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OWNERSHIP
Ownership of dwelling

Codes and Frequencies




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      class Ownership:public Editor {

public:
    Ownership(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
    void edit() {

        long a = getRecoded();
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::mx1960a)
            if (MX1960A_0401(1) != 1 && MX1960A_0401(1) != 6)
                a = 0;
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::fr1982a) {
            if (FR1982A_0024(0) == 1) {
                if (FR1982A_0025(0) == 0)
                    a = 110;
                if (FR1982A_0025(0) == 1)
                    a = 120;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::gr1971a) {
            if (GR1971A_0053(0) == 2) {
                if (GR1971A_0052(0) == 1)
                    a = 216;
                if (GR1971A_0052(0) == 2)
                    a = 215;
                if (GR1971A_0052(0) == 3)
                    a = 211;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::gr1981a) {
            if (GR1981A_0032(0) == 2) {
                if (GR1981A_0031(0) == 1)
                    a = 216;
                if (GR1981A_0031(0) == 2)
                    a = 215;
                if (GR1981A_0031(0) == 3)
                    a = 211;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::gr1991a) {
            if (GR1991A_0036(0) == 2) {
                if (GR1991A_0035(0) == 1)
                    a = 216;
                if (GR1991A_0035(0) == 2)
                    a = 215;
                if (GR1991A_0035(0) == 3)
                    a = 211;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::gr2001a) {
            if (GR2001A_0036(0) == 2) {
                if (GR2001A_0035(0) == 1)
                    a = 216;
                if (GR2001A_0035(0) == 2)
                    a = 215;
                if (GR2001A_0035(0) == 3)
                    a = 211;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pt1981a) {
            if (PT1981A_0049(0) == 1 && PT1981A_0050(0) == 1)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pt1991a) {
            if (PT1991A_0038(0) == 1 && PT1991A_0036(0) == 1)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pt2001a) {
            if (PT2001A_0031(0) == 1 && PT2001A_0032(0) == 1)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::uk2001a) {
            if (UK2001A_0049(0) == 9) {
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 1)
                    a = 110;
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 2)
                    a = 120;
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 3)
                    a = 197;
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 4)
                    a = 212;
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 5)
                    a = 223;
                if (UK2001A_0050(0) == 6)
                    a = 214;
            }
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pr1970a) {
            if (PR1970A_0029(0) == 10 && PR1970A_0030(0) == 2)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pr1980a) {
            if (PR1980A_0030(0) == 10 && PR1980A_0031(0) == 3)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::de1971a) {
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0074(0) == 1)
                a = 210;
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0074(0) == 2)
                a = 223;
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0074(0) == 3)
                a = 100;
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0074(0) == 4)
                a = 230;
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) == 2 && DE1971A_0074(0) == 9)
                a = 0;
            if (DE1971A_0002(0) > 2)
                a = 999;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::de1981a) {
            if (DE1981A_0075(0) != 1)
                a = 0;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::gh2010a) {
            if (GH2010A_0051(0) == 1 && GH2010A_0052(0) == 1)
                a = 110;
            if (GH2010A_0051(0) == 1 && GH2010A_0052(0) == 2)
                a = 120;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::uy2011a) {
            if (UY2011A_0041(0) == 1 && (UY2011A_0042(0) == 2 || UY2011A_0042(0) == 4))
                a = 110;
            if (UY2011A_0041(0) == 1 && (UY2011A_0042(0) == 1 || UY2011A_0042(0) == 3))
                a = 120;
            if (UY2011A_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011A_0043(0) == 1)
                a = 251;
            if (UY2011A_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011A_0043(0) == 2)
                a = 255;
            if (UY2011A_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011A_0043(0) == 3)
                a = 253;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::pl2002a) {
            if (PL2002A_0092(0) == 2 && PL2002A_0051(0) == 3)
                a = 223;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::uy2011x) {
            if (UY2011X_0041(0) == 1 && (UY2011X_0042(0) == 2 || UY2011X_0042(0) == 4))
                a = 110;
            if (UY2011X_0041(0) == 1 && (UY2011X_0042(0) == 1 || UY2011X_0042(0) == 3))
                a = 120;
            if (UY2011X_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011X_0043(0) == 1)
                a = 251;
            if (UY2011X_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011X_0043(0) == 2)
                a = 255;
            if (UY2011X_0041(0) == 4 && UY2011X_0043(0) == 3)
                a = 253;
        }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::il2008a) {
                if (IL2008A_0011(0) >= 2 && IL2008A_0011(0) <= 3 && IL2008A_0012(0) == 1)
                    a = 214;
				if (IL2008A_0011(0) >= 2 && IL2008A_0011(0) <= 3 && IL2008A_0012(0) == 2)
                    a = 213;
        }
         if (dataSet == dataset_id::il1983a) {
                if (IL1983A_0055(0) >= 2 && IL1983A_0055(0) <= 3 && IL1983A_0056(0) == 1)
					a = 213;
				if (IL1983A_0055(0) >= 2 && IL1983A_0055(0) <= 3 && IL1983A_0056(0) == 2)
					a = 214;
            }
        if (dataSet == dataset_id::il1995a) {
                if (IL1995A_0045(0) >= 2 && IL1995A_0045(0) <= 3 && IL1995A_0046(0) == 1)
					a = 214;
				if (IL1995A_0045(0) >= 2 && IL1995A_0045(0) <= 3 && IL1995A_0046(0) == 2)
					a = 213;
            }
        		
