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HOUSEHOLDS: META DATA

Variables:

1. Province (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: PROVINCE

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 9 provinces

2. Magisterial district (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: DISTRICT

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 354 magisterial districts. The first digit of the magisterial district codes refers to the province codes.

3. District Council (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: DCCODE

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 45 district councils. The first digit of the district council refers to the province codes.

4. Transitional local Council/Rural Council (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: NEWLA

Notes for users
Different terms are used for the local authority boundaries in different parts of the country. There are Transitional Local Councils (TLCs); Transitional Rural Councils (TRCs); Local Authority Councils (LACs); Metropolitan Sub-Structures (MSSs); Metropolitan Local Councils (MLCs); Rural Local Councils (RLCs); District Councils (DCs); Transitional District Councils (TDCs) and Regional Councils (RCs).

To ensure confidentiality within the 10% sample, all local authorities with less than 2000 households have been combined with adjacent ones to form units which are spatially linked. As many local authorities had fewer than this number, they had to be grouped together to ensure that the minimum number of households was met. Hostel dwellers were excluded for the purpose of this exercise.

Local authorities with less than 2000 households were pooled with other local authorities based on the following principles:

A TLC with less than 2000 households was grouped with the TRC within which the TLC was located and vica versa. Where a TRC plus all the TLCs within its boundaries were less than the minimum of 2000 households the TRC (including the TLCs within its boundaries) was pooled with the adjacent TRC. Where TLCs were adjacent to another TLC they were pooled to form one unit.

5. Remarks (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: REMARKS

Notes for users
This field indicates whether a TLC/TRC is combined with adjacent ones. An asterisks (*) in this field indicates that it is combined with adjacent ones and a blank indicates that it is used on its own.

6. Household number (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: HHNUMBER
Numeric variable
Notes for users
A unique number within Province, District council and TLC/TRC allocated to each household.
Applicable population
All households

7. Household questionnaire type

Variable: QUESTYPE

Notes for users
Three types of questionnaires were used during enumeration of Census'96. These are described in the section on 'Census questionnaires' and are:
* Household questionnaire
* Summary book for hostels
* Enumerator's book for special enumeration.
In addition, it was noted in the section on 'Dummy households' that it was necessary to create some dummy records on the household file to enable creation of the household database.

Only household questionnaire type records were included in the household file of the 10% sample.

8. Type of area (Also in person file)

Variable: URBAN

Notes for users
Enumeration area type is a classification of EAs according to (human) settlement. There were two principles guiding the assignment of an EA to a particular class or type. The first one was the EAs specific geographical location. The second principle was the kind of dwellings that were most common within the EA. These two principles led to locational and settlement types as follows:

Urban - EAs within municipal or local authority boundaries. These can be further classified as:
* Ordinary town or city area as well as vacant areas. Various formal structures can be found, e.g. houses, blocks of flats and businesses.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings (so-called 'squatter areas').
* Area with mainly hostels, e.g. mine, factory and municipal hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions e.g. prisons and hospitals.
Rural - EAs with population concentrations adjacent to a municipal border (an EA must have one common boundary with the municipal border) and EAs situated in rural areas (not sharing a common boundary with a proclaimed urban municipal area). These can be further classified as:
* Semi-town (i.e., a town without a local authority) with predominantly formal dwellings.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings.
* Area with mainly hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions.
* Semi-town (i.e. a town without a local authority) with predominantly formal dwellings such as mining, and industrial towns where housing for employees is provided by employers.
* Village/settlement without a local authority and which is not situated within a tribal area and with formal and semi-formal dwellings such as houses, huts and rondavels.
* Tribal authority area with villages.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings.
* Area with mainly hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions.
* Area with farms, agricultural holdings, holiday resorts, agricultural schools and colleges.
* Tribal authority area outside of villages.
Source
'Enumeration area type' relates to the types allocated during Census '96 demarcation, which were verified and, in some cases, updated during 'Project Eagle'. 'Project Eagle' involved the preparation of a GIS (Geographical Information System which is a computerised mapping system) covering the whole of South Africa. This project was conducted during the two years following the census.
Applicable population
All persons, all households

9. Additional money generated by household

Variable: ADDMON2

Notes for users
This is income generated by households, which is not included in individual income, during the period 1 October 1995 - 30 September 1996 for example, the sale of homegrown produce or home-brewed beer or cattle or the rental of property.
Applicable population
All households

10. Remittances or payments receive

Variable: PAYMENT2

Notes for users
This is all remittances or payments received i.e. money send back home by someone working or living elsewhere or alimony during the period 1 October 1995 - 30 September 1996.
Applicable population
All households

11. Migrant workers absent from household

Variable: MIGRANT

Notes for users
Each household was asked whether there were any persons who were usually members of the household, but who were away for a month or more because they were migrant workers?. The following definition of a migrant worker was also provided: 'A migrant worker is someone who is absent from home for more than a month each year to work or to seek work.'

