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Educational attainment, India

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EDUCIN indicates the person's educational attainment in India in terms of the level of schooling completed.

Comparability — General

The educational attainment question in India was asked of all persons in every sample and is highly comparable across them. The question does not identify years of schooling, only the highest level of education completed.

Persons who did not complete primary school are divided into literate and illiterate. The 1993 and later samples provide detailed information on how literacy was acquired. That data is retained in the unharmonized source variables for those samples.

Primary is equivalent to 5 years of schooling, middle is equivalent to 8 years, and secondary is equivalent to 10 years. Higher secondary includes those who completed eleventh and twelfth classes, and constitutes a university preparatory system, rather than a part of secondary education; this category is classified as post-secondary non-tertiary education. This level is only identified in 1993 and later samples.

The type of degree within higher education (agriculture, engineering, medicine, and other) is recorded in the data, but is not shown in this variable.


  • India 1983: All persons
  • India 1987: All persons
  • India 1993: All persons
  • India 1999: All persons
  • India 2004: All persons
  • India 2009: All persons


  • India: 1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009