INCWEL is a 6-digit numeric variable.
999998 = Unknown/missing.
999999 = NIU (not in universe).
Israel 1995: 3,000+
U.S.A. 1980: 9,995+
U.S.A. 1990: 10,000+
U.S.A. 2000: State mean of values over 12,300
Puerto Rico 2000: 21,000+
INCWEL reports the monthly or annual income the respondent received from anti-poverty or welfare programs.
Comparability — Index
Comparability — General
The amounts are provided on a monthly basis for Mexico and Israel, and are annual income for Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Amounts are expressed as they were reported at the time of the census. Figures are not adjusted for inflation or devaluation.
The programmatic sources of income differ by country.
Comparability — Canada [top]
For Canada 1981 to 2001, INCWEL is calculated as the sum of the governmental cash transfers the person received in the previous calendar year. The data include family allowance and federal child tax credit and other transfers related to disabilities, poverty, etc. Pensions and unemployment insurance are excluded in these years.
Data for 2011 come from a single input variable that reports total income from all government transfer payments, including public pensions (old age security pensions, guaranteed income supplements, Canada/Quebec pension plans), employment insurance benefits, child benefits, and other income from government sources. Public pension income is reported in
Comparability — Israel [top]
For Israel, the amount is for September 1995 and includes child allowance, old age and survivors allowance, disability allowance, unemployment allowance, and income support allowance. The values are recoded from a small number of income intervals. Those original income categories are recorded in the unharmonized input variable for the sample.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
The 1995 data report monthly income from the Procampo program; the 2000 data give income from Procampo and the Progresa program, which began in 1997.
The 1995 data are calculated from 3 separate responses for sources and amounts of non-work income, which included income from family members living abroad.
Comparability — Panama [top]
The data are the product of combining three input variables, each of which was separately top-coded. In some cases, therefore, INCWEL will underestimate the total amount of assistance received. Those cases can be identified using the source variables.
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
The data indicate pre-tax income the respondent received during the past year from various public assistance programs commonly referred to as "welfare." The data for 1970-2000 are for the previous calendar year and for 2005-2010 are for the previous 12 months.
Only the 2000 sample has a top code.
Comparability — United States [top]
The data indicate pre-tax income the respondent received during the past year from various public assistance programs commonly referred to as "welfare." The data for 1970-2000 are for the previous calendar year and for 2005-2015 are for the previous 12 months.
The samples have different top codes.
- Canada 1981: Persons age 15+, excluding inmates
- Canada 1991: Persons age 15+
- Canada 2001: Persons age 15+
- Canada 2011: Persons age 15+
- Israel 1995: All persons
- Mexico 1995: Persons age 12+
- Mexico 2000: Persons age 12+
- Panama 2010: All persons
- Puerto Rico 1970: Persons age 14+
- Puerto Rico 1980: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 1990: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2000: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2005: Persons age 15+
- Puerto Rico 2010: Persons age 15+
- United States 1970: Persons age 14+
- United States 1980: Persons age 15+
- United States 1990: Persons age 15+
- United States 2000: Persons age 15+
- United States 2005: Persons age 15+
- United States 2010: Persons age 15+
- United States 2015: Persons age 15+
- Canada: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Israel: 1995
- Mexico: 1995, 2000
- Panama: 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010
- United States: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015