Codes and Frequencies
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
EDUCRO indicates the person's educational attainment in Romania in terms of the level of schooling completed.
Comparability — General
Romania has a 4-4-4 or a 4-5-4 system. Primary education has 4 years. Lower secondary was expanded from 4 to 5 years in 1999 (grades 5-9). Upper secondary lasts 3 to 4 years (grades 10-12/13) and it has academic, vocational, and technical tracks.
Post-secondary education programs last 1 to 3 years and provide technical and vocational training, leading to a certificate of qualification in a specialization area. Students can also access higher education through an entrance examination, which includes bachelor, master, and doctoral programs. The higher education level underwent a reform after 2004, in order to adapt to the Bologna process.
Romania does not report individual years of schooling, but levels of education attained. The data are comparable overall, but the 2011 sample provides relatively less detail than previous years.
Literacy courses are not separately identified in 1977. Special education in lower secondary is identified in 1977-2002, but only the 2002 sample distinguishes primary special education. In 2011, the upper secondary category includes academic secondary, vocational secondary, and technical apprenticeship secondary.
Short term (associate's) degrees are only identified in 2002 and 2011. It is unclear from the 1977 and 1992 instructions where these degrees would have been recorded.
Post-graduate university education is not identified in any sample.
- Romania 1977: Persons age 10+
- Romania 1992: Persons age 10+
- Romania 2002: Persons age 10+
- Romania 2011: Persons age 10+
- Romania: 1977, 1992, 2002, 2011