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Census 2001: Metadata

Information on geography

Geography hierarchy

This part of the metadata refers to the geographical location of the enumeration area (EA).

The flow diagram below explains the hierarchical structure used for geographical areas in Census 2001.

[diagram]

The structure of the first path consists of seven levels, as follows:
Level 1 -- South Africa
Level 2 -- Province
Level 3 -- District Council (Category C) or Metropolitan Area (Category A)
Level 4 -- Local Municipality (Category B), or District Management Area (DMA)
Level 5 -- Main Place
Level 6 -- Sub-place
Level 7 -- Enumeration Area (EA)
While the structure is intended to be hierarchical, South Africa's geography has cross-boundary entities at all seven levels which complicate the picture. For example, there are eight municipalities which lie across provincial boundary lines. These cross-boundary areas require special codes to indicate to which region each portion belongs.
Province

Notes to users
South Africa is divided into nine provinces. Enumerators were instructed to write the 'Province' abbreviation into the box 'FOR OFFICE USE' provided on the front page of the questionnaire.

Enumerators were asked to use the following abbreviations:
WC = Western Cape
EC = Eastern Cape
NC = Northern Cape
FS = Free State
KN = KwaZulu-Natal
NW = North West
MP = Mpumalanga
GP = Gauteng
NP = Northern Province (now called Limpopo)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).

District council

Notes to users
In the demarcation process which occurred between Census '96 and Census 2001, a total of 47 district councils (DCs) were established which together cover all non-metropolitan areas. Forty-two of the DCs are confined to a single province and are geo-coded from 1 to 43 (DC 11 does not exist). In addition, there are five DCs which cross provincial boundaries and are geo-coded with numbers between 81 and 88.

The codes are:
Codes 1, 2,. . . . . . 44 = DC1, DC2, . . . . . .DC44 (DC11 and DC41 do not exist)

81, 82, 83, 84, 88 = CBDC1, CBDC2, CBDC3, CBDC4, CBDC8 (Cross-boundary district councils are identified by an initial 8)
Cross-boundary DCs and provinces affected:
Code DC Province
CBDC1 Kgalagadi Northern Cape and North West
CBDC2 Metsweding Gauteng and Mpumalanga
CBDC3 Sekhukhune cross-boundary Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CDBC4 Eastern cross-boundary Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CDBC8 West Rand cross-boundary Gauteng and North West
DC9 Francis Baard Northern Cape and North West

Municipality

Notes to users
Enumerators were instructed to write the 'Name of local munic.' in the box 'for office use only' on the front page of the questionnaire.

Stats SA acquired new municipality boundaries from the Municipal Demarcation Board in 2000. These boundaries were defined in mid-2000 as part of the country's local government demarcation process. The new structure consists of metropolitan areas (Category A) and district councils (Category C or DC) at one level. At the lower level, district councils are sub-divided into local municipalities (Category B) or district management areas (DMAs). In total, there are six metropolitan areas, 47 district councils, 231 local municipalities and 25 DMAs. These new municipal boundaries were used to demarcate EAs for Census 2001.

Municipal structure:

Local Municipality (Cat B)
Of the 231 Category B municipalities, eight straddle provincial boundaries.

Cat Bs are identified by a two-digit code numbered incrementally within the province: For example, in the Western Cape, 01, 02, ......42 = WC011, WC012, ......WC053.

An initial 8 identifies cross-boundary municipalities: For example, 81 and 82 correspond to the DMB numbers CBLC1 and CBLC2.

These two-digit codes are combined with the Stats SA provincial code to give a three-digit code. Thus, 101, 102, ......142 correspond to WC011, WC012, ......WC053; and 381 refers to the portion of CBLC1 in the Northern Cape, and 681 to the portion in North West.
District Management Areas (DMAs)
DMAs include areas such as deserts and semi-arid areas, State-protected and conservation areas, and special economic areas. Of the 25 DMAs, four cross provincial boundaries. DMAs have a two-digit code, of which the first digit is 9: 91, 92, ......95 = WCDMA01, WCDMA02, ......WCDMA05

These two digits are added to the provincial code to obtain a three-digit code: 191, 192, ......95 = WCDMA01, WCDMA02, ......WCDMA05
Metropolitan Areas (Metros)
Metropolitan areas are conurbations featuring high population density; intense movement of people, goods and services; extensive development; and multiple business districts and industrial areas. There are six metros, as follows:

Cape Town - City of Cape Town
Durban - Ethekwini
East Rand - Ekurhuleni
Johannesburg - City of Johannesburg
Port Elizabeth - Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Area
Pretoria - Tshwane

EAs were allocated to Metros during demarcation. A two-digit code is used for the Metros. An initial 7 denotes a Metro while the second digit identifies a particular Metro:

71 Cape Town
72 Durban
73 East Rand
74 Johannesburg
75 Port Elizabeth
76 Pretoria

The two-digit code is added to the provincial code to give a three-digit code as follows:

171 Cape Town
572 Durban
773 East Rand
774 Johannesburg
275 Port Elizabeth
776 Pretoria for Gauteng province
676 Pretoria for North West province

Note: Pretoria appears twice, as it crosses the provincial boundary between Gauteng and North West.
Cross-boundary municipalities and provinces affected:
Code Municipality Province
-- Tshwane Gauteng and North West
CBLC1 Ga-Segonyana Northern Cape and North West
CBLC2 Kungwini Gauteng and Mpumalanga
CBLC3 Greater Marble Hall Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CBLC4 Greater Groblersdal Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CBLC5 Greater Tubatse Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CBLC6 Bushbuckridge Limpopo and Mpumalanga
CBLC7 Phokwane North West and Northern Cape
CBLC8 Merafong City North West and Gauteng

Main place

Notes to users
Enumerators were instructed to write the name of the 'Main place' in the box 'for office use only' on the front page of the questionnaire.

A place name is an easily recognisable, small-area geographical entity at local level, and corresponds, for example, to the name of the city, town, tribal area or administrative area. However, classification of place names by different types and levels of hierarchies is not easy. In order to take account of the vertical hierarchical structure built into the name code, two place name levels (Main and Sub) based on the settlement type are used for Census 2001.

The main place is level five in the second tree of the geographical area hierarchy structure. It is one level above the sub-place and one level below the Cat A / Cat B / DMA. There are 2 674 unique main place names. However, because of the coding structure and because some main place names cross the boundaries of adjacent municipalities, a total of 3 031 main place names were coded. A five-digit code was generated for each main place as follows:
The first digit denotes province, the second and third digits denote municipality, and the last two digits identify a unique main place in a municipality.
Note: every cross-boundary main place has a unique code for each portion.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).

Sub-place

Notes to users
Enumerators were instructed to write the name of the 'Sub-place' in the box 'for office use only' on the front page of the questionnaire.

The sub-place is the next spatial level up from the EA and at a lower level than a main place in the place name hierarchy. The sub-place name corresponds to the name of the suburb, ward, village, farm or informal settlement. In some cases, a sub-place name and type was not defined, in which case 'None' was used. There are 15 966 unique sub-place names. However, because of the coding structure, and because some sub-place names crossed the borders of adjacent main places, a total of 21 219 sub-place names were coded. An eight-digit geo-code was generated for each sub-place name as follows:
The first digit denotes province, the second and third digits indicate municipality, the fourth and fifth digits identify main place name, and the last three digits identify a unique sub-place in a main place. (The last five digits therefore identify a unique sub-place in a municipality.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).
Magisterial district

Notes to users
Magisterial district (MD) is an administrative area created to serve the justice system through a network of magisterial offices. There are 354 MDs, numbered consecutively per province. A two-digit code is used to identify each MD. When added to the province code, a three-digit code is created which indicates to which province the MD belongs.

Every EA was assigned to an MD after enumeration. The MDs utilised are the same as those used in Census '96.

The 1996 census used magisterial districts as a unit of demarcation. They were not used as a basis for demarcation in the 2001 census. MD codes are supplied with Census 2001 data to allow users to compare changes over time.

Twelve MDs cross provincial borders. Cross-boundary MDs have a three-digit code. The first digit, eight or nine, indicates a cross-boundary MD and the next two digits denote the MD. The code is added to the provincial code when it is necessary to distinguish which part of an MD is being referred to.
Cross-boundary MDs and provinces affected:
MD Code MD Name Province
322 Kuruman Northern Cape and North West
617 Brits North West and Gauteng
927 Mapulaneng Limpopo and Mpumalanga
925 Sekhukhuneland Limpopo and Mpumalanga
903 Phalaborwa Limpopo and Mpumalanga
830 Kwamhlanga Mpumalanga and Gauteng
822 Pilgrim's Rest Mpumalanga and Limpopo
817 Witbank Mpumalanga and Gauteng
812 Delmas Mpumalanga and Gauteng
703 Wonderboom Gauteng and North West
618 Ga-Rankuwa North West and Gauteng
702 Soshanguve Gauteng and North West
Derivation
There is no relationship between EA codes and MD codes. A link exists between each EA and the relevant MD.

EA type

Notes to users
All EAs were classified according to set criteria profiling land use and human settlement within the area. Classification was done during the demarcation phase.

For Census 2001, the classification was simplified into ten types:
Sparse (10 or fewer households)
Tribal settlement
Commercial farm
Smallholding
Urban settlement
Informal settlement
State, park and recreational land
Industrial area
Institution (referring, in this context, to all collective living quarters other than hostels)
Hostel
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B- and C-type questionnaires).

