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First language spoken, Israel

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


LANGIL1 indicates the first or principal language spoken in Israel. It is intended to be the language used in everyday life.

Comparability — General

The 1983 sample has a large number of "other" languages not listed in 1972. It is unclear where they would have been coded in the earlier year.

The 1983 sample distinguished categories that are combined together LANGIL1 in Spanish-Ladino and Czech-Slovakian-Slavic. The unharmonized source variable retains this detail.

Each sample also indicates additional languages spoken by the respondent. These are only available through the unharmonized variables for the samples.


  • Israel 1972: Persons age 14+
  • Israel 1983: Persons age 15+


  • Israel: 1972, 1983