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State of residence 5 years ago, United States; consistent boundaries, GIS

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


      class Mig1_5_us : public Editor {

  Mig1_5_us(VarPointer varInfo) : Editor(varInfo) {}
  void edit() {

    long a = getRecoded();
    switch (dataSet) {
    case dataset_id::us1980a: {
      if (US1980A_0481() == 990 && US1980A_0423() >= 5)
        a = GEO1_US(0);
    } break;




MIG1_5_US indicates the person's state of residence within the United States 5 years ago.

Click on the Source Variables tab for information on place of residence for each sample year. Source variables may contain more geographic unit detail but are not suitable for cross-temporal comparison.

Comparability — General

MIG1_5_US is fully comparable across U.S. samples, except for one key universe difference. Only half the persons in the 1980 U.S. sample were coded for purposes of migration; the other half are included in the NIU category.

Also, in 1970 current state of residence is unknown for many cases, for confidentiality reasons. For non-movers, state of residence 5 years ago is inferred from current state of residence. There are therefore a large number of unknowns in that sample.

The 1970 United States sample privileges the identification of metropolitan areas over states. If knowing both the state and metro area of residence would allow the identification of a subpopulation less than 250,000 persons, then the state is coded as "State not identified"

US Territories, including Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands are coded as "Abroad".

For a similar variable reporting state of residence 1 year ago in the 2005 sample, see MIG1_1_US.


  • United States 1970: Persons age 5+
  • United States 1980: Persons age 5+ included in the migration sample
  • United States 1990: Persons age 5+
  • United States 2000: Persons age 5+


  • United States: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000