If the respondent answered that there were migrant workers who were usually members of the household, further details were requested for up to four migrant workers per household. This information (age, gender, relationship and current address) is available on the migrant file. The migrant file should not include migrant workers who were at home on Census Night as they would be listed as ordinary members of the household.

A complementary variable was derived for households to record whether any migrant workers were present in the household. See Migrant workers present in household for more details.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB1.3 Are there any persons who are usually members of this household, but who are away for a month or more because they are migrant workers? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Not included
Applicable population
All households

12. Migrant workers present in household

Variable: HHMIGRAN

Notes for users
See Migrant workers absent from household

This variable was derived from the person-level file, question 10, which asked whether any person in the household was a migrant worker. See the person variable Migrant worker for more details.
Source
Derived from persons enumerated on Household questionnaires
Applicable population
All households

13. Type of dwelling

Variable: DWELLING

Notes for users
Each household was asked for the type of dwelling in which they lived. An instruction was included on the questionnaire to the effect that where a household lived in more than one dwelling, they should indicate the main type. The full set of response options (which can be summarised for output purposes) is:
1. House or brick structure on a separate stand or yard
2. Traditional dwelling/hut/structure made of traditional materials
3. Flat in a block of flats
4. Town/cluster/semi-detached house (simplex, duplex or triplex)
5. Unit in a retirement village
6. House/flat/room, in backyard
7. Informal dwelling/shack, in backyard
8. Informal dwelling/shack, NOT in backyard, e.g. in an informal/squatter settlement
9. Room/flatlet not in backyard but on a shared property
10. Caravan/tent
11. None/homeless
12. Other, specify.....
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB1.4 Which type of dwelling does this household occupy? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Not included
Applicable population
All households

14. Number of rooms

Variable: ROOMS
Numeric variable
Notes for users
This question was included for households, hostels and institutions. Households were asked 'How many rooms including kitchens are there for this household? (excluding toilets and bathrooms). One household could occupy one or more rooms, and in some cases, more than one household could share the same room. An additional instruction was included 'For homeless write "0"'.

Hostels and institutions were required to state 'No. of rooms (for sleeping) in the hostel (institution).' As the questions differed, any analysis of this question should be done separately for households and hostels/institutions.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB1.5 How many rooms including kitchens are there for this household? (write in)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Front page No. of rooms (for sleeping) in the hostel (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Front page No. of rooms (for sleeping) in the institution (write in)
Applicable population
All household, hostels and institutions

15. Number of households sharing one room

Variable: NSHAREDH
Numeric variable
Notes for users
All households that lived in one room were asked 'Do you share this room with any other households?' If so, they were then asked 'How many households?' These two questions have been combined together in this variable for the final census data set.

The questions on households sharing one room were included to measure the level of overcrowding of accommodation. If no response was given to these questions, it was assumed in coding that the households were not sharing the room.

Care should be taken to ensure that households are not double counted when analysing this data as all households sharing a room would have been enumerated separately and each should have stated they were sharing a room. Each household should have stated how many other households were sharing the room, although some may have included their own household in the count.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB1.5.1/2 (If 1 room for the whole household), do you share this room with any other households? If 'Yes', how many households? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Not included
Applicable population
All households living in a single room

16. Dwelling ownership

Variable: OWNED

Notes for users: Each household was asked whether the dwelling was owned by a member of the household.
Source:
- Household questionnaire: QB1.6 Is this dwelling owned by a member of this household? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Not included
Applicable population: All households

17. Fuel used for cooking

Variable: FUELCOOK

Notes for users
Each household, hostel and institution was asked 'What type of energy/fuel does this household (hostel/institution) MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting?' A table gave the response options for each of the three tasks. Respondents were instructed to only circle one code for each task. The list of options was slightly different for each variable according to what was applicable. If the response of 'Other', provision was made for a response to be written in but, if it couldn't be related to one of the other response options, it was just coded as 'Other'.