Geo-type

Notes to users
All EAs were classified according to certain geographical characteristics. Classification was done during the demarcation phase.

EAs were classified according to the following categories:
Urban formal
Urban informal
Tribal areas
Rural formal
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B- and C-type questionnaires).
Urban / rural census '96 classification

Notes to users
This classification is based on the EA type allocated during the pre-enumeration phase of Census 2001, which was based on the dominant settlement type or land use in the particular EA. The different EA types were then grouped to form the broad categories urban and rural. The process by which this was done is described in what follows.

For Census 1996, an urban area was one which fell within a municipality or local authority. EAs within the boundaries of a proclaimed urban area were then typed as one of the following:
11 = An ordinary town or city area consisting of formal structures, e.g., houses, flats, hotels, boarding houses, old age homes, caravan parks, and school and university hostels, as well as vacant areas within such areas.

12 = An area with mainly informal dwellings (a so-called 'squatter area').

13 = An area with mainly hostels, e.g., mine, factory and municipal hostels.

14 = An area with mainly hospital and prison institutions.
The new municipal structure does not differentiate between urban and rural on any level of administration or proclamation. The proclaimed urban area as used in Census 1996 does not exist anymore. Some other criteria had to be used in 2001 to obtain an indication of the location of traditional urban centres. The Census 2001 EA type 'Urban Settlement' was therefore used, and is defined as follows. 'A formal urban settlement is structured and organised. Land parcels (plots or erven) make up a formal and permanent structure. Services such as water, electricity and refuse removal are provided, roads are formally planned and maintained by the council. This category includes suburbs and townships.'

The Census 1996 definition of what constituted an urban EA was used to make a final allocation of Census 2001 EA types to the category 'urban', while EA types that did not meet the selection criteria were regarded as rural. Census 2001 urban EAs were spatially matched and linked to one of the 1996 urban types described above, according to the criteria shown in the table below.
Census 2001 EA type Corresponding
Census 1996 EA type
Criteria
Urban settlement Type 11 As described.
Informal settlement Type 12 Only if located within or adjacent to EA type 11 areas.
Hostels Type 13 Only if located within or adjacent to EA type 11 and EA type 12 areas.
Industrial, recreational, institution Type 14 Only if located within or adjacent to EA type 11, 12 and 13 areas.
Smallholding Type 11 Only if located within or adjacent to EA type 11 areas.
This procedure was carried out to enable users to make a meaningful comparison between the 1996 and the 2001 censuses with regard to urban and rural.

Size and density of locality

Notes to users
Research is ongoing to arrive at a definition of urban and rural based on size and population density that will be appropriate for South Africa's settlement patterns. See also Report no. 03-02-20 (2001) Investigation into appropriate definitions of urban and rural areas for South Africa: Discussion document (available on request). As a result of this investigation, the following derived variable is proposed, although discussions are still ongoing. Note that this variable is not referred to as urban/rural, but as size and density.

According to this variable, the following are classified as high density or large settlements:
* towns, townships and cities containing 20 000 people or more, and

* main places containing 1000 people or more, with a density of 1000 or more people per km²
All other places are classified as low density.

Information on households and housing

All questions in this section of the questionnaire were asked of the responsible person, preferably the head or acting head of the household or institution.

Diagram of types of living quarters [diagram not shown, only text of the diagram is shown below]

living quarters

housing unit
house
hut
flat
duplex etc.
shack
room
caravan
boat
tent

plus: places used for living at the time, e.g.
garage
old bus

Enumerated using Questionnaire A for households
collective living quarters
institution
hospital
orphanage
home for disabled
school hostel
initiation school
defence force barracks, camp, ship in harbour
prison or police cells
church hall
refugee camp, shelter for homeless

Enumerated using Questionnaire B for individuals
non-institutional collective living quarters
hotel*
students' residence (tertiary)
home for the aged (except frail care)
workers' hostel (including nurses' hostel, and police barracks)

Enumerated using Questionnaire A for households

* Residential hotels were enumerated using Questionnaire A. Tourist hotels were enumerated using Questionnaire B, but they are not institutions. They must therefore always be mentioned separately if grouped with institutions for reporting purposes.
Sources: UN census definitions manual (for the relationship and extent of each term) Stats SA 2001 Census questionnaires (for the lists of each type of living quarters)

[end diagram text]

Serial number

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a nine-digit unique identification code derived form the barcode on the questionnaire. This can be used to merge all the different files of the 10% sample.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Serial number is determined as follows:
* If a household is a single questionnaire: serial number is the same as the bar code;

* If a household spans multiple questionnaires: serial number is the bar code from the first questionnaire of the household;

* For institutions: serial number is the bar code from the C-type questionnaire for the institution

Household and institution size

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the total number of persons in a household or institution.

It is recommended that any analysis of this question should be done separately for households in housing units (A-type questionnaire, with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23), households in non-institutional collective living quarters (A-type questionnaire, H23 -- Codes 2-6), and institutions (C-type questionnaire).
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Household size is derived by adding all the persons in a household or institution.

Type of living quarters (households)

Question H-23 (A-type questionnaire)
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'What is the type of these living quarters?' This question was asked of households in housing units, residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged, and workers' hostels. Respondents who chose options 2 to 5 were instructed to skip questions H-23a, H23b, H24 and H-24a, and to proceed to question H-25.

Respondents were asked to choose one of the following options:
Housing unit
Residential hotel
Students' residence
Home for the aged
Workers' hostel
Other (specify)
The number of responses for 'other' was so few that results for this category are unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process. This information will, however, be available in the raw data.
Universe
All conventional households (A-type questionnaires).

Type of institution

Question H-23 (C-type questionnaire)
Notes to users
This question was asked for institutions that completed the C-type questionnaire. The question asked was, 'Which type of institution or collective living quarters is this?'

Respondents were asked to choose one of the following options:
Tourist hotel/motel
Hospital/medical facility/clinic/frail-care centre
Childcare institution/orphanage
Home for the disabled
Boarding school hostel
Initiation school
Convent/monastery/religious retreat
Defence force barracks/camp/ship in harbour
Prison/correctional institution/police cells
Community or church hall
Refugee camp/shelter for the homeless
Homeless
Other (specify)
A homeless person is a person with no form of shelter on census night and no known residential address. Homeless people tend to move around and sleep in places that cannot be considered as housing units, such as shop doorways or bus shelters. For 'Homeless', this question was the end of the interview. The subsequent questions H-24 (Rooms), H-25 (Piped water), H-26 (Source of water), H-27 (Toilet facilities), H-28 (Energy/Fuel), H-29 (Household goods) and H-30 (Refuse or rubbish) are thus not applicable to 'homeless' people.

The number of responses for 'other' was so few that results for this category are unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process.
Universe
All persons in institutions (C-type questionnaires).
Note
The data for this variable are not reported separately, but are contained in the two derived variables that follow.

Type of living quarters (comprehensive)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This variable combines information from H-23 in Questionnaire A and H-23 in Questionnaire C.

In the case of Questionnaire A, the question asked was, 'What is the type of these living quarters?' and in the case of Questionnaire C, "Which type of institution or collective living quarters is this?'

Respondents were asked to choose one of the following options:

In Questionnaire A:
Housing unit

Residential hotel

Students' residence

Home for the aged

Workers' hostel

Other (specify)
In Questionnaire C:
Tourist hotel/motel

Hospital/medical facility/clinic/frail-care centre

Childcare institution/orphanage

Home for the disabled

Boarding school hostel

Initiation school

Convent/monastery/religious retreat

Defence force barracks/camp/ship in harbour

Prison/correctional institution/police cells

Community or church hall

Refugee camp/shelter for the homeless

Homeless

Not applicable (households in housing units or non-institutional collective living quarters)
Universe
All households (including those in residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged or workers' hostels -- A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires) but excluding the homeless.

Type of housing unit

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This variable combines information from H23a in Questionnaire A (type of housing unit) and H23 in Questionnaire C (type of institution). However the variable does not include the non-institutional collective living quarters from H23 in Questionnaire A, so is probably of less use than the 'Type of living quarters (comprehensive)' variable above.

Question H-23a (A-type questionnaire)

In Question H23a in Questionnaire A, each household in a housing unit was asked which type of housing unit the household occupied. An instruction was included on the questionnaire to the effect that where a household lived in more than one dwelling, they should indicate the type of the main dwelling.

The following options were provided:
House or brick structure on a separate stand or yard
Traditional dwelling/hut/structure made of traditional materials
Flat in a block of flats
Town/cluster/semi-detached house (simplex, duplex or triplex)
House/flat/room, in backyard
Informal dwelling/shack, in backyard
Informal dwelling/shack, NOT in backyard, e.g. in an informal/squatter settlement
Room/flatlet not in backyard but on a shared property
Caravan or tent
Private ship/boat
Other (specify)
The number of responses for 'other' was so few that results for this category are unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process. The information will, however, be available in the raw data.

For institutions that completed the C-type questionnaire, Question H23 was: 'Which type of institution or collective living quarters is this?'

