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PUMA of residence 5 years ago, United States

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


MIGPUMA indicates the person's Migration PUMA of residence 5 years ago within the United States.

A Migration PUMA may correspond to either one or multiple PUMAs, so the codes and extents for PUMAs of residence 5 year ago (in MIGPUMA) and the PUMA (in GEO2_US) of current residence will differ.

See the Geography and GIS page of IPUMS USA for greater details on Migration PUMA definitions, maps, and relationships to PUMAs

Comparability — General

MIGPUMA is available only for the 2000 sample.

In other years, the Census Bureau designated other areas for analyzing place of residence 1 year ago:

  • For 2005, 2010, and 2015, the geographic unit is PUMA, and the analogous migration variable is MIGPUMA1.


  • United States 2000: Persons age 5+ who lived in a different house 5 years ago


  • United States: 2000