The response list included the following detail for the first two categories (the terms have been summarised for output purposes):
* Electricity direct from municipality/local authority or Eskom
* Electricity from other source, eg. generator, solar cell
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this institution MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

18. Fuel used for heating

Variable: FUELHEAT

Notes for users
See Fuel used for cooking
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this institution MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

19. Fuel used for lighting

Variable: FUELLIGH

Notes for users
See Fuel used for cooking
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.1 What type of energy/fuel does this institution MAINLY use for cooking, heating and lighting? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

20. Main water supply

Variable: WATER

Notes for users
Each household, hostel and institution was asked about their main water supply. The options given varied slightly for households and hostels/institutions:
- Piped (tap) water, in dwelling
Piped (tap) water, for each housing-unit in the hostel/institution
- Piped (tap) water, on site or in yard
Piped (tap) water, on site or yard of hostel/institution
- Public tap
Shared tap/s for residents
- Water-carrier/tanke
Water-carrier/tanker
- Borehole/rain-water tank/well
Borehole/rain-water tank/well
- Dam/river/stream/spring
Dam/river/stream/spring
- Other
Other
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.2 What is this household's main water supply? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.2 What is this hostel's main water supply? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.2 What is this institution's main water supply? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

21. Toilet facilities

Variable: TOILET

Notes for users
Each household, hostel and institution was asked about the toilet facilities available. The responses were the same for all questionnaires (except the plural was used in hostels and institutions). The instructions on all questionnaires noted that only one option was to be circled.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.3 What type of toilet facility is available? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.3 What type of toilet is available? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.3 What type of toilet is available? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

22. Refuse disposal

Variable: REFUSE

Notes for users
Each household, hostel and institution was asked how the refuse or rubbish of the household/hostel/institution was disposed of. The responses were the same for all questionnaires, with the exception of the category 'No rubbish disposal' which appeared as 'None of the above' on hostel and institution questionnaires.

If the response was 'Other', provision was made for a response to be written in but, if it couldn't be related to one of the other response options, it was just coded as 'Other'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.4 How is the refuse or rubbish of this household disposed of? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.4 How is the refuse or rubbish of this hostel disposed of? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.4 How is the refuse or rubbish of this institution disposed of? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

23. Telephone facilities

Variable: TELEPHONE

Notes for users
Households were asked 'Where do members of this household mainly use a telephone?' and a list of six options was provided.

Hostels and institutions were asked ' Is there at least one telephone on this premises that residents can use?' with 'yes' and 'no' being the valid responses.

Thus, as the questions differed for households and hostels/institutions, the data should be analysed separately.
Source
- Household questionnaire: QB2.5 Where do members of this household mainly use a telephone? (pre-coded)
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Q2.5 Is there at least one telephone on this premises that residents can use? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Q2.5 Is there at least one telephone on this premises that residents can use? (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All households, hostels and institutions

24. Population group of head of household

Variable: HOHRACE

Notes for users
See Gender of head of household and Population group
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All households

25. Gender of head of household

Variable: HOHSEX

Notes for users
Some key characteristics of the person recorded as head of household have been copied across to the household file. These are: gender, age, population group, highest education level, employment status and occupation.

See also Gender
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All households

26. Age of head of household

Variable: HOHAGE
Numeric variable
Notes for users
See Gender of head of household and Age
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All households

27. Highest education level of head of household

Variable: HOHEDUCA

Notes for users
On household and personal questionnaires, questions were asked on:
* Highest school class/standard completed
* Any technical or artisan certificate, diploma or degree completed at an educational institution
* Whether currently attending school, college, technikon or university full or part-time
On special enumeration questionnaires, instead of these three questions, a single column was included for 'Highest level of education completed'. Thus, the information available on the educational level of people enumerated on special enumeration questionnaires is not as detailed.

The variable 'Highest education level' summarises the information from the various questions on both questionnaires.

South Africa has twelve years of formal schooling. These are currently referred to as Grade 1 to Grade 12. In some cases a preparatory year, Grade 0, is also available for children who have not yet started formal schooling.

Prior to the introduction of the new grades there were a number of different systems for referring to the different school years. One system referred to Grades 1 and 2 as sub-standards A and B, and Grades 3-12 as standards 1 to 10. Another system referred to the last five years as Forms 1-5. In all systems the twelfth year is usually referred to as the matriculation year. In most systems the seventh year indicated the end of primary schooling.

The questionnaire included the example, when asking for certificates, diplomas or degree, of 'e.g. teacher's diploma, BA degree or NTC III'). Diplomas and post-school certificates are sometimes available to those without matric. Higher education thus does not necessarily imply completion of formal schooling. In the publications post-school without matric is in the same category as post-school with matric.

