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Codes and Frequencies

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ETHNICCA reports the ethnic or cultural group to which the person belongs.

Comparability — General

Every census asked for the group of the person's ancestors when they came to the continent. The 1970 census specified the person's father's line. The other samples report multiple origins.

The identified categories differ across years. The 2001 sample has a category for "Canadian" with a large number of responses. That category is not available in 1971 and 1981 samples.


  • Canada 1971: All persons
  • Canada 1981: All persons, excluding inmates
  • Canada 1991: All persons
  • Canada 2001: All persons


  • Canada: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001