Respondents were asked to choose one of the following options:
Tourist hotel/motel
Hospital/medical facility/clinic/frail-care centre
Childcare institution/orphanage
Home for the disabled
Boarding school hostel
Initiation school
Convent/monastery/religious retreat
Defence force barracks/camp/ship in harbour
Prison/correctional institution/police cells
Community or church hall
Refugee camp/shelter for the homeless
Homeless
Other (specify)
A homeless person is a person with no form of shelter on census night and no known residential address. Homeless people tend to move around and sleep in places that cannot be considered as housing units, such as shop doorways or bus shelters. For 'Homeless', this question was the end of the interview. The subsequent questions H-24 (Rooms), H-25 (Piped water), H-26 (Source of water), H-27 (Toilet facilities), H-28 (Energy/Fuel), H-29 (Household goods) and H-30 (Refuse or rubbish) are thus not applicable to 'homeless' people.

The number of responses for 'other' was so few that results for this category are unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23), and all persons in institutions (C-type questionnaires). This variable does not include households living in residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged or workers' hostels (Codes 2--5 in question H-23 from A-type questionnaires).

More than one dwelling

Question H-23b
Notes to users
The question 'Does this household occupy more than one dwelling on this site?' was asked of each household living in a housing unit.

The question referred only to dwellings on the same site.

Only two options were available: 'Yes' and 'No'.
Universe
Only households (A-type questionnaires) with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23).

This question was not applicable to households living in residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged or workers' hostels (Codes 2--5 in question H-23).

Rooms

Question H-24
Notes to users
This question was asked for households and institutions. Households were asked, 'How many rooms including kitchens are there for this household?' Institutions were asked, 'How many rooms including kitchens are there for this institution?' Respondents were asked to count all rooms, but exclude bathrooms, sheds, garages, stables, etc. unless there were people living in those rooms. One household could occupy one or more rooms, and in some cases, more than one household could share the same room. This question was asked not to establish the number of rooms in the housing unit, but how many rooms the household was using.

It is recommended that any analysis of this question should be done separately for households in housing units (A-type questionnaire, with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23) and institutions (C-type questionnaire).
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Sharing one room

Question H-24a
Notes to users
The question 'Are there two or more households sharing a single room?' was asked only for households that reported occupying only one room, i.e. those who wrote '1' in the appropriate box of question H-24 (Number of rooms).

Only two options were available: 'Yes' and 'No'.
Universe
Only households (A-type questionnaires) with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23).

This question was not applicable to households living in residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged or workers' hostels, (Codes 2 --5 in question H-23).

Tenure status

Question H-25
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'What is the tenure status of the household?' If the household used several dwellings, the instruction was to fill in the information for the main dwelling.

The following options were provided:
Owned and fully paid off
Owned but not yet paid off
Rented
Occupied rent-free
Other (specify)
The number of responses for 'other' was so few, that results for this category are unusable in tables at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process. This information will, however, be available in the raw data.
Universe
Only households (A-type questionnaires) with 'Type of living quarters' equal to 'Housing unit' (Code 1 in question H-23).

This question was not applicable to households living in workers' hostels, residential hotels, students' residences or homes for the aged (Codes 2--5 in question H-23).

Piped water

Question H-26
Notes to users
The question 'In which way does this household/institution obtain piped water for domestic use?' was asked for all households and institutions. The question excludes water used for non-domestic purposes, e.g. water used for gardens or cattle.

Respondents were asked to choose from the following:
No access to piped (tap) water
Piped (tap) water on community stand: distance greater than 200m from dwelling
Piped (tap) water on community stand: distance less than 200m from dwelling
Piped (tap) water inside yard
Piped (tap) water inside dwelling
Universe
All households (including those in residential hotels, students' residences, homes for the aged or workers' hostels -- A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires) but excluding the homeless.

Source of water

Question H-26a
Notes to users
The question 'What is the main source of water for domestic use?' was asked for all households and institutions.

Many households with piped water do not necessarily know where the water comes from. Enumerators were instructed that in most cases piped water comes from regional or local water schemes, boreholes or springs. They were also told that if the piped water was from a regional or local scheme, this should take precedence and that the respondent should not answer, for example, 'dam', even if the scheme used a dam. The reason for this approach was that the question was intended to be an indicator of water quality rather than convenience and it was assumed that water from a scheme was of good quality. People who did not have access to water from a scheme were asked to indicate one of the other sources. If respondents were unsure about the source of piped water, the instruction to enumerators was to ask if they were paid the municipality or service provider for the water, although it was noted that this was not a foolproof test. If the response was 'Yes', option 1 (regional/local water scheme) was chosen.

Respondents were asked to choose from the following options:
Regional/local water scheme (operated by a Water Service Authority or Provider)

Borehole

Spring

Rainwater tank

Dam/pool/stagnant water

River/stream

Water vendor

Other (specify)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Access to water

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
The derived variable 'Access to water' indicates what type of access to water a household or institution has.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires) excluding the homeless.
Derivation
This variable is derived from the questions H-26 (Piped water) and H-26a (Source of water).

Toilet facility

Question H-27
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'What is the main type of toilet facility that is available for use by this household?' Each institution was asked, 'What is the main type of toilet facility that is available for use by this institution?' Respondents were asked to write only one code in the appropriate box. If several types of toilet facilities were available, the instruction was to indicate the one used most often.

Respondents were asked to choose from the following options:
Flush toilet (connected to sewerage system)
Flush toilet (with septic tank)
Chemical toilet
Pit latrine with ventilation (VIP)
Pit latrine without ventilation
Bucket latrine
None
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Energy source for cooking

Question H-28
Notes to users
Each household and institution was asked, 'What type of energy/fuel does this household/institution mainly use for cooking, heating and lighting?' There were three boxes to be filled in -- one for cooking, one for heating and one for lighting.

This sub-section describes the 'cooking' variable. The following sub-sections describe the other variables related to this question.

A note was included explaining that certain fuels cannot be used for certain purposes, e.g. candles cannot be used for cooking.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Electricity
Gas
Paraffin
Wood
Coal
Candles (not a valid option)
Animal dung
Solar
Other (specify)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Energy source for heating

Question H-28
Notes to users
Each household and institution was asked, 'What type of energy/fuel does this household mainly use for cooking, heating and lighting?' There were three boxes to be filled in - one for cooking, one for heating and one for lighting.

This sub-section describes the 'heating' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

A note was included explaining that certain fuels cannot be used for certain purposes, e.g. candles cannot be used for heating.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Electricity
Gas
Paraffin
Wood
Coal
Candles (not a valid option)
Animal dung
Solar
Other (specify)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Energy source for lighting

Question H-28
Notes to users
Each household and institution was asked, 'What type of energy/fuel does this household mainly use for cooking, heating and lighting?' There were three boxes to be filled in -- one for cooking, one for heating and one for lighting.

This sub-section describes the 'lighting' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

A note was included explaining that certain fuels cannot be used for certain purposes, e.g. wood, coal and animal dung cannot be used for lighting.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Electricity
Gas
Paraffin
Wood (not a valid option)
Coal (not a valid option)
Candles
Animal dung (not a valid option)
Solar
Other (specify)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- radio

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institution was asked, 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were six boxes to be filled in: one box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'radio' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- television

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institution was asked 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were six boxes to be filled in. One box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'television' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- computer

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institutions was asked 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were six boxes to be filled in. One box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'computer' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- refrigerator

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institution was asked 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were six boxes to be filled in. One box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'refrigerator' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B- and C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- telephone

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institution was asked 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were nine boxes to be filled in. One box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'telephone' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.

Households with neither a telephone nor a cell-phone were asked to complete question H-29a about access to telephone, otherwise they had to proceed to question H-30 (Refuse or rubbish). This was only applicable to households completing the A-type questionnaires.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Household goods -- cell-phone

Question H-29
Notes to users
Each household was asked, 'Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?' Each institution was asked 'Which of the following devices are available for the inhabitants of this institution and are in working condition?' There were nine boxes to be filled in. One box for a radio, one for a television, one for a computer, one for a refrigerator, one for a telephone and one for a cell-phone.

This sub-section describes the 'cell-phone' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

This question does not ask for the number of devices available to a household or institution. A response of 'Yes' or 'No' was requested.

Households with neither a telephone nor a cell-phone were asked to complete question H-29a about access to telephone, otherwise they had to proceed to question H-30 (Refuse or rubbish). This was only applicable to those completing the A-type questionnaires.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Access to telephone

Question H-29a
Notes to users
Each household was asked 'Where do members of this household mainly use a telephone?' and a list of five options was provided. Enumerators were instructed to write only one code in the box.

Only households who responded 'No' to both 'Telephone in the dwelling' and 'Cell-phone' in H-29 (Household goods) were asked to complete this question.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
At a neighbour nearby
At a public telephone nearby
At another location nearby
At another location, not nearby
No access to a telephone
Universe
Only households (A-type questionnaires).

Telephone

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
The derived variable 'Telephone' indicates what type of phone services a household has.
Universe
Only households (A-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from the responses to questions H-29 (Household goods) and H-29a (Access to telephone).

Refuse or rubbish disposal

Question H-30
Notes to users
Each household and institution was asked how the refuse or rubbish of the household/institution was mainly disposed of. If several methods of disposal existed, respondents were instructed to choose the main method.

