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LANGML indicates the language spoken in everyday life by the person in Mali.

Comparability — General

This variable is generally comparable across samples, except for the separate identification of French and English in the 1987 sample. The 2009 census asked the question of persons age 3+, while earlier censuses restricted this question to persons age 6+. The 2009 census counts Bambara and Malinké as well as Bobo and Dafing as separate languages; this detail is available in the unharmonized source variable.

The person's maternal language is recorded in the variable MTONGML.


  • Persons age 6+


  • Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009