Codes and Frequencies
Explore how IPUMS created this variable
Most IPUMS data transformations are performed using variable harmonization tables that specify how each value in the source data is recoded. Some variables also require programming logic in addition to the harmonization table. The harmonization documents for this variable are:
- Harmonization table
- No supplemental programming
- Instructions for interpreting harmonization documents
EDUCAT indicates the highest educational level in Austria that the person completed.
Comparability — General
The variable is largely comparable across samples. Tertiary education is the least comparable of the categories, as groupings differ among samples. The education question seeks to ascertain the level of secondary or post-secondary education.
The universe is age 15 and older for all samples except 2001, when it is age 10 and older.
Secondary education is divided into the following categories:
2. Four types of higher secondary education:
b. Higher technical and vocational secondary school: starting at the age of 14 (9th grade), lasts 5 years; high-level vocational education and graduation with a university entrance diploma.
c. Intermediate technical and vocational school: starting at the age of 14 (9th grade), different types from two to four years.
d. Apprenticeship: Vocational training combining training at the job and school (starting at the age of 15, lasts 3 to 4 years).
There are three types of post-secondary education: technical or vocational courses, academic intermediate degrees, and university or college degrees. The 1971 and 1981 censuses do not distinguish between the non-academic types of education.
For 1971-2001, all compulsory schooling through 9 years of education is grouped into a single category.
In 2011, educational attainment is derived from the highest level completed based on International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) categories. This poses potential comparability issues since education levels in 1971-2001 may correspond to multiple ISCED categories. Furthermore, with respect to previous samples, Austria 2011 provides less detail for upper secondary and non-university education and includes categories for primary and doctorate level.
- Austria 1971: Persons age 15+
- Austria 1981: Persons age 15+
- Austria 1991: Persons age 15+
- Austria 2001: Persons age 10+
- Austria 2011: Persons age 15+
- Austria: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011