The number of responses for 'other' was so few, that results for this category are unusable in tables at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the valid values during the editing process. The information will, however, be available in the raw data.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Removed by local authority at least once a week
Removed by local authority less often
Communal refuse dump
Own refuse dump
No rubbish disposal
Other (specify)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires), but excluding the homeless.

Age of head of household

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the age of the head of household in five yearly cohorts.
Derivation
Age of head of household is derived from the questions P02 (Date of birth) and P-04 (Relationship). The age of the head of household is obtained by allocating the age of the person who indicated category 01 (Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details, see 'Age' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)

Gender of head of household

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the gender of the head of household.
Derivation
Gender of head of household is derived from the questions P-03 (Sex) and P-04 (Relationship). The gender of the head of household is obtained by allocating the gender of the person who indicated category 01 (Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details, see 'Gender' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)

Population group of head of household

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the population group of the head of household.
Derivation
Population group of head of household is derived from the questions P-04 (Relationship) and P-06 (Population group). The population group of the head of household is obtained by allocating the population group of the person who indicated category 01(Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details see 'Relationship' and 'Population group' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)

Occupation of head of household

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the occupation of the head of household.
Derivation
Occupation of head of household is derived from the questions P-04 (Relationship) and P-19c (Occupation). The occupation of the head of household is obtained by allocating the occupation of the person who indicated category 01 (Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details see 'Relationship' and 'Occupation' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)
Work status of head of household
(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the work status of the head of household.
Derivation
Work status of head of household is derived from the questions P-04 (Relationship) and P-19 (Work status). The work status of the head of household is obtained by allocating the work status of the person who indicated category 01 (Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details see 'Relationship' and 'Work status' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)

Employment status of head of household ('not economically active' broken into sub-categories)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the detailed employment status of the head of household.
Derivation
Detailed employment status of head of household is derived from the questions P-01 (Age), P-04 (Relationship), P18 (Any work in the 7 days before October), P-18a (Reason why not working), P-18b (Active steps) and P-18c (Availability). The detailed employment status of the head of household is obtained by allocating the relevant detailed employment status of the person who indicated option 01(Head/acting head) in response to question P-04 (Relationship). (For more details see 'Employment status ('Not economically active' broken into sub-categories)' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.)
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)
Majority population group of household

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This variable indicates the population group of the majority of persons in the household or institution. (See also 'Population group' in the Person file)

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Black African
Coloured
Indian or Asian
White
Other (specify)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).

Annual household income

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the annual income of households according to specific income categories.
Derivation
Annual household income is derived from question P-22 (Income category), which gives the income of each individual. (See 'Income' in the 'Person' section of the Metadata.) The annual income for households is calculated by adding together the individual incomes of all members of the household. The result for each household is then reallocated into the relevant income category.

Because individual income was recorded in intervals rather than exact amounts, a fixed amount had to be allocated to each range in order to do the calculations. These amounts were arrived at are as follows: persons claiming that they had no income were not adjusted, for the first class among those with incomes, the amount is R3 200 (i.e. two-thirds of the top cut-off point of this bracket), for the second class, the amount is the midpoint of the class interval, for the last class, the amount is R4 915 200, for all other classes, the amount is calculated as the logarithmic mean of the top and bottom of the given interval.

This resulted in the following values being allocated to each class for the purpose of calculating of household income:
Income range
code
Range Proxy values allocated
01 No income 0
02 R 1 – R 4,800 3,200
03 R 4,801 – R 9,600 7,200
04 R 9,601 – R 19,200 13,576
05 R 19,201 – R 38,400 27,153
06 R 38,401 – R 76,800 54,306
07 R 76,801 – R 153,600 108,612
08 R 153,601 – R 307,200 217,223
09 R 307,201 – R 614,400 434,446
10 R 614,401 – R 1,228,800 868,893
11 R 1,228,801 – R 2,457,600 737,786
12 R 2,457,601 or more 4,915,200
Users should be warned to use this variable with caution and be aware of its limitations. Household income has been derived from personal incomes collected in ranges. For each range, an assumption had to be made as to the appropriate point to use for the calculations. This has made the results tentative. Household income does not provide a measure of total income and its accuracy in representing relative income is unknown. Direct comparisons with other data sets cannot be made. The main reason for releasing this variable in the data is to show patterns and trends, rather then precise estimates.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires)

Weight

Notes to users
The 10% household sample file contains a weight variable that is derived from the Post-Enumeration Survey (PES). The weight variable is the adjustment factor for undercount for households multiplied by 10 to inflate the 10% sample to the relevant population.

In the case of household records aggregated totals will be approximately equal to real totals.

Information on Persons

All questions in this section of the questionnaire were asked about each person in the household or institution except where otherwise indicated.

Serial number

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a nine-digit unique identification code for households and institutions derived from the barcode on the questionnaire. Serial number together with person number (see below) can be used to merge the person file with the household file of the 10% sample.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (C-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Serial number is determined as follows:
If a household used a single questionnaire, the serial number is the same as the barcode of that questionnaire;

If a household spans multiple questionnaires, the serial number is the barcode from the first questionnaire of the household;

For institutions, the serial number is the barcode from the C-type questionnaire for that institution.
Person number

Question P-01
Notes to users
The enumerator was instructed: 'Assign row or person number to each person starting from 01. For example, first person becomes 01, the tenth person becomes 10. The eleventh person becomes 11 in the second questionnaire (if used).'

Person number is a unique identification number for each person within a household or institution.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and in institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Age

Question P-02
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'What is (the person's) date of birth and age in completed years?' If the date of birth was not known, respondents were asked to give the age of the person in completed years. If neither the date of birth nor the age were given, enumerators were asked to estimate the person's age as accurately as possible.

For date of birth, the instruction was to write the date of birth in digits, with no words. The boxes were marked DD MM YYYY. Two digits were used for day (DD), two digits for month (MM) and four digits for year (YYYY).

Date of birth was requested because some people find it easier to remember this than to calculate their age. Asking for date of birth also helps to eliminate the problem of people rounding off their age to the nearest five or ten years. If both age and date of birth were given and the responses were inconsistent, date of birth was accepted.

The question required the age in completed years. The questionnaire included the following instruction: 'For babies less than one year, write 000 years.'
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Gender

Question: P-03
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'Is (the person) male or female?'

If the person was not present at the interview, the enumerator was instructed to ask whether the person was male or female and not decide on the basis of the person's name.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Male
Female
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Relationship

Question: P-04
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'What is (the person's) relationship to the head or acting head of the household?' The head was defined as the main decision-maker, or the person who owned or rented the dwelling, or the person who was the main breadwinner, as chosen by the household. The head could be either male or female. If two people were equal decision-makers, or in a household of totally unrelated persons, the older or oldest could be named as the household head.

The head or acting head was listed in row 1 (of the first questionnaire, if more than one questionnaire was completed for a household).

Only relationships to the head of household or acting head (Category 01) were recorded.

A 'Non-related person' (Category 13) refers to a person not related to the head of the household by blood or marriage.

'Partner' refers to a person who lives with the household head as if they were married in cases where the two people are not married to each other. This option could be used for same-sex couples.

Four categories for children were provided:
Sons and daughters by birth (Category 03)

Adopted children (Category 04)

Step-children (Category 05). A step-child is a child of the spouse or partner of the household head from a previous marriage or relationship

Foster children (Category 12 or 13)
The response list consisted of the following categories:
Head/Acting head
Husband/wife/partner
Son/daughter
Adopted son/daughter
Stepson/stepdaughter
Brother/sister
Parent
Parent-in-law
Grandchild/great-grandchild
Son/daughter-in-law
Brother/sister-in-law
Other relative
Non-related person
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires).

Marital status

Question: P-05
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'What is (the person's) present marital status?' Enumerators were asked to record only one code in the appropriate box. In a case of a marriage that was both 'civil/religious' and 'traditional/customary', enumerators were asked to indicate 'civil/religious' (Category 1).

Enumerators were also instructed that a man with more than one wife at the time of the census should be recorded as 'polygamous' rather than civil or customary marriage. The wives concerned were to be indicated by categories 1 or 2. The questionnaire did not allow for women with more than one husband.

Category 4 includes couples that are not married to each other but live together as if they are married. This category is for people who live in every respect as a married couple except that they have not undergone a marriage ceremony. This option could also be used by same-sex couples.

Children under 12 years were assumed to fall in the 'Never married' category (Category 5).

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Married civil/religious
Married traditional/customary
Polygamous marriage
Living together as unmarried partners
Never married
Widower/widow
Separated
Divorced
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Spouse

Question P-05a
Notes to users
If categories 1-4 in question P-05, the question asked was, 'Who, in the household, is (the person's) spouse or partner?' Enumerators were asked to write the person number of the spouse of person number in the appropriate box. For example, if the spouse of the head of household is the person listed in row 2 they were asked to write '02' in row 1.

They were also instructed that if a man has more than one wife, they should write the row number of the first wife and then the row number of the husband for each of the wives.

If the spouse is not in the household the instruction was to write 99.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires).

Population group

Question: P-06
Notes to users
The question asked was, 'How would the person describe him/herself in terms of population group?' Population group thus reflects the respondent's chosen identification and not any 'official' definition. Enumerators were instructed to accept whatever response was given, even if they did not agree with it.