        setData(a);
    }
    // TODO notAorH uses value(), find source variable mx1960
    // not head of house and not alone in Mexico 1960
    bool notAorH() {
        return false;
	if (MX1960A_0401(1)!=1 && MX1960A_0401(1)!=6) return true;
        else return false;
    }


};

    

Description

OWNERSHIP indicates whether a member of the household owned the housing unit. Households that acquired their unit with a mortgage or other lending arrangement were understood to "own" their unit even if they had not yet completed repayment. For those that did not own their housing unit, several options were possible: renting (from various types of owners), subletting, usufruct, and de facto occupation.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Argentina
Armenia
Austria
Bangladesh
Belarus
Benin
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Burkina Faso
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Ethiopia
Fiji
Finland
France
Germany
Ghana
Guatemala
Guinea
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Jamaica
Kenya
Liberia
Malawi
Malaysia
Mali
Mexico
Morocco
Myanmar
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Palestine
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Rwanda
Saint Lucia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Spain
Switzerland
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam
Zambia

Comparability — General

OWNERSHIP is essentially comparable across all samples, though some provide greater detail than others. The first digit -- indicating whether a unit was owned or rented -- is fully comparable. The second and third digits retain detail not available in all samples.

OWNERSHIP is not available for vacant households in any sample.

Some samples indicate whether owned units were owned "free and clear" or were still being paid for. Other samples provide additional types of home ownership.

Nearly all the samples provide some detailed information about those who did not own their housing. "Rented" is the main category, with different samples providing varying detail about the types of arrangements.

Some samples ask about the ownership type of the land on which the dwelling is located. This data can be found in LANDOWN.

Some samples, particularly former and current Communist countries, ask questions on the type of ownership, i.e. private, government, collective, etc. Because these data don't describe whether the dwelling was owned/rented by a household member, the data are not integrated and can be found in the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Argentina [top]

The 1991 sample identifies squatters.

Comparability — Armenia [top]

The 2001 and 2011 samples indicate only if the dwelling was owned or not owned by a member of the household -- not the specific terms of non-ownership.

Comparability — Austria [top]

The data are comparable across samples. See the enumeration text for detailed discussion of the tenure distinctions.

Comparability — Bangladesh [top]

This variable is generally comparable across samples. However, in 1991 the question was asked of all households, while it was only asked of permanent households in later years. Additionally, the 1991 sample includes an "unknown" category.

Comparability — Belarus [top]

In 2009, dwellings that are owned by citizens must be fully paid.

The 1999 sample distinguishes between dwellings rented from other persons and those rented from local councils. In 2009, the distinction is between dwellings that are rented from the state, rented from non-governmental private developers, and rented from other persons. Dwellings that are rented from other persons for all samples were simply coded as "renting."

Comparability — Benin [top]

The 2002 and 2013 samples provide further detail regarding types of dwelling tenure for free; "family property" is classified in these two samples as "not owned, provided by family or friend."

Comparability — Bolivia [top]

The categories are largely consistent across samples. The 1992, 2001, and 2012 samples identify dwellings ceded by family members. It isn't clear where this relatively large category would have been coded in 1976.

Loan-backed habitations involve an upfront loan to the owner in exchange for no subsequent payments for a period of time.

Comparability — Botswana [top]

The 1981 and 1991 census questions refer to acquisition of the housing unit or plot, whereas the 2001 and 2011 samples asked about the housing unit only.

In 1981 and 1991, households that have plots allocated by tribal authorities, landboards, or acquired through the Self Help Housing Agency Scheme (SHHA) are listed as other type of ownership.

The samples consistently distinguish between various forms of household rental agreements. Households that are occupying land where no allocation was made by any authority are listed as squatters.

Comparability — Brazil [top]

The distinction between renting and owning is consistent across samples, but the level of detail within those categories varies over time.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

This variable is fully comparable across samples.

Comparability — Cambodia [top]

The data are fully comparable between samples.

Comparability — Cameroon [top]

All samples have categories for rented, owned, and housing provided by employer. However, there is some variation in other categories across samples. See source variables for more detail and explanation.

