Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
FUELCOOK indicates the predominant type of fuel or energy used for cooking.
Comparability — Index
Comparability — General
The variable is fairly consistent at the first digit, although there are combinations of fuels for some samples that defy categorization even at this major level. As always, the content of the "other" category varies.
There is considerable vagueness about bottled gas versus gas delivered via a utility network. A minority of samples explicitly make this distinction.
Coal and charcoal are not consistently distinguished, and there is some confusion in the terminology between these fuels. Some censuses combine charcoal with coal, and others combine charcoal with wood.
The "petroleum fuels" category is broken down into numerous subcategories, several of which are overlapping or quite similar, and distinctions in some cases may only be terminological.
The "None" category either indicated that no cooking fuel is used, or that no cooking was done in the area enumerated.
For the full details on the contents of the categories in each sample, see the enumeration materials and/or the unharmonized source variables.
Comparability — Argentina [top]
The 1991 sample identifies electricity as a source. The 2001 sample identifies compressed gas -- a category not distinguished in 1991. The literal translation is "gas from tube." It is coded with bottled gas, but can be identified separately using the unharmonized source variable for 2001. The 2010 sample identifies Gas from a tank, a cylinder and a canister. It is coded with bottled gas, but can be identified separately using the unharmonized source variable for 2010.
The 2010 sample does not include collective households. Its universe has been defined as "private dwellings" for consistency with previous samples, but the data does not include observations under the NIU category.
Comparability — Benin [top]
All censuses use the word "gas", which is assumed to be unspecified petroleum gas.
Comparability — Botswana [top]
In the 1981 and 1991 samples "gas" is unspecified. In 2001 and 2011 "gas" is specifically identified as "Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)". The category "diesel" is included in 2011.
Comparability — Brazil [top]
For 1960-1970, households using improvised or portable stoves were classified as using no cooking fuel; for 1980-1991, such households were asked to indicate a fuel type. Additionally, in 1991 households were asked to indicate the type of cooking fuel available to the household, even if the residents currently occupying the housing unit did not cook.
The 1991 sample has a separate category for "bottled gas and wood" and two categories containing wood products, compared to one category in the earlier samples.
Comparability — Cambodia [top]
Samples are fully comparable. In the 2004 sample, the other or none fuel category is classified under "Other".
Comparability — Cameroon [top]
The 1987 sample identifies "wood, charcoal and sawdust" as a source. It is coded with "wood, coal, and other solid fuels" but it could not be identified separately. The 2005 sample identifies "firewood and charcoal" and "sawdust" as a separate categories. The first one is coded with "wood, coal, and other solid fuels" while the second one is coded with "others" given that it is not a solid fuel.
Comparability — Egypt [top]
The census had separate responses for each type of fuel, so there were possible response combinations in the data. The most frequent combinations have their own codes in FUELCOOK, while the less frequent are coded into a residual category. See the unharmonized source variables for the full information.
The question is concerned with energy source of the household. The universe includes all households in 1996, but is limited to private households in 2006. In the 2006 census the category "butane" was replaced by "propane". Both censuses allow responses for multiple fuel sources. Many are coded to the "other combinations" category, the majority of which represent electricity in combination with other fuels.
Comparability — Ethiopia [top]
In the 1994 sample, there are a different set of response categories for urban and rural households. See the unharmonized source variables for more detail.
In the 2007 census, respondents were able to indicate multiple cooking fuels. Households that indicated more than one cooking fuel are included in the multiple fuels category. Specific combinations of fuel can be identified separately using the unharmonized source variable for 2007.
Comparability — Ghana [top]
The data are mostly comparable across samples. In 2000, the non-wood plant material is coconut husks. In 2010, "Other" includes saw dust and crop residue.
Comparability — Greece [top]
The 2011 sample includes biomass as an option for fuel which is classified as "Other combined organic waste materials".
Comparability — Guatemala [top]
In 1964, unknown includes "does not cook".
Comparability — Haiti [top]
In the 2003 census, the question asked for the different fuel sources for cooking. It includes 7 different sources and all their possible combinations. The different combinations are coded under the multiple fuels category, but can be identified separately using the unharmonized source variable for 2003.
Comparability — Honduras [top]
The 1961 sample only has information for households consisting of a head.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
The samples are mostly comparable with the following differences in response categories: the 1971 census combines wood and charcoal, the 2005 sample distinguishes coal from charcoal, and the 2010 census includes a response for no cooking fuel used. All censuses use the word "gas", which is assumed to be unspecified petroleum gas.
Comparability — Israel [top]
The sample has a large number of non-responses.