Enumerators were instructed to ask this question about each person even if the population group seemed obvious. Enumerators were also alerted to the fact that persons of different population groups could form part of the same household.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Black African
Coloured
Indian or Asian
White
Other (specify)
Enumerators were asked to write down the population group for respondents declaring 'Other', but Stats SA did not process the open-ended responses.

The number of responses for 'other' was so few that results for this category are largely unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'Other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the remaining valid values during the editing process. The raw data will, however, contain the 'Other' category. Raw data will be available only in the product containing the sample database.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Language

Question: P-07
Notes to users
Respondents were asked what language each person spoke most often in the household or institution. The eleven official languages were listed as options. A further option with code 2 'Other' (specify) was provided for speakers of other languages.

For babies, enumerators were instructed to record the home language of the parents. If the languages of the parents differed, they were asked to give the mother's language or the language or the person who took care of the baby most.

Although respondents were asked to 'specify' if the category 'Other' was chosen, no further investigation was done during editing and 'Other' were kept as category 12.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Afrikaans
English
IsiNdebele
IsiXhosa
IsiZulu
Sepedi
Sesotho
Setswana
Siswati
Tshivenda
Xitsonga
Other (specify)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Religion

Question: P-08
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'What is (the person's) religion, denomination, or belief?' Enumerators were instructed to write the name of the religion or faith in the space provided. If the person had no religion, enumerators were asked to write 'none'. For babies, the instruction to enumerators was to write the religion, denomination or belief of the parents. If parents recorded different religions, the enumerator was told to record the mother's religion.

The code list distinguishes between different divisions of the Christian faith and enumerators were asked to probe if respondents answered only 'Christian'. For the major faiths other than Christian, the codes do not reflect sub-groups.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Religion (grouped)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'What is (the person's) religion, denomination, or belief?' Enumerators were instructed to write the name of the religion or faith in the space provided. If the person had no religion, enumerators were asked to write 'none'. For babies, the instruction to enumerators was to write the religion, denomination or belief of the parents. If parents recorded different religions, the enumerator was told to record the mother's religion.

The code list distinguishes between different groupings within the Christian faith and enumerators were asked to probe if respondents answered only 'Christian'. For the major faiths other than Christian, the codes do not reflect sub-groups.

This variable was created with the assistance of academics from the Unit for Religious Demographic Research (URDR) at the University of Stellenbosch. The variable groups certain religions, denominations or beliefs within a broader cluster or theological tradition and is recommended to users in preference to the full listing.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Born in South Africa

Question: P-09
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Was (the person) born in South Africa?' If the answer was 'yes', the name of the province (P-09a) was required. If the answer was 'no', the name of the country was required (P-09b).

Enumerators were instructed to record people born in the former Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, Ciskei or any of the former homelands as born in South Africa.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Yes
No
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Place of birth

Question: P-09a
Notes to users
If the person was born in South Africa, respondents were asked to indicate in which province he or she was born.

The response list consisted of the following nine provinces:
Western Cape
Eastern Cape
Northern Cape
Free State
KwaZulu-Natal
North West
Gauteng
Mpumalanga
Northern Province (now Limpopo)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Province of birth was derived from the questions 'Born in SA?' (P-09) and 'Place of birth' (P-09a). If the response to question P-09 was 'Yes', then one of the codes 1 to 9 (province code) was allocated. If the response to question P-09 was 'No', then the code 10 (not applicable) was allocated.

Country of birth

Question: P-09b
Notes to users
If the person was not born in South Africa, respondents were asked to indicate in which country he or she was born. Respondents were also asked to use the name by which the country is currently known.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Country of birth was derived from the questions 'Born in SA?' (P-09) and 'Country of birth' (P-09b). If the response to question P-09 was 'Yes', then the code 101 (South Africa) was allocated. If the response to question P-09 was 'No', then the applicable country code was allocated.

Country of birth (grouped)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
People born outside South Africa come from many countries. Numbers from certain countries are very low, and users may find a grouped country list more appropriate for most purposes. A derived variable, 'Country of birth (grouped)', is therefore included.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
The counties were grouped as follows:
South Africa
SADC countries
Rest of Africa
Europe
Asia
North America
Central and South America
Australia and New Zealand
Standard recodes available

The countries were allocated to these groups according to the following schema:
1 South Africa South Africa
2 SADC countries Namibia, Swaziland, Botswana, Lesotho, Angola,
Zaire, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles,
Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
3 Rest of Africa Rest of the countries in Africa
4 Europe All countries in Europe
5 Asia All countries in Asia
6 North America United States of America, Canada
7 Central and South America All countries in Central and South America
8 Australia and New Zealand Australia and New Zealand

Citizenship

Question: P-10a
Notes to users
This question has two parts. The first part obtained information on whether or not the person was a South African citizen. If the answer was 'No', the second part of the question had to be completed and the current name of the country of citizenship had to be filled in.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Country of citizenship is derived from the questions 'Is (the person) a South African citizen?' (P-10) and 'If NO, what is the name of the country of citizenship?' (P-10a). If the response to question P-10 was 'Yes', then the code 101 (South Africa) was allocated. If the response to question P-10 was 'No', then the applicable country code was allocated.

Citizenship (grouped)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
Many countries have very small counts of citizens in South Africa. For this reason, users may find a grouped country list more appropriate, and a derived variable 'Citizen (grouped)', is therefore included.
Universe
All households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
The countries were grouped as follows:
South Africa
SADC countries
Rest of Africa
Europe
Asia
North America
Central and South America
Australia and New Zealand
Standard recodes available

The countries were allocated to these groups according to the following schema:
1 South Africa South Africa
2 SADC countries Namibia, Swaziland, Botswana, Lesotho, Angola,
Zaire, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles,
Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
3 Rest of Africa Rest of the countries in Africa
4 Europe All countries in Europe
5 Asia All countries in Asia
6 North America United States of America, Canada
7 Central and South America All countries in Central and South America
8 Australia and New Zealand Australia and New Zealand

Usually live

Question: P-11
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Does (the person) usually live in this household for at least four nights a week?' If the response was 'Yes', the enumerator was instructed to proceed to question 12. If the answer was 'No', the enumerator was to ask the second part of the question.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Province of usual residence

Question: P-11a
Notes to users
If the response to question P-11 was 'No', the following question was asked, 'Where does (the person) usually live?'

Enumerators were told to indicate the province of usual residence by writing one of the following two-letter abbreviations in the 'PR' box provided:
WC = Western Cape
EC = Eastern Cape
NC = Northern Cape
FS = Free State
KN = KwaZulu-Natal
NW = North West
GP = Gauteng
MP = Mpumalanga
NP = Northern Province (now Limpopo)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Main place of usual residence

Question: P-11a
Notes to users
If the response to question P-11 was 'No', the following question was asked, 'Where does (the person) usually live?'

As well as province, enumerators were asked to write the main place of usual residence, i.e. city, town, tribal area or administrative area, and the sub-place (within that main place), i.e. suburb, ward, village, farm or informal settlement, in capital letters in the appropriate boxes provided. Sub-places have not been processed.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Five years ago

Question: P-12
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Five years ago (at the time of Census '96), was (the person) living in this place (i.e. this suburb, ward, village, farm, informal settlement)?' If the response was 'Yes' or 'Born after October '96', the enumerator was instructed to go to question P-13.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Yes
No
Born after October 1996 (month in which Census '96 was conducted)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Year moved

Question: P-12b
Notes to users
If the response to question P-12 was 'No', the following question was asked, 'In which year did (the person) move to this place?'

Respondents were asked to indicate the year in which they moved. The response list consisted of the following years:
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
If the person had moved more than once, the enumerator was instructed to indicate the year of the most recent move.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Province of previous residence

Question: P-12a
Notes to users
If the response to question P-12 was 'No', the following question was asked, 'Where did (the person) move from?'

Respondents were asked to indicate the province the person moved from. Enumerators recorded the responses by writing the following two-letter abbreviations in the 'PR' box provided:
WC = Western Cape
EC = Eastern Cape
NC = Northern Cape
FS = Free State
KN = KwaZulu-Natal
NW = North West
GP = Gauteng
MP = Mpumalanga
NP = Northern Province (now Limpopo)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Main place of previous residence

Question: P-12a
Notes to users
If the response to question P-12 was 'No', the following question was asked, 'Where did (the person) move from?'

Respondents were asked to indicate the main place (city, town, tribal area, administrative area) the person moved from. Enumerators recorded the responses by writing the name of the main place in the box provided:
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Sight disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal. They were told that if bad sight was corrected with spectacles this was not to be considered a disability.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
1 = Sight (blind/severe visual limitation)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Hearing disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal. They were told that if bad hearing was corrected with a hearing aid, this was not to be considered a disability.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
2 = Hearing (deaf, profoundly hard of hearing)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Communication disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
3 = Communication (speech impediment)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Physical disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
4 = Physical (e.g. needs wheelchair, crutches or prosthesis; limb or hand usage limitations)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Intellectual disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
5 = Intellectual (serious difficulties in learning)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Emotional disability

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal.

See also the derived variable 'Disability'.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
6 = Emotional (behavioural, psychological)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Disability

(Derived variable)

Question: P-13
Notes to users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not each person in the household had a serious disability that prevented his or her full participation in life activities such as education, work and social life. If the person had a disability, the respondent was asked to indicate the nature of the disability/ies. Enumerators were instructed that a disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal. They were told that if bad sight was corrected with spectacles, this was not to be considered a disability.