Comparability — Canada [top]

The data are fully comparable across samples.

Comparability — Chile [top]

Some Chilean samples distinguish fully-owned from partially-owned homes.

The 1960 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

Comparability — Colombia [top]

The category detail differs across years.

Comparability — Costa Rica [top]

All samples distinguish fully-owned from partially-owned homes.

The 2000 sample identifies squatters.

In 2011, the category "precarious condition" refers to dwellings that have been occupied without using legal mechanisms of possession. These dwellings could have been built by their inhabitants but, because the terrain upon which the dwelling was built does not belong to the inhabitants, the dwelling cannot be considered "owned."

Comparability — Dominican Republic [top]

The data are largely comparable across samples with minor category differences.

Comparability — Ecuador [top]

The Ecuadorian samples consistently identify multiple types of usufruct arrangements, with 1962 and 1974 including categories for sharecropping.

The 1962 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

The 2010 sample provides more detail than previous samples on payment arrangements for dwellings that are owned, distinguishing between those that are fully paid, being paid for, and those that were acquired as a gift or inheritance.

Comparability — Egypt [top]

The source variable for 2006 distinguishes between rental property under the old law versus the new law, but the data are combined in OWNERSHIP. The 2006 sample differentiates households that fully own their dwelling from those that are still paying to own. The 1986 and 1996 samples distinguish "ordinary" rentals from publicly owned.

Collective households do not have responses in 2006; there are no collectives in 1986 or 1996.

Comparability — El Salvador [top]

The unharmonized source variable for the 2007 sample distinguishes those still paying for ownership by the type of recipient (public institution, private, or NGO). The 2007 census also adds a category for free occupancy without any reciprocal work/services, which is presumably contained in the "other" category in 1992.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

The samples are largely comparable over time.

In all samples there are many categories for rented property. "Rented from Kebele" refers to the Kebele Local Administration and has been categorized as "Local authority." "Rented from public housing agency" has been categorized under Government. If a dwelling is rented from a private household it has been categorized as "Private." Any dwellings that are rented from another organization not otherwise listed is categorized as "Other rented". Finally, individuals may pay a rent difference if the rent of the housing unit is which they are currently residing is higher than the rent of the housing unit in which they used to reside. These cases have been categorized as "Other rented".

For more information see the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Fiji [top]

This variable is generally comparable across samples. However, the 1986 census separately identifies squatters. The 1996 has a general category as well as more detailed categories for usufruct arrangements, while the 2007 and 2014 samples have a "caretaker" category. Both were categorized as "free/usufruct (no cash rent)" in the harmonized variable.

Comparability — Finland [top]

In 2010, the variable distinguishes between ownership of the dwelling and only a share of the dwelling, where the latter is classified as "owned, other."

Comparability — France [top]

Available detail differs across French samples, with owned, rented, and usufruct situations constituting the minimum detail identified in any year. There are separate categories for furnished and unfurnished dwellings.

The 2011 sample differentiates between a renter of an unfurnished housing project and unfurnished non- housing project dwelling.

Comparability — Germany [top]

The data are largely comparable across censuses. The data for 1971 are constructed from separate responses for the first and second households within the dwelling. Higher order households, which are rare, are coded to unknown.

The data for 1981 are available only for dwellings containing a single household (comprising roughly 93% of all private households). There is an unharmonized variable providing information for second households within dwellings, but they cannot be distinguished in the data.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The "other" category includes a temporary living arrangement called "perching." Further ownership and tenancy information is contained in a separate unharmonized source variable.

Comparability — Guatemala [top]

The 1981 and 1994 distinguish between dwellings that are "owned, already paid" and those "owned, still paying" categories; these two categories are not available in the 1964 and 2002 samples. The 1981, 1994, and 2002 samples identify dwellings that are occupied for "free/usufruct", but this response is seemingly combined with "other" in 1964.

Comparability — Guinea [top]

The 1996 sample identifies subsidized renters who pay partial rent with their employers paying the rest.

Comparability — Haiti [top]

All Haiti samples have categories for owning, renting, usufruct, and other. The 1982 sample has a separate category for tenant farmers, and the 2003 sample has a separate category for squatters.

The 1982 sample only has data for households in specific communes (Port-au-Prince, Pétion-Ville and Croix des Bouquets) which may affect its comparability with other years.

Comparability — Honduras [top]

The 1961 sample only has information for households consisting of a head.

The 1988 and 2001 samples distinguish between owners who had fully paid and those paying in installments.

Comparability — Hungary [top]

The 1970-1990 samples identify co-tenants who used only a part of the dwelling exclusively and shared other parts. They were combined with tenants in 2001.

The 1990 sample has more detail than the others; there was a response option for owned by relatives, which is considered as owned per previous samples. This response might be included with usufruct in other countries.

