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Codes and Frequencies

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RACEUS identifies the "race" of the respondent in the United States. Race is a social construct, not a scientific or anthropological concept. Many detailed categories consist of national origin groups.

Comparability — General

The 1990-2015 samples are much more detailed than the earlier ones. Beginning in 2000, the race question changed substantially to allow respondents to report as many races as they felt necessary to describe themselves. In earlier years, only one race response was reported.


  • All persons


  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015