The questionnaire allowed for the recording of more than one disability per person. The derived variable 'Disability' indicates disability status - whether or not a person had a disability -- as well as the type of disability if a person had only one type. For more detailed information on the number (if more than one) and combinations of disabilities, it is necessary to study the data for the separate variables on sight, hearing, communication, physical, intellectual and emotional disabilities.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
0 = None
1 = Sight (blind/severe visual limitation)
2 = Hearing (deaf, profoundly hard of hearing)
3 = Communication (speech impediment)
4 = Physical (e.g. needs wheelchair, crutches or prosthesis; limb or hand usage limitations)
5 = Intellectual (serious difficulties in learning)
6 = Emotional (behavioural, psychological)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Disability is derived from the question Disability (P-13). If no disability was recorded, then code 0 was assigned. If only one disability was recorded, the applicable disability code was assigned. If two or more disabilities were recorded, the person was classified as having multiple disabilities and a code 7 assigned.

Mother alive

Question: P-14
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Is (the person's) own biological mother still alive?'

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Yes
No
Do not know
The number of responses for 'Do not know' was so few that results for this category are largely unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'Do not know' was removed and re-allocated amongst the remaining valid values during the editing process. The raw data will, however, contain the 'Do not know' category.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Mother person number

Question: P-14a
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Who in this household is (the person's) mother?' For example, if the mother is the person listed in row 2, write '02'. The enumerators were instructed that if the mother does not live in the household to write '99' in the appropriate boxes.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Father alive

Question: P-15
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Is (the person's) own biological father still alive?'

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Yes
No
Do not know
The number of responses for 'Do not know' was so few that results for this category are largely unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'Do not know' was removed and re-allocated amongst the remaining valid values during the editing process. The raw data will, however, contain the 'Do not know' category.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Father person number

Question: P-15a
Notes to users
The question was asked, 'Who in this household is (the person's) father?' For example, if the father is the person listed in row 2, write '02'. The enumerators were instructed to write '99' in the appropriate boxes if the father did not live in the household.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Present school attendance

Question: P-16
Notes to users
Question P16 has two parts and was asked for all persons aged five and older. Question P-16a was asked only of those for whom the response to question P-16 was 'Yes' (codes 2 to 8).

The question enquired whether the person was currently attending pre-school, school, college, technikon, university or an adult education centre. If the response to question P-16 was 'No', then the enumerator was instructed to go to question P-17. If the response was 'Yes', the enumerator was instructed to go to P-16a. The questionnaire included a note stating that studies by correspondence and distance education were to be included.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
No
Yes: Pre-school
Yes: School
Yes: College
Yes: Technikon
Yes: University
Yes: Adult education centre
Yes: Other (specify)
Universe
All persons aged five and older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Type of educational institution

Question: P-16a
Notes to users
This question enquired whether the educational institution was public or private. Enumerators were instructed that a public school meant a government school, i.e. a school directly under the provincial Department of Education. Former schools for the white population group known as ex-Model C schools were to be regarded as government schools. For respondents who were not sure whether an institution was public or private, the option 'don't know' was included.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Public (government)
Private
Don't know
The number of responses for 'don't know' was so few that results for this category are largely unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'don't know' was removed and re-allocated amongst the remaining valid values during the editing process.
Universe
All persons aged five and older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Level of education

Question p-17
Note to users
This question referred to the highest level of education the person had completed, not the level they were currently in if still studying. Thus a learner at school who was in Grade 12 at the time of the census should have completed Grade 11 and therefore his/her highest level of education should have been reported as Grade 11. This may not always have been understood and some people may thus be misclassified by a year.

South Africa has twelve years of formal schooling, starting from grade 1. In some schools there is also a prior Grade 0 or Grade R (Reception), which is the last year of pre-school.

Before the introduction of the new grades, there were various systems for referring to the different school years. One system referred to the current Grades 1 and 2 as sub-standards A and B, and Grades 3-12 as standards 1 to 10. Another system referred to the last five years as Forms 1-5. In all systems, the twelfth year was usually referred to as the matriculation year. In most systems, the seventh year indicated the end of primary schooling.

NTC stands for National Technical Certificate and the three levels are roughly equivalent to Grades 10, 11 and 12.

Enumerators were instructed that diplomas and certificates imply completion of a course of at least six months' duration of full-time study or the equivalent.

Diplomas and post-school certificates are sometimes available to those who have not completed Grade 12 (matric). Post-school education thus does not necessarily imply completion of all twelve years of formal schooling. In the publications, post-school without Grade 12 is usually grouped together with post-school with matric.

In the edited data, 'Grade 0' (Category 00) is combined with 'No schooling' (Category 99) to indicate no formal schooling. 'Other' (Category 21) and 'Don't know' (Category 22) were removed during editing since the number of responses for these categories was so low. The raw data will, however, contain these categories.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
No schooling
Grade 0
Grade 1 / Sub A
Grade 2 / Sub B
Grade 3 / Standard 1
Grade 4 / Standard 2
Grade 5 / Standard 3
Grade 6 / Standard 4
Grade 7 / Standard 5
Grade 8 / Standard 6 / Form 1
Grade 9 / Standard 7 / Form 2
Grade 10 / Standard 8 / Form 3 / NTC1
Grade 11 / Standard 9 / Form 4 / NTC11
Grade 12 / Standard 10 / Form 5 / Matric / NTC111
Certificate with less than Grade 12
Diploma with less than Grade 12
Certificate with Grade 12
Diploma with Grade 12
Bachelor's Degree
Bachelor's Degree and Diploma
Honours degree
Higher Degree (Master's, Doctorate)
Other
Don't know
Universe
All persons aged five and older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B- and C-type questionnaires).

Level of education (grouped)

(Derived variable)
A variable which groups some of the levels of education into fewer categories is also provided. Some users may find this recode more appropriate for their purposes.

Standard recodes available:
Not applicable = Persons younger than five years

No schooling = No schooling (Code 99)

Some primary = Grade 1 / Sub A to Grade 6 / Standard 4 (codes 1 to 6)

Complete primary = Grade 7 / Standard 5 (code7)

Some secondary = Grades 8 to 11 and certificate with less than Grade 12 and diploma with less than Grade 12 (codes 8 to 11 and 13 and 14)

Grade 12 / Std 10 = Grade 12 / Standard 10 / Form 5 / Matric / NTC III (Code 12)

Higher = Certificate with Grade 12 and higher (codes 15 to 20)
Universe
All persons aged five and older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Field of education

Question P-17a
Note to users
The question was asked, 'In which field is (the person's) highest post-school qualification?' This question was only asked in respect of those people who had been recorded as having a post-school qualification in question P-17.

Enumerators were asked to show a prompt card in cases where respondents did not know the correct field of study of some members of the household. For persons with more than one field of study, respondents were asked to indicate the field in which the person had the highest level of education. If there were several fields at the same level, the respondent was asked to choose the field that was most related to the person's current or previous work.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Agriculture or Renewable Energy Resources
Architecture or Environment Design
Arts (Visual or Performing)
Business, Commerce or Management Sciences
Communication
Computer Science or Data Processing
Education, Training or Development
Engineering or Engineering Technology
Health Care or Health Sciences
Home Economics
Industrial Arts, Trades or Technology
Languages, Linguistics or Literature
Law
Libraries or Museums
Life Sciences or Physical Sciences
Mathematical Sciences
Military Sciences
Philosophy, Religion or Theology
Physical Education or Leisure
Psychology
Public Administration or Social Services
Social Sciences or Social Studies
Other (specify)
Universe
All persons five or older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires) who were recorded as having a level of education (P-17) of Certificate or Diploma with less than Grade 12 or any further education with Grade 12, i.e. codes 13 to 20.

Any work in the seven days before 10 October

Question P-18
Note to users
The question was asked 'In the seven days before 10 October did (the person) do any work for pay (in cash or in kind) profit or family gain, for one hour or more?'

Enumerators were instructed that the definition of work includes formal and informal work, farming, food production and food gathering, seasonal work (e.g. farm workers or other people who work only during a specific season), casual or piece work, selling vegetables or running a spaza shop.

If a person had been engaged in different types of work that could be categorised in more than one of the activity codes 1 to 3, the respondent was asked to indicate the activity on which the person had spent the most time. Temporary absence from work, e.g. on annual, sick, maternity or study leave, was recorded against code 4, and counts as having work for the purpose of this question.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Yes: formal registered (non-farming)
Yes: informal unregistered (non-farming)
Yes: farming
Yes: has work but was temporarily absent
No: did not have work
Not applicable
Universe
All persons ten and older in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Reason why not working

Question P-18a
Note to users
If the response to P-18 was 'no', the respondent was asked, 'What is the main reason why (the person) did not have work in the seven days before 10 October?' If there was more than one reason, the respondent was asked to indicate the main (most important) reason. Enumerators were instructed to find the applicable category if the respondent did not know the reason. Where the respondent did not know the reason and the person concerned was aged 10 to 15, the enumerators were instructed to use code 1 (scholar or student).

