Questionnaire Text

Hungary 1970
Hungary 1980
Hungary 1990
Hungary 2001
Hungary 2011
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Hungary 1970 — source variable HU1970A_0419 — Educational attainment
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12. Educational qualification / completed grades

[] Grades of primary school
[] Grades of higher elementary school
[] Grades of secondary school
[] Years of a school of third degree [tertiary]
[] Never went to school

15. Do you have a certificate of an apprentice school?
[] Yes
[] No

[Question a-b are asked of those who answered Yes]

a. When did you obtain your qualification?

In year 1 _ _ _

b. How long did it take to obtain your qualification?

For _ years _ _ months
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

Filling in part "II. Data on education of the enumerated person"


The questions related to the education should be filled in only in case the enumerated person was born in 1963 or earlier. That is in case of the children born between 1964 -1969 this part as well as part III of the questionnaire will be empty.
First question of part II collects information on the regular school attendance of the enumerated person. A regular school i.e. educational institution is

In the primary education: the general school;
In the secondary level: the grammar school,

The (so called) technical school,
The specialized secondary school;

On the higher level: the university,

The academy,
The technical school of a higher level,
The teachers training college
Training college for kindergarten teachers.

Questions 12-14 refer to the training completed in regular educational institutions. A supplementary instruction is issued to define the education obtained regarding the persons having completed studies in educational institutions already not existing.

12. Not studied in a school

In case the enumerated person did not attend the school or is studying in the first grade of the primary education, the answer is "without attending the school" and the printed boxes remain empty.

Number of levels (classes) completed
In the case of persons either conducting regular studies in an educational institution or having finished his/her studies, the number of the highest grade completed should be entered with Arabic numerals into the empty boxes. The numbering of the grades should start with the first grade of the primary school and it should continuously follow up to the last grade completed by the respective person (e. g. in case a person has a final certificate issued by a secondary educational institution or a diploma of a university the total number of grades completed will be recorded).

Only the classes (grades) completed successfully -- that is the completed grade confirmed by a certificate - should be taken into account. In case a person is visiting the 4th grade of the primary school only the 3d grade can be marked as completed. Repeated and post-graduate classes must not be considered. The evening and correspondence courses are treated equally with the daily courses.

[p.19]

Due to the past changes in the educational system the individuals have had different ways in obtaining the highest grade of their education. By taking into consideration the previous statement the enumerator should note (record) the facts according to the contemporary educational system.

Examples for recording the answers to question 12:
General (primary) school 4 4 8 8
Higher elementary school 4 0 0 8
Secondary school 0 8 4 4
Institution of higher education 0 0 0 5
Generally a higher level of the education is possible only after the successful completion of the lower level studies. Nevertheless there are persons who obtained the certificate on the specialized matriculation exam or the diploma of a university without completing the secondary school. These extraordinary cases occurred only in the course of some selected years only.

The courses completed in technical institutes, on technical courses must not be considered. These (e.g. courses for stenographers, typists, medical courses, apprentice schools, etc.) are not regarded as training in regular educational establishments. The specialised secondary school -- being a regular educational institution -- must not be mistaken with the apprentice school (e.g. there is a difference between medical training college and the medical secondary education).

Attention should be given to the fact that in the training of the teachers, kindergarten teachers as well as the technicians there was in the past (and as regards the latter category it is even presently) both secondary and high level education. In these categories completed, high level education can be registered if the given person obtained a final certificate (qualification document).

The schools for backward children (schools for tongue-tacked, deaf and dumb persons, blinds, the persons deficient in body, the mentally back warded persons) should be regarded as the schools in general.

Higher elementary school
Some people unduly regard the higher elementary school as a secondary school. Therefore the enumerator should whether the given person visited an ordinary or a higher elementary school. To register the higher elementary school is possible only if persons completing their studies before 1948. The number of grades/classes noted should be between 1 and 4.

Institution of higher education
One-year colleges (e.g. commercial college) are regarded as training courses consequently the completed years do not mean completed secondary or higher level education.
13. Does the person have a certificate from a secondary school
In the case of persons having certificates issued by two secondary educational institutions, only one certificate will be recorded, that is the which is more close to the person's job, work performance.
14. Person completed secondary education
In the case of persons having obtained a diploma, the final certificate should not be underlined -- that is in case the answer "the person has only a final certificate" is underlined, then the answer "diploma obtained" must not be marked. The final certificates issued by theological and military colleges are regarded as diplomas.