Comparability — Jamaica [top]
In the 1982 census, the question was asked to all households, but to only private households in the subsequent censuses. In the 1982 census "no fuel" and "other" responses were combined together and are coded into "other" in this variable. In the 2008 sample, wood and charcoal are treated as separate categories. The proportion of non-reponses is significantly higher in the 1982 sample than in the succeeding samples.
Comparability — Kenya [top]
The Kenya 2009 sample includes private households (and refugee camps), while the 1989 includes "not group quarters" and the 1999 sample includes all households.
Comparability — Lesotho [top]
The samples are fully comparable.
Comparability — Liberia [top]
The "electric" category in the 2008 sample refers to cooking using electricity from the household’s personal generator or cooking using electricity from a power company as fuel.
Comparability — Malawi [top]
This variable is only available in the 1998 and 2008 samples. In the 1998 sample, the question was asked of households with multiple dwellings, only information of the first dwelling is coded into this variable. The question did not identify households that had no source of cooking fuel in the 2008 census.
Comparability — Mali [top]
The 1998 and 2009 samples identify electricity and petroleum as sources of fuel not previously identified in the 1987 sample. The 1987 and 2009 samples distinguish firewood from coal while the 1998 sample combines wood and charcoal. The 2009 sample includes "solar oven" as a response category which implies cooking using solar energy as fuel.
Comparability — Mexico [top]
The 1960 Mexican sample is a sample of individuals, not households. Only heads of households have most household-level information.
The "gas" category in 1960-1970 includes a small percentage of households using electricity.
The 2010 sample distinguishes between gas from piping/distributed natural gas, and that from a stationary source (e.g. tank). The "other" category in this census also includes those who do not cook in the dwelling.
The 2015 sample includes an option for households not cooking in the dwelling. Samples before 2010 do not have specific instructions for these cases.
Comparability — Morocco [top]
The 2014 census asked responses for five separate fuel categories that indicate whether a specific fuel was used often, sometimes, or never. In FUELCOOK, if a single fuel is said to be used often (while others are used sometimes or never), then that is considered as the primary source. If multiple fuels are used with similar frequency, then those households are classified as using "other combinations." These criteria are consistent with the concept of "predominant" fuel used in FUELCOOK. The unharmonized source variables preserve all these details.
Comparability — Nigeria [top]
The 2010 source variable differentiates between collected and purchased firewood as a source of fuel; both types of firewood were categorized under "wood" fuels.
Comparability — Palestine [top]
The universe differs across samples. In both samples, the distinction is between gas and other sources of energy.
Comparability — Paraguay [top]
In 2002, Kerosene was not included as a response category.
Comparability — Puerto Rico [top]
The 1970 and 1980 samples distinguish piped gas form other gas delivery means, but 1990 does not make this or many other distinctions.
Comparability — Saint Lucia [top]
The identified fuels differ between samples.
Comparability — South Africa [top]
The response categories are fairly consistent over time. The 1996 census distinguishes between electricity direct from municipality, and electricity from another source. The 2016 sample distinguishes between electricity from mains and other sources of electricity in the corresponding unharmonized source variable. The 2011 censes includes a category for households that do not cook.
The universe includes all households in 2001, but is limited to private households in 1996 and 2007. In 2011, the universe includes only private households residing in conventional housing units or converted hostels. Private households who spent census night in a hotel, or other collective dwelling or institution or that were in transit on census night are excluded from the universe. The 2016 sample includes all households.
Comparability — Tanzania [top]
In the 2012 sample, the options "Generators or private sources" and "electricity from wind" are classified as electricity.
Comparability — Thailand [top]
In all samples the question is asked only to private households. The universe is additionally restrictive in 1970 and 1990. In the 1970 sample, urban and sampled rural private households were asked the question, while in 1990 only private households with a kitchen were asked the question.
The 1980 census invited multiple responses while indicating which was the primary fuel. FUELCOOK indicates the primary source, but the various combinations are preserved in the unharmonized source variable.
Comparability — Trinidad and Tobago [top]
The 2000 and 2011 samples include the options for liquefied petroleum gas or cooking gas, as well as "none".
Comparability — Uganda [top]
In 2014, more detailed categories for households using electricity are preserved in the unharmonized source variables
Comparability — United States [top]
Those who had no cooking equipment or ate meals elsewhere were to be classified as using no cooking fuel.
Comparability — Uruguay [top]
The 1975 census does not distinguish between piped gas and liquefied petroleum gas as other samples do. The 2006 sample retains detail on whether the electricity was from the public utility or from a generator in the unharmonized source variable. The 2011 sample includes "super gas" as a response category, which is a form of biogas technology (fuel derived from plants or plant materials).