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Scholar or student
Home-maker or housewife
Pensioner or retired person/too old to work
Unable to work due to illness or disability
Seasonal worker not working presently
Does not choose to work
Could not find work
Universe
All persons ten and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Active steps

Question P-18b
Note to users
If the response to P-18 was 'no' (code 5), the respondent was asked what active steps the person had taken to find employment. A note on the questionnaire gave the following as examples of active steps: going to visit factories or other employment places, placing or answering advertisements, or looking for land or building equipment to start one's own business or farm.

The enumerators were instructed that simply reading newspapers should not be regarded as an active step but if a person had replied to advertisements, this qualified as an active step.
Universe
All persons ten and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Availability

Question P-18c
Note to users
If the response to P-18 was 'no' (code 5), the respondent was asked how soon the person could start if he or she were offered work. This question was used later in the derivation of employment status.

Enumerators were instructed that if the respondent could not say when the person could start work, the correct choice might be category 5 (Does not choose to work).

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Within one week
More than 1 week, up to 2 weeks
More than 2 weeks, up to 4 weeks
Some time after 4 weeks
Does not choose to work
Universe
All persons ten and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Employment status (official or strict definition)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This variable indicates the employment status of each person using the official or strict definition of unemployment. This definition classifies as unemployed those people within the economically active population who:

did not work during the seven days prior to census night,
wanted to work and were available to start work within a week of census night, and
had taken active steps to look for work or to start some form of self-employment in the four weeks prior to census night.

The economically active population consists of those people who are employed and those who are unemployed.
Universe
All persons aged 15 to 65, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This derived variable is based on responses to the following questions:
P-02 (Age)
P-18 (Any work in the seven days before 10 October?)
P-18a (Reason why not working)
P-18b (Active steps to find employment)
P-18c (Availability)
An employed person is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with the response of 'yes' (codes 1 to 4) for question P-18. An unemployed person according to the official definition is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with responses as follows:
P-18 = Category 5 ('No, did not have work')
P-18a = Category 7 ('Could not find work')
P-18b = Category 1 ('Have taken active steps to find employment')
P-18c = Category 1 ('Could start within one week, if offered work')
All other people aged 15 to 65 were coded in one of the not-economically active groups according to the responses to question P-18a.
Labour market data
It should be noted that the census produces lower estimates of labour force participation than the September 2001 Labour Force Survey. There is possible under-reporting of employment in the informal and subsistence agriculture sectors, particularly among those working only a few hours per week. The Labour Force Survey questionnaire includes more prompts to clarify these issues, which is not possible during census enumeration. The United Nations and the International Labour Organisation note that labour force surveys are expected to produce more reliable estimates of labour market variables than censuses. The results from the Labour Force Survey of September 2001 are the official labour market statistics for the time of the census.

Employment status (expanded definition)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This variable indicates the employment status of each person using the expanded definition of unemployment. This definition classifies as unemployed those people within the economically active population who: did not work during the seven days prior to census night, and wanted to work and were available to start work at some time in the future.

The economically active population consists of those people who are employed and those who are unemployed.
Universe
All persons aged 15 to 65, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivations
This derived variable is based on responses to the following questions:
P-02 (Age)
P-18 (Any work in the seven days before 10 October?)
P-18a (Reason why not working)
P-18c (Availability)
An employed person is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with the response of 'yes' (codes 1 to 4) for question P-18. An unemployed person according to the expanded definition is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with responses as follows:
P-18 = Category 5 ('No: did not have work')

P-18a = Category 7 ('Could not find work')

P-18c = Category 1 ('Could start within one week, if offered work') or category 2 ('Could start in more than one week, up to two weeks, if offered work') or category 3 ('Could start in more than two weeks, up to four weeks, if offered work') or category 4 ('Could start sometime after four weeks').
All other people aged 15 to 65 are coded in one of the not-economically active groups, according to the responses to question
P-18a.
Labour market data
It should be noted that the census produces lower estimates of labour force participation than the September 2001 Labour Force Survey. There is possible under-reporting of employment in the informal and subsistence agriculture sectors, particularly among those working only a few hours per week. The Labour Force Survey questionnaire includes more prompts to clarify these issues, which is not possible during census enumeration. The United Nations and the International Labour Organisation note that labour force surveys are expected to produce more reliable estimates of labour market variables than censuses. The results from the Labour Force Survey of September 2001 are the official labour market statistics for the time of the census.

Employment status ('not economically active' broken into sub-categories)

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the employment status of each person using the official or strict definition of unemployment, and sub-categories of the classification 'not economically active'. This is also referred to as the 'Detailed Employment Status'.
Universe
All persons aged 15 to 65 in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires)
Derivation
This derived variable is based on responses to the following questions:
P-02 (Age)
P-18 (Any work in the 7 days before October)
P-18a (Reason why not working)
P-18b (Active steps)
P-18c (Availability)
An employed person is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with the response of 'yes' (codes 1 to 4) for question P-18. An unemployed person according to the official definition is a person between the ages of 15 and 65 with responses as follows:
P-18 = Category 5 ('No, did not have work')
P-18a = Category 7 ('Could not find work')
P-18b = Category 1 ('Have taken active steps to find employment')
P-18c = Category 1 ('Could start within one week, if offered work')
All other people aged 15 to 65 were coded in one of the following not economically active groups according to the responses to question P-18a:
Category 1 = Scholar or student
Category 2 = Home-maker or housewife
Category 3 = Pensioner or retired person/too old to work
Category 4 = Unable to work due to illness or disability
Category 5 = Seasonal worker not working presently
Category 6 = Does not choose to work
Category 7 = Could not find work
Labour market data
It should be noted that the census produces lower estimates of labour force participation than the September 2001 Labour Force Survey. There is possible under-reporting of employment in the informal and subsistence agriculture sectors, particularly among those working only a few hours per week. The Labour Force Survey questionnaire includes more prompts to clarify these issues, which is not possible during census enumeration. The United Nations and the International Labour Organisation note that labour force surveys are expected to produce more reliable estimates of labour market variables than censuses. The results from the Labour Force Survey of September 2001 are the official labour market statistics for the time of the census.

Work status

Question P-19
Note to users
If the response to P-18 was 'yes' (Categories 1 to 4), the respondent was asked how one could best describe the main activity or work status of the person.

Enumerators were instructed that if a person had two occupations, the question should be answered in respect of the occupation in which he or she worked the most.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Paid employee: a person who works for someone else or a company for a wage or salary, or for commission from sales or bonuses, or for payment in kind such as food, housing or training.

Paid family worker: a person working in a business such as a shop or a farm belonging to the family, and receiving a salary or wage.

Self-employed: a person who has his or her own business or enterprise but does not regularly employ other persons except for unpaid family workers.

Employer: a person who works for him/herself and employs others in the business.

Unpaid family worker: a person who works in a family business or on a family farm without receiving a monetary payment.

Other: specify (This option was to be chosen if none of the others was applicable).
The number of responses for 'other' was so low that results for this category are largely unusable in tables produced at lower geographical levels. For this reason, the category 'other' was removed and re-allocated amongst the other valid values during the editing process. The 'other' response will, however, be available in the raw data.
Universe
All persons 10 and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Economic sector

Question P-19b
Notes to users
'Industry' refers to the economic sector in which the person works. The question was asked in respect of people who were employed (see Employment status), i.e. those with responses 1 to 4 in question P-18.

Question P-19a (Business/Company name) was asked to assist with the coding of industry when the response to question P-19b provided insufficient information. The response to question P-19a is not recorded in the data and is not reported separately. The instruction for the question on the 'Name of the business or company' specified that the respondent or interviewer should indicate 'Domestic Service' for persons doing paid domestic work in a private household.

In question P-19b, additional instructions were provided as follows: 'Describe the main industry, economic activity, product or service of the person's employer or company, e.g. gold mining, road construction, supermarket, police service, hairdressing, banking; or activity of the person, if self-employed, e.g. subsistence farming; or domestic service if doing paid domestic work in a private household.' The classification used for coding is based on the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) 1993. Coding was done to the three-digit level. Data relating to industry are available on one-, two- and three-digit levels.

Domestic workers in private households are included in the industry category 'private households'.

Some of the three-digit industry codes were excluded from the coding system and hence are not been used at all. These are:
914 = Provincial administration
915 = SA Defence Force
916 = SA Police Service
917 = Correctional Services
These industries have all been assigned to code 911 (Central Government activities).
Universe
All employed persons aged 10 and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Occupation

Question P-19c
Notes to users
This question was asked only in respect of people who were employed, i.e. people for whom the response was 'Yes' (categories 1 to 4) in question P-18.

Occupation refers to the type of work the person performed in the seven days before 10 October 2001. Respondents were asked to describe their occupation in two or more words, for example, street trader, cattle farmer, primary school teacher, domestic worker, fruit vendor, truck driver, warehouse manager or filling clerk.

Coding was done on the basis of the second edition of the South African Standard Classification of Occupations (SASCO), which is, in turn, based on the United Nations' International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO --1988).

Coding was done to the three-digit level. Recodes are available to provide data at one- or two-digit level as this level of detail may suit some users better.
Universe
All employed persons aged ten and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Hours worked

Question P-19d
Notes to users
If the response to question P-18 was 'YES' (categories 1 to 4), the respondent was asked, 'How many hours did (the person) work in the seven days before 10 October?'