The 2011 census question asks about the type of ownership but has significantly less detail compared to other Hungary samples. For this sample, housing units owned by a local government or other institution/organization are simply listed as "not owned."

Comparability — India [top]

The data are comparable across samples.

The 1993 sample has a variable on ownership -- not incorporated into OWNERSHIP -- that is restricted to land-owning households. See the unharmonized source variables.

Comparability — Indonesia [top]

The category "provided by employer" includes when the dwelling is provided by a private or public employer regardless of whether there are payments. The unharmonized source variables preserve detail on whether the dwelling was contracted (rent paid for set time period) or rented (month-to-month). The censuses delineate whether the household was paying installments to own or already owned, except in 2005 and 2010 when the categories were combined. The 2005 census does add categories for rent-free parent/relative-owned dwellings (coded into "provided by family or friend") and for free rent (non-relative, non-employer owned). The 2010 census "other" category includes free rent, employer-provided, etc.

Comparability — Iraq [top]

See the enumeration text for more information on the categories.

Comparability — Ireland [top]

The pre-2002 samples provide categories of renting that are not identified in later years. The 1981 and 1991 samples distinguish between households still purchasing their dwelling and those that completed all payments. The unharmonized source variables for the pre-2002 samples identify households in the process of purchasing their homes from local authority.

There are only minor universe differences between samples.

Comparability — Israel [top]

The 1972 census asked the question only of urban households.

The 1983, 1995, and 2008 samples included information on renters entitled or not entitled to key money. This distinction was not incorporated into OWNERSHIP. The 1983, 1995, and 2008 samples also distinguish between dwellings rented from private, parastatal, or other.

The 2008 sample identifies a separate category for dwellings owned by relatives where no rent is paid on it; these cases were likely included in "owned" in 1972-1995.

Comparability — Italy [top]

In 2001 and 2011, the "owned" category is defined as owning fully, partially, or when the household has the right to use the house, even if part of the dwelling is rented out. For both samples, "other title" is classified as "free/usufruct" given it refers to tenure free of charge or in exchange for services.

Comparability — Jamaica [top]

The samples are comparable across categories, aside from the category for "Government rented" dwellings in 1982 and 1991.

The 1982 sample includes responses for all households, while the 1991 and 2001 samples include only private households.

Comparability — Kenya [top]

The Kenya samples are comparable with each other, but they classify owned housing units differently than other countries, specifying whether they were purchased, constructed, or inherited. The Kenyan censuses also provide more detail about renting than the other censuses do.

Comparability — Liberia [top]

This variable is only available for the 2008 sample.

Comparability — Malawi [top]

The data are fully comparable across all samples, with one exception: the 1987 and 1998 censuses collected separate information on dwelling ownership for up to four dwellings inhabited by a household. Only information for the first dwelling is reported in OWNERSHIP, but the unharmonized source variables retain the details for higher order dwellings.

Comparability — Malaysia [top]

The samples differ considerably in terms of number of categories.

Comparability — Mali [top]

The 1998 sample identifies more categories of tenure, including free lodging and co-ownership (condominium) status. The unharmonized source variables for 1998 and 2009 also distinguish between owners with and without official documentation and renters versus (long-term) lessees. Those distinctions are not maintained in OWNERSHIP.

Comparability — Mexico [top]

The 1960 sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.

The 1960 and 1970 censuses made only the basic distinction between owned and not owned housing. The 1990, 2010, and 2015 censuses identified renters versus other non-owners. The 1995 and 2000 censuses distinguished between owners who had fully paid and those with mortgages.

In 2015, any household that responded to the question indicating dwelling is "owned by a relative or is borrowed" is assumed to be living in the dwelling for free.

Comparability — Morocco [top]

The responses "in process of being owner" and "mortgage" were combined into the category "owned, still paying" in 1982; the mortgage category was eliminated in subsequent censuses. The categories of "owner, already paid" and "in the process of becoming owner" are combined into the "owner" category in the 2014 sample.

The category "provided by employer" is documented as provided "with a small payment" in 2004, but no other censuses provide more detail, and free rent, employer-provided dwellings are explicitly excluded from the "free" category.

Comparability — Myanmar [top]

In 2014, the categories of "government" and "private company" are interpreted as "free/usufruct" since they are separate from "renting".

Comparability — Nepal [top]

Dwelling ownership is based on legal ownership except in rural areas where it is based on land ownership. Responses indicating that the dwelling is occupied by virtue of an agreement with an institution are coded as "free, public". The 2001 sample distinguishes a (rent) free option, which is combined with "other" in 2011.

Comparability — Nicaragua [top]

The 2005 census adds a free rent and an installments/mortgage category that were presumably contained within "other" in previous censuses; there was also a response option for "borrowed," but as it is unclear what this term means, it is classified in "other" not owned in this variable.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

This variable is mostly comparable across samples. The 2010 sample provides more detail.

