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Ethnicity, Malaysia

Codes and Frequencies

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ETHNICMY reports the ethnic group, community, or dialect group to which the person reported they belonged.

Comparability — General

The variable differs greatly across samples. All persons answered the question in 1970-1980, and many categories are identified. Only Malaysian citizens were asked the question in 1991-2000, and only a few categories are identified. The 1991-2000 censuses also identify a cross-cultural group, Bumiputera ("sons of the soil").


  • Malaysia 1970: All persons
  • Malaysia 1980: All persons
  • Malaysia 1991: Citizens
  • Malaysia 2000: Citizens


  • Malaysia: 1970, 1980, 1991, 2000