            if ((EG2006A_0065(0) == 0 || EG2006A_0065(0) == 98) && (EG2006A_0064(0) >= 1 && EG2006A_0064(0) <= 9))
                a = 4;




WASHER indicates whether the household had a clothes washing machine.

Comparability — Index

Dominican Republic
El Salvador
South Africa
Trinidad and Tobago
United States

Comparability — General

Some samples specifically include manual washers in a separate category. Other samples seem to imply only automatic machines, but this is not always specified in the census instructions. The samples also differ in whether they explicitly include only occupant-owned machines.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The data distinguish between automatic and manual washers.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The 1991, 2000, and 2010 censuses do not count washing machines that do not perform operations of rinsing and centrifugation (i.e., households with machines that wash only, known as tanquinho, are recorded as having no washing machine). The 1991 census limits the universe only to households with electricity.

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The data are comparable across samples apart from slight differences in universe.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The 1986 and 1996 census questions specify whether the household has an electric washing machine, and the instructions specify that the purpose of tenure of this appliance must be for use and not commerce. The 2006 census question separates non-automatic and automatic washing machines; the number of machines is preserved in the unharmonized data. In the 2006 questionnaire, the appliances are considered available if they are currently used or will be used in the future.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The 1992 question asks if there is a washing machine in the household, but is not explicit about access versus ownership. The 2007 question states that the washing machine must belong to the household. The question for both samples does not distinguish between automatic and manual washers, although automatic may be implied.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

The 1996 census question specifies whether the household has a washing machine. The 2007 and 2014 census question records the actual number of washing machines in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

The 2003 census question records the actual number of washing machines in the unharmonized source variables. The question was only asked of households in occupied private housing units.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

In 2001, the census question includes the electric washer even if it is found in poor working condition awaiting repair.

Comparability — Israel [top]

Units used but not owned by the tenants are included.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The census questions ask if there is a washing machine in the dwelling. The samples do not distinguish between automatic and manual washers, but they may imply automatic machines.

For 2000, if the washing machine is broken and there is an intention to fix it, then it should be included as having a washing machine; the 2015 instructions explicitly specify that a household is considered holder of an appliance if it is in working conditions or if it is damaged but they will take them to repair. For 2000, 2010, and 2015, a machine belonging to an employer should not be counted.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

This question explicitly asks about ownership of a washing machine. If two or more households in a dwelling share the washing machine, the washing machine should only be counted for the household that actually owns it. Washing machines in poor condition were to be counted. This question does not distinguish between automatic and manual washers, but may imply automatic machines.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The questionnaire wording differs somewhat between censuses but the data are comparable.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The census question specifies whether the household has a washing machine in the unharmonized source variables. In 1980, the question was only asked of households in private occupant-present non-condemned households. In 1990 and 2000, the question was only asked of households in occupied private housing units. In 2010, the question was only asked of non-collective households, which are either single-person, nuclear, extended or composite household types.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The variable is comparable across samples.

Comparability — Peru [top]

In 2007, enumerators were explicitly instructed to include broken appliances if the household intended to repair them soon. Only 2007 specified that it was an electrical appliance, though this may have been implied in 1993.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The 2010 census asks whether the household has a washing machine in working condition.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

In 2011 and 2016, the washing machine must be in working condition.

Comparability — Suriname [top]

In 2012, the census question refers to washing machine in working condition at the household's disposal.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

Both samples record the actual number of washing machines in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The universe has changed over time: all households provide this information in 1990, only those that completed the interview in 2000, and private occupied households in 2011.

Comparability — United States [top]

The 1960 census counted only occupant-owned machines. Housing units with both automatic and manual machines were placed in the automatic category.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

The 1996 data were derived from separate source variables for automatic and manual washers. The objective of these questions is not explicitly ownership and may also include those dwellings with only access to a washing machine. If the washing machine was out of service and being repaired it was counted.

The 2006 data simply asks whether the household has an electronic washing machine.


  • Argentina 2001: Non-collective dwellings and not homeless
  • Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings; only households with electric lighting, with or without a meter
  • Brazil 2000: Occupied permanent private households
  • Brazil 2010: Occupied permanent private households
  • Cambodia 2013: All households
  • Colombia 2005: All households
  • Dominican Republic 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied designated households
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Private occupied dwellings
  • Egypt 1986: All households
  • Egypt 1996: All households
  • Egypt 2006: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Occupied private households
  • El Salvador 2007: Occupied private dwellings with people present
  • Fiji 1996: All households
  • Fiji 2007: All households
  • Fiji 2014: All households
  • Guatemala 1964: All households
  • Haiti 2003: Occupied private households
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Israel 1972: Jewish households
  • Israel 1995: Private and Kibbutz households
  • Jordan 2004: Not hotel or public housing unit
  • Malaysia 1991: Private households
  • Malaysia 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2005: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with inhabitants present or hotel, boarding house and guest house
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Palestine 2007: All households except Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1980: Private occupant present non-condemned households
  • Panama 1990: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2000: Private occupied households
  • Panama 2010: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1982: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1992: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 2002: Private occupied households
  • Peru 1993: Private occupied households
  • Peru 2007: Private occupied households
  • Philippines 2000: All households
  • Philippines 2010: All households
  • South Africa 2011: Households in housing units or converted hostels
  • South Africa 2016: All households
  • Suriname 2012: All households
  • Thailand 1990: Private households
  • Thailand 2000: Private households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed the interview
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Private occupied households
  • United States 1960: Not group quarters or vacant units (question answered by only 20% of households)
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private households
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
  • Vietnam 2009: All households


  • Argentina: 2001
  • Brazil: 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Cambodia: 2013
  • Colombia: 2005
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Fiji: 1996, 2007, 2014
  • Guatemala: 1964
  • Haiti: 2003
  • Honduras: 2001
  • Israel: 1972, 1995
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Malaysia: 1991, 2000
  • Mexico: 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Nicaragua: 2005
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Paraguay: 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 2000, 2010
  • South Africa: 2011, 2016
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Thailand: 1990, 2000
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1990, 2000, 2011
  • United States: 1960
  • Uruguay: 1996, 2006
  • Venezuela: 2001
  • Vietnam: 2009