Comparability — Palestine [top]

The data are comparable between samples, with a minor universe difference.

Comparability — Panama [top]

The 1960 sample has less category detail than the later samples, which are consistent with one another.

Comparability — Papua New Guinea [top]

The 2000 census includes "free/usufruct", which is not identified in 1980 or 1990.

Comparability — Paraguay [top]

The data are comparable between samples. There are several more response categories in the 1992 and 2002 samples. In the 2002 sample, the response "Borrowed or caretaking" is categorized under other.

Comparability — Philippines [top]

The Philippines samples include categories for public and private subsidized housing.

Comparability — Poland [top]

The census question for Poland refers to the tenure status or legal basis for occupancy of the dwelling. The unharmonized source variables for these samples include related data on the building ownership.

In 1978 and 1988, "allocation of the dwelling" is considered as "not owned, free/usufruct (no cash rent)", given the enumeration instructions do not clarify whether rent is paid in these cases.

For the 1978, 1988, and 2002 samples, responses indicating that the household has a relationship with the owner or main tenant (parents, children, or other related persons) have been classified as "not owned, free/usufruct, provided by family or friend," even though some of these cases may pay rent for the occupied dwelling.

In 1988, workers' hotel is coded as "not owned, free/usufruct, provided by employer."

"Other" forms of tenure for all the Poland samples may include households residing in religious institutions, residing in return for agricultural work or other activity, or squatters.

Comparability — Portugal [top]

The variable is consistent across samples. The 2011 census lists several more categories for non-ownership than the previous samples. In 2011, the original response category "State, autonomous public institutes or other non-profit institutes" is categorized as Government ownership.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

The variable is comparable across samples. The 2010 sample distinguishes fully-owned from partially-owned homes

Comparability — Rwanda [top]

The 2002 and 2012 samples have a response for mortgage/leasing, but the number of cases is very small; nevertheless, we have coded other owners as having fully paid for their dwelling.

The 2002 unharmonized variable also identifies persons in refugee camps, which are included in "other" not owned in this variable.

Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]

The general "renting" category in 1980 identifies persons with leases as opposed to short-term renters from government and private persons.

Comparability — Senegal [top]

The 1988 sample identifies co-tenants (co-locataire), while the 2002 and 2013 samples identifies co-owners (co-proprietaire). The 2013 sample identifies "rent to own", while the 1988 sample includes the option of subletting.

Comparability — Sierra Leone [top]

"Purchased" is coded as "already paid" but might include cases where residents are still paying. Rental from a quasi-government entity is included with rental from government, but the two categories can be separated using the unharmonized source variable. Likewise, the unharmonized variable identifies different types of employer-provided housing.

Comparability — South Africa [top]

The 1996 sample only has categories for rented and owned. The 2001, 2007, 2011, and 2016 samples distinguish fully paid off from not yet paid off homes. The addition of the large usufruct category starting in 2001 substantially alters the distribution of values between 1996 and other South Africa samples. In 2016, there is an additional distinction between "rented from private individual" and "rented from other".

Comparability — Spain [top]

All samples distinguish fully-owned from partially-owned homes, and all samples are comparable over time.

Comparability — Switzerland [top]

The variable is consistent across samples. The unharmonized source variables in each sample distinguish between owners of buildings and owners of a floor or dwelling, but that distinction is not preserved in OWNERSHIP. The unharmonized variables also distinguish tenants from lessees.

Comparability — Tanzania [top]

The 1988 sample indicates only if the dwelling was owned by a member of the household, rented, or in other situation. The 2012 census question provides further details. In 2012, if the dwelling was owned by the employer, but the household was paying rent then the dwelling was categorized as being rented from a private company.

Comparability — Thailand [top]

The variable is consistent across samples.

Comparability — Togo [top]

In 2010, owners with or without a title are considered to own the dwelling.

Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]

The data is comparable across samples. The 2011 responses distinguish between homes owned fully and those still subject to a mortgage.

Comparability — Turkey [top]

The 1985 and 1990 censuses only distinguish whether the household owned the dwelling or not. The 2000 census provides more detail; the "provided by employer" category does not detail whether payments were made to the employer or not.

Comparability — United Kingdom [top]

The 1991 sample provided more detailed information on the types of renting. The 2001 sample identifies households paying part rent and part mortgage (shared ownership).

Comparability — United States [top]

The U.S. samples distinguish between renters who paid cash rent and those who did not. The 1990 -2015 responses also allow users to distinguish between homes "owned free and clear" and those still subject to a mortgage. The 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 censuses explicitly placed owned units resting on leased land (for example, mobile trailers in some parks) in the "owned" category.

