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Hispanic origin, U.S. and Puerto Rico

Codes and Frequencies

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Explore how IPUMS created this variable


HISPAN identifies and classifies persons of Hispanic origin in the United States and Puerto Rico.

Comparability — Index

Puerto Rico
United States

Comparability — General

The first digit of HISPAN retains only distinctions common to all years; the second and third digits distinguish additional groups and subgroups. The number of groups identified varies between samples.

For each census, the variable is derived from a question designed specifically to identify Hispanics and classify them according to their background. The question was worded somewhat differently across censuses.

Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]

This variable is available only in the 2000-2020 samples. It is fully comparable across these samples.

Comparability — United States [top]

The 1980 sample has the least detailed subcategories and 1990 has the most. The 1990 sample reports detailed codes for persons of Mexican origin.


  • All persons


  • Puerto Rico: 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020
  • United States: 1850a, 1850b, 1860, 1870, 1880a, 1880b, 1900, 1910, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020