Comparability — Vietnam [top]
The question was only asked in the 2009 census.
Comparability — Zambia [top]
The 2010 Zambia enumeration instructions indicate that candles should not be considered a source of energy for cooking. Nonetheless, they are indicated in the source and integrated variable.
- Argentina 1991: Private dwellings
- Argentina 2001: Non-collective dwellings and not homeless
- Argentina 2010: Private dwellings
- Armenia 2001: All households
- Benin 1992: Private households
- Benin 2002: All households
- Benin 2013: All households
- Bolivia 1992: Private households
- Bolivia 2001: Private households
- Bolivia 2012: Private households
- Botswana 1981: Private households
- Botswana 1991: Private households
- Botswana 2001: Private households
- Botswana 2011: Private households
- Brazil 1960: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Brazil 1970: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Brazil 1980: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Brazil 1991: Not group quarters or improvised dwellings
- Burkina Faso 1996: All households
- Burkina Faso 2006: All households
- Cambodia 1998: Regular households
- Cambodia 2004: All households
- Cambodia 2008: Regular households
- Cambodia 2013: All households
- Cameroon 1987: Private households
- Cameroon 2005: Private households
- Colombia 1985: Occupied (not vacant) households with cooking facilities
- Colombia 1993: Occupied (not vacant) households with cooking facilities
- Colombia 2005: Households who prepared food in the dwelling
- Costa Rica 2011: Private dwellings
- Cuba 2012: Private households
- Dominican Republic 1981: Primary household in occupied dwellings
- Dominican Republic 2002: Private occupied designated households
- Dominican Republic 2010: Private, occupied dwellings
- Ecuador 2010: Private households
- Egypt 1996: All households
- Egypt 2006: Private households
- El Salvador 1992: Occupied private dwellings
- El Salvador 2007: Occupied private dwellings with people present
- Ethiopia 1984: Urban households
- Ethiopia 1994: Households with information collected
- Ethiopia 2007: Households that responded to the long form
- Fiji 1986: All households
- Fiji 1996: All households
- Fiji 2007: All households
- Fiji 2014: All households
- Ghana 2000: Occupied private households
- Ghana 2010: Occupied private households
- Greece 2011: All households
- Guatemala 1964: All households
- Guatemala 1981: Private occupied households
- Guatemala 1994: Private occupied households
- Guatemala 2002: Private occupied households
- Guinea 1996: Non-collective dwellings
- Haiti 2003: Occupied private households
- Honduras 1961: Households consisting of a head
- Honduras 1988: Private households
- Honduras 2001: Private households
- Indonesia 1971: All households
- Indonesia 1980: All households
- Indonesia 1985: All households
- Indonesia 1990: All households
- Indonesia 1995: All households
- Indonesia 2005: All households
- Indonesia 2010: Households in regular enumeration areas
- Iran 2006: All households
- Israel 1972: Non-Jewish households
- Jamaica 1982: All households
- Jamaica 1991: Private households
- Jamaica 2001: Private households
- Kenya 1989: Not group quarters
- Kenya 1999: All households
- Kenya 2009: Conventional households or refugee camps
- Laos 2005: Private households
- Lesotho 1996: All households
- Lesotho 2006: All households
- Liberia 2008: All households
- Malawi 1998: Private households
- Malawi 2008: Private households
- Malaysia 1970: All households
- Mali 1987: All households
- Mali 1998: All households
- Mali 2009: All households
- Mexico 1960: Only households consisting of a head
- Mexico 1970: All households
- Mexico 1990: Dwellings except shelters
- Mexico 1995: All households
- Mexico 2000: All households
- Mexico 2010: Dwellings built for habitation
- Mexico 2015: Dwellings built for habitation with kitchen or place for cooking
- Morocco 2014: All households
- Myanmar 2014: Conventional households
- Nepal 2001: All households
- Nepal 2011: All households
- Nicaragua 1971: Private occupied households
- Nicaragua 2005: Private households with inhabitants present or hotels, boarding houses and guest houses
- Nigeria 2006: All households
- Nigeria 2007: All households
- Nigeria 2008: All households
- Nigeria 2009: All households
- Nigeria 2010: All households
- Pakistan 1998: All households