The answers "diploma obtained ", "the person has only a final certificate" will be marked only in case if the given person completed at least 2 years on the given higher educational institution, that is the line "higher educational institution" of question 12 at least 2 years are marked.

In the case of persons who obtained several diplomas, only one must be noted -- the one which is closer to his/her profession, job performance.

In case the persons visited or visiting the university but no diploma had been obtained (yet), the answer "no" will be underlined and the remaining part of the sub questions will not be answered.

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Hungary 1980 — source variable HU1980A_0416 — Highest educational attainment
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11. Educational level

Only for those born before 1973.

a) Type of school
[] Primary school
[] Higher primary school
[] Apprentice school
[] Vocational school
[] Secondary school
[] Third-level school
b) Class (year) completed ____

c) School completed ____
[] 19 _ _ 0 Skilled worker's certificate
[] 19 _ _ 1 Vocational school diploma
[] 19 _ _ 2, 3 Secondary school-leaving certificate qualifying certificate
[] 19 _ _ 4-9 Diploma, leaving certificate
d) Year of obtaining the certificate 19 _ _
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

11. Educational attainment

The number of the completed grade in each of the types of schools listed in sub-question 11/a will be entered into the quads in sub-question 11/b and the qualification obtained will be underlined at sub-question 11/c. The educational attainment should be enumerated according to the prevailing educational system.

Qualifications obtained at specialized courses must not be entered. The former statement does not valid in cases of specialized courses if the respective legislation is specifying that by taking some state exams the given qualification will be equivalent with a completed secondary or higher education. To accept i.e. to enter the answer to questions 11 and 12 is possible only if all the required exams had been taken by the respondent.

11/b Class (grade) completed

The completed grade is the one which might be confirmed by a certificate. In case the respondent had visited several schools of the same type the classes completed must not be summarized but the highest grade completed should be marked. In case a person born before 1973 did not attend school or at the reference date of the census is at the first grade of the primary school "0" will be entered into the quad at inscription "general, primary" and the other quads remain empty. In each of the cases after the last completed year "0" is entered and the following quads remain blank.

Schools for mentally defective persons are treated as general (primary) schools.


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Hungary 1990 — source variable HU1990A_0422 — Highest educational attainment
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13. Education level:
If you completed any of the 1-4 forms of the grammar school or 8 forms before 1950, enter it to the number of forms of higher elementary school. Several replies may be given.

[] Attended no school
[] Form(s) of primary (elementary) school [specify number of forms]: ____
[] Form(s) of higher elementary school [specify number of forms]: ____
[] Certificate of skilled worker got at the day section of an apprentice school in the year 19 _ _
[] Certificate at the day section of a vocational school in the year 19 _ _
[] Secondary school leaving certificate, certificate of qualification
[] Certificate of higher school of non-university level
[] University certificate, diploma

Question 13.

For each person the highest grade reached in the primary (general) school and in the higher elementary school, respectively, should be registered. Further on, only those completed qualifications can be indicated which were obtained within the formal education system. Completed educational attainments are the following:
  • A certificate obtained upon the conclusion of full-time studies in an apprentice school,
  • A certificate obtained upon the conclusion of full-time studies in a vocational school,
  • The secondary school final exam certificate obtained in a grammar school or other secondary school; furthermore, the secondary school leaving certificates which were issued between 1974 and 1986,
  • A diploma or certificate obtained at a university, college or other third-level educational institution.
The following cannot be taken into consideration: qualifications given after a training-course, certificate of apprentice or vocational school obtained within the frame of adult education, specializations obtained at a third-level educational institutions after graduation (specializations in medicine, engineering, law etc.).

Certificates obtained in the Marxism-Leninism evening school can only be accepted in cases when the certificate is about specialization (equivalent to the diploma of non-university third-level education) and issued between 1958-1982.
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

13. Educational attainment

The aim of the interrogation is to acquire information on the level of schooling of the population. Therefore the types of schools and the classes, grades completed and the qualifications obtained in other types of schools not listed in the questionnaire must not be recorded. The answer "without completed school (00)" is marked for persons who did not even complete the general (primary) school, irrespective of their illiteracy.