Enumerators were instructed to ask respondents to include overtime and add hours worked at a secondary place of work, if any. If a person was absent from work during the seven days before 10 October, but usually worked, respondents were asked to indicate the number of hours the person normally worked, including overtime.

Enumerators were asked to confirm if the number of hours worked was per day or week. If per day, they were instructed to multiply the number of hours by the number of days worked during the previous seven days. If the hours were very high, enumerators were instructed to probe respondents by explaining that a normal working week is 40 hours, and that plus overtime will not normally be more than 56 hours.
Universe
All persons aged ten and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Place of work

Question P-19e
Notes to users
If the response to question P-18 was 'yes', the question was asked, 'Does (the person) work in the same sub-place in which he/she usually lives?' A sub-place was explained on the questionnaire as referring to a suburb, ward, village, farm or informal settlement.

The response list consisted of 'Yes' and 'No'.

People who lived and worked in the same suburb, ward, village, farm or informal settlement were asked to answer 'Yes'.

For sales representatives, truck drivers and other persons with a mobile place of work, enumerators were instructed to ask respondents to indicate the place where the person normally started travelling or received orders.
Universe
All persons aged 10 and older, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Province of work

Question P-19f
Notes to users
If the response to question P-19a was 'no', the following question was asked, 'If not the same place, write province' to indicate where the person worked.

Enumerators were asked to indicate the province by writing the following two-letter abbreviations in the 'PR' box provided:
WC = Western Cape
EC = Eastern Cape
NC = Northern Cape
FS = Free State
KN = KwaZulu-Natal
NW = North West
GP = Gauteng
MP = Mpumalanga
NP = Northern Province (now Limpopo)
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Main place of work

Question P-19f
Notes to users
If the response to question P-19a was 'no', the enumerator was required to write the main place (city, town, tribal area, administrative area) where the person worked in capital letters in the boxes provided.

Although sub-place (suburb, ward, village, farm, informal settlement) was also asked, it was not coded, and was only used to help identify the main place.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Total births

Question P-20
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50, respondents were asked, 'How many children, if any, has (the person) ever had, that were born alive?'

This sub-section describes the 'total births' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All children were to be included, i.e. those who were still alive on census night, whether or not they were in the household, and those who had died. Stillbirths and adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
All women aged between 12 and 50 in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Total births (boys)

Question P-20
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50, respondents were asked, 'How many children, if any, has (the person) ever had, that were born alive?' and 'How many of these were boys?'

This sub-section describes the 'total births (boys)' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All male children were to be included, i.e. those who were still alive on census night, whether or nor they were in the household, and those who had died. Stillbirths and adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
All women aged between 12 and 50 in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Total births (girls)

Question P-20
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50, respondents were asked, 'How many children, if any, has (the person) ever had, that were born alive?' and 'How many of these were girls?'

This sub-section describes the 'total births (girls)' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All female children were to be included, i.e. those who were still alive on census night, whether or nor they were in the household, and those who had died. Stillbirths and adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
All women aged between 12 and 50 years, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Total children still living

Question P-20a
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked how many children were still alive, and how many were boys and how many were girls.

This sub-section describes the 'total children still living' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All living children were to be included, whether or not they were in the household. Adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Boys still living

Question P-20a
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50, who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked how many children were still alive, and how many were boys and how many were girls.

This sub-section describes the 'boys still living' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All living male children were to be included, whether or not they were in the household. Adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Girls stilll living

Question P-20a
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked how many children were still alive, and how many were boys and how many were girls.

This sub-section describes the 'girls still living' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

All living female children were to be included, whether or not they were in the household. Adopted babies were excluded.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Date of last birth

Question P-20b
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked to indicate the day, month and year of the last birth, in the following format: DD/MM/YYYY. This sub-section describes the 'Date of birth' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Time since last birth

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the number of years that had elapsed since a woman aged between 12 and 50 last gave birth.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
Time since last birth is calculated by subtracting the date of census night from the date of birth of the last child born. Time since last birth was calculated to the nearest year.

Age of mother at last birth

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating the age at which a woman last gave birth, and is calculated for women aged between 12 and 50 who have ever given live birth.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
The age of the mother at the last birth is derived by subtracting the time since last birth (derived variable) from the age of the mother on census night. The age of the mother at the last birth is calculated to the nearest year.

Sex of last born

Question P-20b
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked to indicate the sex of the last child born, whether it was alive or dead, and the date of birth.

This sub-section describes the 'sex of last born' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

Only two options were available: 'Male' and 'Female'.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Last child still alive

Question P-20b
Notes to users
For all women aged between 12 and 50, who had ever given birth to live babies, respondents were asked to indicate whether the last child was still alive or had died, the child's sex, and the date of birth.

This sub-section describes the 'last child still alive' variable. Other sub-sections of this document describe the other variables related to this question.

Only two options were available: 'A' for alive and 'D' for dead.
Universe
Women aged between 12 and 50 who had ever born live children, in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Travel to school or place of work

Question P-21
Notes for users
For each person in households and institutions, the question was asked, 'How does (the person) usually travel to school or to his/her place of work?'

If more than one mode of travel was used, respondents were asked to indicate the mode that covered the longest distance. If a person had used different modes during the week, e.g. some days got a lift and some days went by minibus (taxi), respondents were asked to indicate the mode that the person used most frequently or the one related to the longest distance.

The category '0' (Not applicable) was reserved for people who did not work and who were not attending school. For people who worked at home, and live-in domestic workers, enumerators were asked to choose category 1 (On foot) because this category was for people who worked or attended school but did not make use of any form of transport.

The category 9 (Other) includes horses, donkey carts, trucks, etc.

The response list consisted of the following categories:
Not applicable
On foot
By bicycle
By motorcycle
By car as a driver
By car as a passenger
By minibus/taxi
By bus
By train
Other
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Income

Question P-22
Notes for users
For each person in households and institutions, the respondent was asked, 'What is the income category that best describes the gross income of (this person) before tax?'

Enumerators were instructed that the reference period for annual income was 1 October 2000 until 31 September 2001 and for monthly income, the month September 2001.

Income from investments, private business, etc. was to be included. Income from the sale of home-grown produce or home-brewed beer or cattle was also to be included. If any of these activities brought in income for the household as a whole rather than for a particular person, the enumerator was instructed to add the amount to the income of someone in the household.

If the household had received remittances or payments from a person working or living elsewhere, the instruction was that this income should be added to the total of someone in the household, for example, the head of the household.

Please note: Users are warned to use this variable with caution and to be aware of its limitations. Census 2001 collected income information from one question on individual income without probing about informal income, enterprise profits or income in kind. As a result, the census income is understated for most of the population. Further direct comparisons with other data sets cannot be made. The main reason for releasing this variable in the data is to show patterns and trends, rather then precise estimates.

The response list consisted of the following categories:

Monthly income
no income
R 1 - R 400
R 401 - R 800
R 801 - R 1 600
R 1 601 - R 3 200
R 3 201 - R 6 400
R 6 401 - R 12 800
R 12 801 - R 25 600
R 25 601 - R 51 200
R 51 201 - R 102 400
R 102 401 - R 204 800
R 204 801 or more
Annual income
no income
R 1 - R 4 800
R 4 801 - R 9 600
R 9 601- R 19 200
R 19 201- R 38 400
R 38 401 - R 76 800
R 76 801 - R 153 600
R 153 601 - R 307 200
R 307 201- R 614 400
R 614 401 - R 1 228 800
R 1 228 801 - R 2 457 600
R 2 457 601 or more
Both monthly and annual income categories were provided so that respondents could choose the one that was easiest for them. The resulting code is the same, e.g. a monthly income of R 500 which is equivalent to an annual income of R 6 000 will fall in the same category i.e. category 03.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).

Place of enumeration and place of usual residence

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of enumeration and place of usual residence.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-11 and P-11a (Usually live).

Place of enumeration and place of birth

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of enumeration and place of birth.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-11 and P-11a (Usually live) and P-09a (Place of birth).

Place of enumeration and place of residence in 1996

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of enumeration and place of residence in 1996.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-11 and P-11a (Usually live) and P-12a (From where moved).

Place of birth and citizenship

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of birth and citizenship.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-09a (Place of birth), P10 and P-10a (Citizenship).

Place of birth and place of usual residence

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of birth and usual residence.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-09a (Place of birth), P-11 and P-11a (Usually live).

Place of birth and place of residence in 1996

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of birth and residence in 1996.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-09a (Place of birth), P-12a (From where moved).

Place of usual residence and place of residence in 1996

Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of usual residence and place of residence in 1996.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-11 and P-11a (Usually live) and P12a (From where moved).

Place of birth, place of residence in 1996, and place of enumeration

(Derived variable)
Notes to users
This is a derived variable indicating combinations of place of birth, place of residence in 1996 and place of enumeration.
Universe
All persons in households (A-type questionnaires) and institutions (B-type questionnaires).
Derivation
This variable is derived from questions P-09a (Place of birth), P-11 and P-11a (Usually live) and P12a (From where moved)

Weight

Notes to users
The 10% person sample file contains a weight variable that is derived from the Post-Enumeration Survey (PES). The weight variable is the adjustment factor for undercount for persons multiplied by 10 to inflate the 10% sample to the relevant population.

In the case of person records aggregated totals might differ substantially from real totals due to the sampling fluctuations -- no scaling of the weights was done.