Comparability — Uruguay [top]

Because of lack of any definition, the category "inherited" was coded into "other" in 1985. Response categories vary throughout the years -- see the unharmonized source variables for more detail and explanation.

Comparability — Venezuela [top]

The 1971 sample categorizes subletting and usufruct situations not identified in later samples.

Comparability — Vietnam [top]

The categorization is consistent between samples. Persons in "simple houses" in 1999 were not asked the question on ownership. These are dwellings constructed of makeshift or plant materials. Nearly all households were asked the question in 2009.

Comparability — Zambia [top]

The variables are generally comparable.

Universe

  • Argentina 1970: Private households
  • Argentina 1980: Private households
  • Argentina 1991: Private households
  • Argentina 2001: Private households
  • Argentina 2010: All households
  • Armenia 2001: All households
  • Armenia 2011: All households
  • Austria 1981: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Austria 1991: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Austria 2001: Private household, except single rooms without kitchen
  • Austria 2011: Conventional dwellings
  • Bangladesh 1991: All households
  • Bangladesh 2001: Permanent households
  • Bangladesh 2011: Non-floating households
  • Belarus 1999: All households
  • Belarus 2009: Residential non-collective houses or apartments
  • Benin 1979: All households
  • Benin 1992: Private households
  • Benin 2002: All households
  • Benin 2013: All households
  • Bolivia 1976: Occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 1992: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2001: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Bolivia 2012: Private, occupied dwellings
  • Botswana 1981: Private households
  • Botswana 1991: Private households
  • Botswana 2001: Private households
  • Botswana 2011: Private households
  • Brazil 1960: Not group quarters; occupied (not vacant) units
  • Brazil 1970: Not group quarters; occupied (not vacant) units
  • Brazil 1980: Not group quarters; occupied (not vacant) units
  • Brazil 1991: Not group quarters; occupied (not vacant) units
  • Brazil 2000: Not group quarters; occupied (not vacant) units
  • Brazil 2010: Occupied permanent private households
  • Burkina Faso 1996: All households
  • Burkina Faso 2006: All households
  • Cambodia 1998: Regular households
  • Cambodia 2004: All households
  • Cambodia 2008: Regular households
  • Cambodia 2013: All households
  • Cameroon 1976: Occupied households
  • Cameroon 1987: Private households
  • Cameroon 2005: Private households
  • Canada 1981: Private households
  • Canada 1991: Private households
  • Canada 2001: Private households
  • Canada 2011: All households
  • Chile 1960: Households in which the head was sampled
  • Chile 1970: Occupied dwellings
  • Chile 1982: Private occupied dwellings with people present
  • Chile 1992: Private occupied dwellings
  • Chile 2002: Private occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 1973: All households
  • Colombia 1985: Occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 1993: Occupied dwellings
  • Colombia 2005: All households
  • Costa Rica 1963: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1973: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 1984: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2000: Private occupied dwellings
  • Costa Rica 2011: Private occupied dwellings
  • Dominican Republic 1981: All households
  • Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied designated households
  • Dominican Republic 2010: Occupied private dwellings
  • Ecuador 1962: Households in which a head was sampled
  • Ecuador 1974: Private dwellings
  • Ecuador 1982: Occupied private dwellings
  • Ecuador 1990: Private occupied dwellings with persons present during enumeration
  • Ecuador 2001: Occupied private dwellings
  • Ecuador 2010: Private dwellings
  • Egypt 1986: All households
  • Egypt 1996: All households
  • Egypt 2006: Private households
  • El Salvador 1992: Occupied private households
  • El Salvador 2007: Occupied private households with people present
  • Ethiopia 1984: Urban households with information collected
  • Ethiopia 1994: Urban households with information collected
  • Ethiopia 2007: Households that responded to the long form
  • Fiji 1986: All households
  • Fiji 1996: All households
  • Fiji 2007: All households
  • Fiji 2014: All households
  • Finland 2010: All households
  • France 1962: Ordinary and non-mobile dwellings
  • France 1968: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • France 1975: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • France 1982: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • France 1990: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • France 1999: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • France 2011: Ordinary households in principal residence
  • Germany 1971: Occupied private dwellings
  • Germany 1981: Occupied households in single-household dwellings
  • Germany 1987: Private dwellings
  • Ghana 2000: Occupied private households
  • Ghana 2010: Occupied private households
  • Greece 1971: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1981: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 1991: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2001: Regular dwellings
  • Greece 2011: All households
  • Guatemala 1964: All households
  • Guatemala 1981: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 1994: Private occupied households
  • Guatemala 2002: Private occupied households
  • Guinea 1983: All households
  • Guinea 1996: Non-collective dwellings
  • Haiti 1971: All households
  • Haiti 1982: Occupied households in the communes of Port-au-Prince, Pétion-Ville and Croix des Bouquets
  • Haiti 2003: Occupied private households
  • Honduras 1961: Households consisting of a head
  • Honduras 1988: Private households
  • Honduras 2001: Private households
  • Hungary 1970: Private households
  • Hungary 1980: Private households
  • Hungary 1990: Private households
  • Hungary 2001: Private households
  • Hungary 2011: Occupied private households, seasonal and non-residential housing units
  • India 1983: All households
  • India 1987: All households
  • Indonesia 1971: All households
  • Indonesia 1980: All households
  • Indonesia 1985: All households
  • Indonesia 1990: All households
  • Indonesia 1995: All households
  • Indonesia 2005: Ordinary households
  • Indonesia 2010: Households in regular enumeration areas and enumerated apartments in remote areas
  • Iran 2006: Conventional residential units
  • Iraq 1997: Private households
  • Ireland 1971: Private households in non-mobile dwellings
  • Ireland 1981: Private households in non-mobile dwellings
  • Ireland 1991: Private households in non-mobile dwellings
  • Ireland 2002: Private households
  • Ireland 2006: Private households
  • Ireland 2011: Private households
  • Ireland 2016: Private households
  • Israel 1972: Urban households