The highest education i.e. the highest grade completed (also in case of the students) in the general (primary) school must be registered in the respective boxes, while the other institutions of the official school system the marking is necessary if the person has completed studies.

The completed studies abroad should be classified according to the Hungarian system, qualifications obtainable.

The different types of schools are the following
[Comment of the translator: quite many of the school types refer to educational systems that no longer apply. The names of the institutions might seem not familiar for the experts in the (traditional) classification of the educational institutions]:

The general (primary) school includes -- with the exemption of schools for extensive training -- each educational institution of elementary training, popular school, schools for back warded pupils and the so called "civilian school", as well as the first four years of the grammar school of 8 grades.

[p. 11]

The boxes at the "civilian school" can be used only if persons born before 1935.

The educational attainment, i.e. the grades completed must not be converted into the present educational system, e.g. in case a persons completed the 4th class of the "civilian school" "4" should be marked in the respective box.

While answering the further questions only the completed studies will be marked. The following items are regarded as completed studies:

-- Certificate of profession obtained on the day course of the school for training skilled laborers (former apprentice schools);

-- The certificate of profession obtained on the day course of the former course as well as the examinations on professional qualification;

-- The General Certificate of Education obtained in a grammar school or other secondary school as well as the final certificate on completion of the secondary school in the years from 1974 to 1986;

-- The certificate, diploma obtained by completing the studies in a university or other higher educational institution.

The manual further gives a detailed list on the educational institutions of secondary and high level education, the translation of the individual items seems not necessary.

The following qualifications must not taken into account even in case those have been obtained in an educational institution of the regular school system: certificates obtained in course raining, certificate of profession obtained within the adult training, certificate on completing the grades of higher educational institutions, special exams passed in postgraduate training (e.g. specialized physician, specialized engineer, judge, etc.).


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Hungary 2001 — source variable HU2001A_0416 — Highest education level completed
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12.1 School attendance, qualification
[] 1 Nursery school, kindergarten (Skip to 13)
[] 0 Do not attend school, never completed any class (Skip to 13)


Type of education
Elementary school

Being attended _ _
Completed _ _

Higher elementary school

Completed _

Apprentice school

Completed _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Typist and stenographic, health and housekeeping

Completed _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Class other specialized secondary school _ _

Being attended _ _
Completed _ _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Basic level vocational training

Being attended _
Completed _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Class grammar school _ _

Being attended _ _
Completed _ _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Class other secondary school _

Being attended _ _
Completed _ _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Class other technical school _

Being attended _ _
Completed _ _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Bilingual _ class (specialized) secondary school

[] 1 Being attended
[] 1 Completed
Year of completion _ _ _ _

Secondary level vocational training

Being attended _
Completed _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

High level, accredited vocational training

Being attended _
Completed _
Year of completion _ _ _ _

High school

Being attended _
Completed _

Post-graduation in high school

Being attended _
Completed _

University

Being attended _
Completed _

Post-graduation in university (PhD, DLA)

Being attended _
Completed _


12.1--12.6. All educational qualifications have to be taken into account. It is not enough if you give the highest level one only. You must not write in courses. You must not make difference between qualifications obtained via regular or non-regular form of education (evening or mail course, distance teaching, private).


12.1 The number of classes (years) must not be converted into the current education system. Currently someone goes to school if he/she is enrolled for the 2000/2001 school year in one of the listed types of school.

Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image


Question 12.1: School attendance, qualification

The question will be answered by taking into account the number of grades (classes) of the studies, attainment in the frame of the school system. The question -- irrespective of the age of the persons -- must be answered by everybody. The different courses, qualifications obtained outside the school system will not be taken into account.

If the person in question is attending the day nursery -- irrespective of the level of the day nursery attended -- the interrogation will commence with question 13. The schools for handicapped children in some cases introduce a preparatory training for the children under school-age. The children participating in that so called pre-school education should be regarded as attending the day nursery.

The answer is "does not attend the school not even one grade completed" is marked in cases of persons who had not complete even one grade of the primary (elementary) school and who do not attend any educational institution, irrespective of their literacy. In case of the latter persons, the interrogation should be continued with question 13.

That is: if a person is simultaneously attending several educational institutions or has several final educations at different levels, the answer should be given to the respective questions in the appropriate line.