- Palestine 1997: All households
- Palestine 2007: All households except Jerusalem annexed by Israel in 1967
- Panama 1980: Occupied private dwellings
- Panama 1990: Occupied private dwellings
- Panama 2000: Occupied private dwellings
- Panama 2010: Occupied private dwellings
- Papua New Guinea 1990: Urban households
- Paraguay 1992: Private occupied households
- Paraguay 2002: Private or multi-household dwellings
- Peru 2007: Occupied private dwellings
- Philippines 1990: All households
- Philippines 2000: All households
- Philippines 2010: All households
- Puerto Rico 1970: Occupied private dwellings
- Puerto Rico 1980: Occupied private dwellings
- Puerto Rico 1990: Occupied private dwellings
- Romania 2002: All households
- Romania 2011: All households
- Rwanda 1991: All households
- Rwanda 2002: Private households
- Rwanda 2012: All households
- Saint Lucia 1980: All households
- Saint Lucia 1991: All households
- Senegal 2002: All households
- Senegal 2013: Ordinary households
- Sierra Leone 2004: All households
- South Africa 1996: Non-institutional households
- South Africa 2001: Non-homeless households
- South Africa 2007: Non-institutional households
- South Africa 2011: Households in housing units or converted hostels
- South Africa 2016: All households
- South Sudan 2008: All households
- Sudan 2008: All households
- Suriname 2012: All households
- Tanzania 2002: Private households
- Tanzania 2012: All households
- Thailand 1970: Urban and sampled rural private non-mobile households
- Thailand 1980: Private households
- Thailand 1990: Private households with a kitchen
- Thailand 2000: Private households
- Togo 2010: All households
- Trinidad and Tobago 1970: All households
- Trinidad and Tobago 2000: Households that completed interview
- Trinidad and Tobago 2011: Private occupied households
- Uganda 1991: Not institutions
- Uganda 2002: Private households
- Uganda 2014: All households
- United States 1980: Not group quarters, not vacant units
- Uruguay 1975: Occupied households
- Uruguay 1985: Occupied private households with people present
- Uruguay 1996: Occupied private households
- Uruguay 2006: All households
- Uruguay 2011: Occupied private households
- Venezuela 2001: Permanently occupied private dwellings
- Vietnam 2009: All households
- Zambia 1990: Occupied residential households
- Zambia 2000: All households
- Zambia 2010: All households
- Zimbabwe 2012: Private households
- Argentina: 1991, 2001, 2010
- Armenia: 2001
- Benin: 1992, 2002, 2013
- Bolivia: 1992, 2001, 2012
- Botswana: 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011
- Brazil: 1960, 1970, 1980, 1991
- Burkina Faso: 1996, 2006
- Cambodia: 1998, 2004, 2008, 2013
- Cameroon: 1987, 2005
- Colombia: 1985, 1993, 2005
- Costa Rica: 2011
- Cuba: 2012
- Dominican Republic: 1981, 2002, 2010
- Ecuador: 2010
- Egypt: 1996, 2006
- El Salvador: 1992, 2007
- Ethiopia: 1984, 1994, 2007
- Fiji: 1986, 1996, 2007, 2014
- Ghana: 2000, 2010
- Greece: 2011
- Guatemala: 1964, 1981, 1994, 2002
- Guinea: 1996
- Haiti: 2003
- Honduras: 1961, 1988, 2001
- Indonesia: 1971, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2010
- Iran: 2006
- Israel: 1972
- Jamaica: 1982, 1991, 2001
- Kenya: 1989, 1999, 2009
- Laos: 2005
- Lesotho: 1996, 2006
- Liberia: 2008
- Malawi: 1998, 2008
- Malaysia: 1970
- Mali: 1987, 1998, 2009
- Mexico: 1960, 1970, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2015
- Morocco: 2014
- Myanmar: 2014
- Nepal: 2001, 2011
- Nicaragua: 1971, 2005
- Nigeria: 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
- Pakistan: 1998
- Palestine: 1997, 2007
- Panama: 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
- Papua New Guinea: 1990
- Paraguay: 1992, 2002
- Peru: 2007
- Philippines: 1990, 2000, 2010
- Puerto Rico: 1970, 1980, 1990
- Romania: 2002, 2011
- Rwanda: 1991, 2002, 2012
- Saint Lucia: 1980, 1991
- Senegal: 2002, 2013
- Sierra Leone: 2004
- South Africa: 1996, 2001, 2007, 2011, 2016
- South Sudan: 2008
- Sudan: 2008
- Suriname: 2012
- Tanzania: 2002, 2012
- Thailand: 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
- Togo: 2010
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1970, 2000, 2011
- Uganda: 1991, 2002, 2014
- United States: 1980
- Uruguay: 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006, 2011
- Venezuela: 2001
- Vietnam: 2009
- Zambia: 1990, 2000, 2010
- Zimbabwe: 2012