Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
EDUCRU indicates the person's educational attainment in Russia in terms of the level of schooling completed.
Comparability — General
The 2002 and 2010 samples indicate the level of schooling completed, but not the number of years or grades.
The education system in Russia follows a 4-5-2 structure. Primary education comprises four grades (1st to 4th), and it begins at the age of 6 or 7 years. Secondary school includes general basic (lower, grades 5th to 9th) and general secondary (upper, grades 10th and 11th).
After finishing basic secondary, students can start general secondary (general track) or can enter into the vocational field. Basic vocational is the first level of vocational education, and its duration depends on the program type.
Upon completion of general secondary or at least three years of basic vocational education, students can enter in a post-secondary vocational training (with a duration of one year or more), or can take entrance exams to access to university (bachelor's and specialist's) or non-university programs. The minimum requirement to obtain the diploma of incomplete basic higher education is two years of study. Graduates from bachelor degrees can continue in a master's program or enter a program that leads to the award of a specialist's diploma or degree (which gives access to doctoral degrees). Bachelor degrees have a duration of at least four years, master's programs at least two years, and specialist's diplomas at least five years.
- Russia 2002: Persons age 10+
- Russia 2010: Persons age 10+
- Russia: 2002, 2010