The questions should be asked from every persons either attending or completed any school in the sequence as printed on the questionnaire:
In cases of persons attending an educational institution the number of the grade he/she was enrolled for the school-year 2000/2001 further.

In cases of every person the highest grade of education completed as well as
The calendar year of completing the highest grade of the given type of school.

Consequently the corresponding table contains four columns:

The former educational institutions' grades must not be converted into the grades of the contemporary educational system. Similarly it is not allowed the conversion of the grades between the day-courses and evening, correspondence, etc. courses of the different educational institutions. The marking of the highest grade completed should follow the prevailing educational system. The present educational system allots an ascending number to the grades of the schooling as from the first class till the last grade (class) of the secondary education. Taking into account that the proper knowledge of the system (especially among the elderly people) is not well known e.g. instead of marking the 11th grade of the education also the 3d grade of the secondary school is acceptable.

It is possible that an enumerated person completed his studies in a given type of education and currently is attending a school of the same type of the educational system (e.g. the person is studying for getting his second general education with profession, or even if graduate of a university he/she is conducting studies at an other university). In this case:

In case a person completed two educational institutions of the same type (e.g. the person completed formerly two universities or two professional schools), the completion of the columns should refer to the institution having had higher number of grades.

In case the enumerated person is visiting (or completed) a bilingual secondary school, the number of grades should be entered into the line corresponding to the type of school. In the past the bilingual secondary schools commenced with ("0" grade) preparatory classes; this should be marked in the respective line.

The preparatory grades ("0" semesters) of the universities, in the higher educational institutions are not part of the educational system; consequently those must not be marked on the questionnaire.

In the educational system the professional training, education might be obtained on base-, medium- and high level. The former apprentice schools do not exists anymore. In the contemporary educational system the educational institutions of professional training (specialized secondary schools, professional schools, etc.) denote the grades with two numbers separated by "/". The first number is for the grade of the professional while the second number for the grade of the general training, education. In these cases the enumerator should ask the person in question whether
What is the level (base-, medium- or higher) of the professional education,
As regards the professional education what is the grade currently visited and completed respectively and
What is the grade currently attended and completed in the general education.

E.g.: If the enumerated person answers that he is visiting the 1/11th grade of the professional secondary school, he is studying in the first grade (marked with "1") of the base professional education and in the 11th grade of the general education, meaning the latter number will be marked in the boxes showing the educational grade.

The first grade of the professional training not requiring any previous education (e.g. florist) is marked as 1/8. In this case the number '"1" marks the base professional education, while number "8" should be entered into the respective boxes at the general primary school.

Professional training lasting for less than a year corresponds to one grade of training.

Some of the secondary schools (anew) are using the denomination "technical school" in its name because it assures a training of medium level technical training or high level training of engineer assistants. The given educational establishments must not be regarded as equal to the former secondary institutions ensuring general certificate of education with secondary professional training as technician and with those which produced technicians of a high level. These establishments should be regarded as specialized schools, specialized secondary schools.

In case of higher educational institutions, universities where the passing of an exam depends on collecting the so called credit points the attendance and completion of the studies should be defined according to the credits collected

In case the person enumerated visited several educational establishment of the same type, the grades completed must not be sum up but the highest grade completed should be marked.
The classes of the extension courses completed before 1960 must not be added to the number of grades completed in the primary education.
Educational attainment acquired abroad should be classified according to the Hungarian educational system.


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Hungary 2011 — source variable HU2011A_0414 — Highest educational attainment completed in the school system
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Personal questionnaire

II. Education attainment
Take into account studies and qualifications only in formal education.

[Question were of all persons]
19. What is your highest completed level of education?

[] 1 Lower than eight grade in primary (general higher general) school [Skip to question 21]
[] 2 Eight grade in primary (general, higher general) school [Skip to question 21]
[] 3 Certificate of apprentice school education
[] 4 Certificate of vocational school education
[] 5 General certificate of education without qualifications
[] 6 General certificate of education with qualifications school- leaving certificate
[] 7 Certificate of vocational programs built on general certificate of education
[] 8 Certificated of higher (also accredited) vocational programs (granted only after 1998)
[] 9 College (or equivalent e.g. BA/BSc) diploma
[] 10 University (or equivalent e.g. MA/MSc) diploma
[] 11 PhD or DLA degree
Questionnaire instructions view entire document:  text  image

II. Educational attainment

Studies and qualifications obtained in formal education have to be taken into account in questions 17.1.--20

Persons in formal education are in legal status with the school as pupils or students. Questions regarding school attendance must be answered only in case the respondent is in legal status with the school as pupil or student (question 17.1 must be answered also in case of attending infant nursery or kindergarten), completed educational attainment must be taken into account only if it had been obtained in formal education. Persons attending schools outside formal education (e.g. trainings) are not in legal status with the school, so these studies and certificates must not be counted.