  • Israel 1983: Regular households
  • Israel 1995: Private and Kibbutz households
  • Israel 2008: Private households
  • Italy 2001: Private households living in a dwelling
  • Italy 2011: Private households
  • Jamaica 1982: All households
  • Jamaica 1991: Private households
  • Jamaica 2001: Private households
  • Jordan 2004: Not hotel or public housing units
  • Kenya 1989: Private dwellings
  • Kenya 1999: All households
  • Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
  • Laos 2005: Private households
  • Lesotho 1996: All households
  • Liberia 2008: All households
  • Malawi 1987: Private households
  • Malawi 1998: Private households
  • Malawi 2008: Private households
  • Malaysia 1970: All households
  • Malaysia 1980: Private households
  • Malaysia 1991: Private households
  • Malaysia 2000: All households
  • Mali 1987: All households
  • Mali 1998: All households
  • Mali 2009: All households
  • Mexico 1960: Households in which the head was sampled
  • Mexico 1970: All households
  • Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
  • Mexico 1995: All households
  • Mexico 2000: All households
  • Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation
  • Morocco 1982: Non-nomadic households
  • Morocco 1994: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2004: Non-tent households
  • Morocco 2014: All households
  • Mozambique 2007: Private households
  • Myanmar 2014: Conventional households
  • Nepal 2001: All households
  • Nepal 2011: All households
  • Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
  • Nicaragua 1995: Private occupied households with people present
  • Nicaragua 2005: Private households with people present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
  • Nigeria 2006: All households
  • Nigeria 2007: All households
  • Nigeria 2008: All households
  • Nigeria 2009: All households
  • Nigeria 2010: All households
  • Pakistan 1998: All households
  • Palestine 1997: All households
  • Palestine 2007: Not households in Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
  • Panama 1960: Private occupied households
  • Panama 1980: Private occupant-present non-condemned households
  • Panama 1990: Private occupied households with occupants present
  • Panama 2000: Private occupied households with occupants present
  • Panama 2010: Private occupied households with occupants present
  • Papua New Guinea 1980: Private urban households
  • Papua New Guinea 1990: Occupied urban households
  • Papua New Guinea 2000: Occupied private households
  • Paraguay 1972: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1982: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 1992: Private occupied households
  • Paraguay 2002: Private occupied households (non-indigenous)
  • Peru 1993: Private, occupied dwellings with people present
  • Peru 2007: Private, occupied dwellings with people present
  • Philippines 1990: All households
  • Philippines 2000: All households
  • Philippines 2010: Households in buildings intended for habitation
  • Poland 1978: Private dwellings excluding mobile or provisional housing
  • Poland 1988: Private dwellings excluding mobile or provisional housing
  • Poland 2002: Private dwellings excluding mobile or provisional housing
  • Portugal 1981: Private households in conventional dwellings of usual or secondary residence
  • Portugal 1991: Private households in conventional dwellings of usual residence
  • Portugal 2001: Private households in conventional dwellings of usual residence
  • Portugal 2011: Private households in conventional dwellings of usual residence
  • Puerto Rico 1970: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 1980: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 1990: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 2000: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 2005: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Puerto Rico 2010: Occupied, private dwellings
  • Romania 1977: All households
  • Romania 2011: All households
  • Rwanda 1991: All households
  • Rwanda 2002: Private households
  • Rwanda 2012: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1980: All households
  • Saint Lucia 1991: All households
  • Senegal 1988: All households
  • Senegal 2002: All households
  • Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
  • Sierra Leone 2004: All households
  • South Africa 1996: Private households
  • South Africa 2001: Private households
  • South Africa 2007: Private households
  • South Africa 2011: Private households in housing units or converted hostels
  • South Africa 2016: All households
  • South Sudan 2008: All households
  • Spain 1991: All households
  • Spain 2001: Non-collective households
  • Spain 2011: All households
  • Sudan 2008: All households
  • Suriname 2012: All households
  • Switzerland 1970: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1980: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 1990: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Switzerland 2000: Private households except emergency shelters
  • Tanzania 1988: All households
  • Tanzania 2012: All households
  • Thailand 1970: Private households
  • Thailand 1980: Private households
  • Thailand 1990: Private households
  • Thailand 2000: Private households
  • Togo 2010: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1980: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 1990: All households
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed the interview
  • Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Private occupied households
  • Turkey 1985: Private households
  • Turkey 1990: Housing units
  • Turkey 2000: Housing units
  • Uganda 1991: Private households
  • Uganda 2002: Private households
  • Uganda 2014: All households
  • United Kingdom 1991: All households
  • United Kingdom 2001: Private households
  • United States 1960: Not group quarters, not improvised dwellings
  • United States 1970: Not group quarters, not improvised dwellings
  • United States 1980: Not group quarters, not improvised dwellings
  • United States 1990: Not group quarters, not improvised dwellings
  • United States 2000: Not group quarters, not improvised dwellings
  • United States 2005: Occupied dwellings
  • United States 2010: Occupied private dwellings
  • United States 2015: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 1963: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 1975: Occupied dwellings
  • Uruguay 1985: All households
  • Uruguay 1996: Occupied private dwellings
  • Uruguay 2006: All households
  • Uruguay 2011: Occupied private dwellings
  • Venezuela 1971: Private occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1981: Occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 1990: Private permanent occupied dwellings
  • Venezuela 2001: Private permanent occupied dwellings
  • Vietnam 1999: Not "simple" dwellings
  • Vietnam 2009: Households with a dwelling
  • Zambia 1990: Occupied private dwellings
  • Zambia 2000: All households
  • Zambia 2010: All households
  • Zimbabwe 2012: Private households

Availability

  • Argentina: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
  • Armenia: 2001, 2011
  • Austria: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Bangladesh: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Belarus: 1999, 2009
  • Benin: 1979, 1992, 2002, 2013
  • Bolivia: 1976, 1992, 2001, 2012
  • Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000, 2010
  • Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
  • Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
  • Cameroon: 1976, 1987, 2005
  • Canada: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Chile: 1960, 1970, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Colombia: 1973, 1985, 1993, 2005
  • Costa Rica: 1963, 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011
  • Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
  • Ecuador: 1962, 1974, 1982, 1990, 2001, 2010
  • Egypt: 1986, 1996, 2006
  • El Salvador: 1992, 2007
  • Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
  • Fiji: 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
  • Finland: 2010
  • France: 1962, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1990, 1999, 2011
  • Germany: 1971, 1981, 1987
  • Ghana: 2000, 2010
  • Greece: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Guatemala: 1964, 1981, 1994, 2002
  • Guinea: 1983, 1996
  • Haiti: 1971, 1982, 2003
  • Honduras: 1961, 1988, 2001
  • Hungary: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2001, 2011
  • India: 1983, 1987
  • Indonesia: 1971, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2010
  • Iran: 2006
  • Iraq: 1997
  • Ireland: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002, 2006, 2011, 2016
  • Israel: 1972, 1983, 1995, 2008
  • Italy: 2001, 2011
  • Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
  • Jordan: 2004
  • Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
  • Laos: 2005
  • Lesotho: 1996
  • Liberia: 2008
  • Malawi: 1987, 1998, 2008
  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
  • Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
  • Morocco: 1982, 1994, 2004, 2014
  • Mozambique: 2007
  • Myanmar: 2014
  • Nepal: 2001, 2011
  • Nicaragua: 1971, 1995, 2005
  • Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
  • Pakistan: 1998
  • Palestine: 1997, 2007
  • Panama: 1960, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Papua New Guinea: 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Paraguay: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2002
  • Peru: 1993, 2007
  • Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Poland: 1978, 1988, 2002
  • Portugal: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
  • Romania: 1977, 2011
  • Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
  • Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
  • Senegal: 1988, 2002, 2013
  • Sierra Leone: 2004
  • South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011, 2016
  • South Sudan: 2008
  • Spain: 1991, 2001, 2011
  • Sudan: 2008
  • Suriname: 2012
  • Switzerland: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Tanzania: 1988, 2012
  • Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
  • Togo: 2010
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011
  • Turkey: 1985, 1990, 2000
  • Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
  • United Kingdom: 1991, 2001
  • United States: 1900, 1910, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015
  • Uruguay: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
  • Venezuela: 1971, 1981, 1990, 2001
  • Vietnam: 1999, 2009
  • Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
  • Zimbabwe: 2012