19. What is your highest completed level of education?
The order of the pre-printed answers defines the possible educational levels: the first is the lowest and the last is the highest educational level. The only one answer has to be marked which relates to the person.

The highest educational attainment relates to the schools completed only in the educational system.

Qualifications obtained in courses and vocational training or apprentice school certificates obtained during part-time education must not be taken into account. These qualifications are not part of the educational system.

If the person got a university or colleague degree but did not get final exam, it is not meant to be education completed, so this should not be taken into account when defining the highest educational level.

Qualifications attained abroad have to be classified according to the Hungarian school system levels.

Not even the first grade of general (primary) school completed is the education of those having completed 1--7th years of general (primary) school, 1--3rd years in civil school, 1st year in 6 grades secondary school and 1-3rd years in 8 grades secondary school. Moreover include those who not even attend one grade of any school.

General (primary) school is the education of those having completed the 8th grade of general (primary) school, 4-6th years of the civil school and do not have higher education or attended some years in secondary level of education but did not get either vocational exam or final examination.

Secondary level without final examination, with final vocational exam is the education of those having attained certificate of profession in vocational training school or certificate of profession in apprentice school. Defining the highest educational attainment from the earlier vocational training schools only those are included in this category which had been completed in 1961 or later, and from the sanitary apprentice schools or typing schools only those which had been completed in 1976 or later all attended in full-time.

Secondary level with final examination is the education of those having secondary level with final examinations either general or with vocational and of those who completed some grades in university or college etc. but did not get any diploma, certification. Secondary level with final examination educational attainment comprises of the following groups:

General certificate of education is the highest educational attainment of those who got general certificate of education in secondary general school or secondary vocational school and do not have a vocational exam based on the general certification or higher education. This group includes also those persons who got final secondary examination between 1974 and 1986.

General certificate of education with qualifications is the highest educational attainment of those who got their general certificate with qualifications in secondary vocational school, technical school, upper-commercial school, secondary level teacher and kindergarten teacher institution and do not have higher education completed. This group includes also those persons who completed a vocational final exam between 1949 and 1955.

Certificate of vocational programs is the highest educational attainment of those who got general certificate in secondary vocational school between 1985 and 2002 and after the general certificate they got technical certificate in 1-3 grades and those who got secondary or higher level vocational certification listed in the National Vocational Register (OKJ) in secondary vocational school after doing general certificate and do not have higher education completed. This group includes also those persons who got general certificate of education in secondary vocational school for apprentice school for skilled workman.

Certificate of higher vocational programs is the highest educational attainment of those who got higher vocational certification in secondary vocational school or tertiary educational institution after 1998 and do not have college or university diploma.

University, college, etc. with degree is the education of those having a college (or equivalent, e.g. BA/BSc) degree or a university (or equivalent, e.g. MA/Msc) degree, or completed supplementary university courses (PhD or DLA).

College diploma (or equivalent, e.g. BA/BSc) is the highest educational attainment of those who got diploma in college, tertiary level technical school, tertiary level vocational school, tertiary level kindergarten teacher or teacher institution etc. This group includes also those persons who got BA, BSc degree in tertiary educational system in basic training.

University diploma (or equivalent, e.g. MA, MSc) is the highest educational attainment of those who got certificate or diploma in university, equivalent level tertiary level institution in basic or supplementary training and in professional further training. This group includes also those persons who got master degree (MA MSc) in the current tertiary educational system in master training or unified training.

PhD or DLA degree is the highest educational attainment of those who got doctoral scientific degree achieved in doctoral regulations. Defining the highest educational attainment only those scientific doctoral degrees are included in this category which had been attained in 1991 or after. Those who got doctoral name together with the university diploma (lawyer, doctor, dentist, chemist, or veterinarian) do not belong to this group.