The category 'Less than matric and qual' is only applicable to people enumerated on household or personal questionnaires as information on the level of schooling of people with higher qualifications isn't available from the special enumeration questionnaires. A problem with coding for special enumeration questionnaires meant that, originally, the same code was used for the categories 'No schooling' and 'Other higher qualification' - in the final data, persons 16 and younger were set to 'No schooling' while other persons were set to 'Other higher qualification'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.1/2 What is the highest school class/standard that (the person) has COMPLETED? Does (the person) have a technical or artisan certificate, a diploma or degree, completed at an educational institution? (e.g. teacher's diploma, BA degree or NTC III) (If "Yes") What is the highest qualification he/she has? (derived from highest school class and qualification level)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.1/2 What is the highest school class/standard that this person has COMPLETED? Does this person have a technical or artisan certificate, a diploma or degree completed at an educational institution? (derived from highest school class and qualification level)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C9 Highest level of education completed (write in)
Applicable population
All persons aged 5 years or older

28. Occupation of head of household

Variable: HOHOCP1

Notes for users
This question was only asked in respect of people who were employed (See Employment status).

Two questions were asked to assist in accurately coding each person's occupation. The first asked for the name of the occupation and gave the following list of examples: 'plumber, street trader, cattle farmer, primary school teacher, domestic worker'. The second asked for more detail on the person's main duty/activity and gave the examples of 'installing pipes in new houses, selling fruit and vegetables, breeding cattle, teaching primary school children, cooking and cleaning'.

Coding was done using a code list of occupations based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88). Originally coding was done to four-digit level but problems with the quality of coding and the fact that many categories had extremely small numbers meant that the data will only be released at three-digit level. The category 'Elementary' was formerly termed 'Unskilled' and can be understood as routine production work.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.3/4 Focus on the occupation of (the person). What would you call this occupation? Describe (the person's) main duty/activity in more detail. (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.3/4 Focus on the occupation of this person. What would you call this occupation? Describe this person's main duty/activity in more detail. (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were employed (household and personal questionnaires only)

29. Employment status of head of household

Variable: HOHECONA

Notes for users
See Gender of head of household
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All households

30. Household size

Variable: HHSIZE
Numeric variable
Notes for users
Household size represents the count of persons in each household.

The number of persons is derived from unweighted person counts.
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All household questionnaires.

31. Highest individual income in household (monthly)

Variable: HINCHH

Notes for users
Income was collected in categories rather than single rand amounts to increase the response rate and to obtain more accurate data.

Respondents could choose to think of income in terms of weekly, monthly or annual amounts. The census questionnaire gave the following instructions: 'Think of the past year (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1996) and the money each person received. Please indicate each person's income category before tax. ... Include all sources of income, for example, housing loan subsidies, bonuses, allowances such as car allowances and investment income. If the person receives a pension or disability grant, please include this amount.' The income asked for therefore included both income earned from work and other income.

This question was asked of all persons, whether working or not at the time of the census. However, for many purposes, users may want to restrict this to all persons aged 15 years or older, or all employed persons. Individual income was used in the derivation of a crude estimate of household income. See the section on household income for more detail. Household income is presented in annual amounts.
Source
- Derived from census records for persons.
Applicable population
All persons on household questionnaires

32. Population group of person with highest income in household

Variable: HINCHHRA

Notes for users
Population group of person with highest income in household

33. Gender of person with highest income in household

Variable: HINCHHSE

Notes for users
Gender of person with highest income in household

34. Derived household income (monthly)

Variable: HHINCCAT

Notes for users
'Derived household income' was calculated by adding together all recorded individual incomes of household members, plus the household's additional income and remittances received. Because individual income was recorded in intervals rather than exact amounts, an approximate amount had to be estimated for the calculations as follows:
* households claiming that they had no income were not adjusted,
* for the first class among those with incomes, the amount was R1 600,
* for the second class, the amount was the midpoint of the class interval,
* for the last class, the amount was R720 000,
* for the other classes, the amount was calculated as the logarithmic mean of the top and bottom of the given interval.
If 'Individual income' was missing for a member of the household aged under 15, the income for the child was set to 0. However, if a member of the household aged 15 years or older had income missing, the 'Derived household income' was set to missing as there was insufficient information for the estimate to be reliable. If 'Additional money generated' or 'Remittances received' were missing, then they were set to 0.

Income for the entire household were again converted into categories.

Warning: You should use this variable with caution and be aware of its limitations. Household income has been derived from personal incomes collected in ranges and additional money generated and remittance received. For each range, an assumption had to be made as to the appropriate point to use for the calculations. This has made the results tentative. Household income does not provide a measure of total income and its accuracy in representing relative income is unknown.

The relatively large proportion of households where one or more members did not specify their incomes needs to be noted. Cross tabulations indicate that they are evenly distributed by education and occupation. Care therefore needs to be taken when interpreting household incomes. Direct comparisons with other data sets cannot be made. The main reason for publishing the data is to show patterns and trends, rather then precise estimates.
Source
- Derived from Individual income, Additional money generated and Remittances received
Applicable population
All households

35. Household weight

Variable: PESHHWEI
Numeric variable
Notes for users
The weight variable is the adjustment factor for undercount to inflate the household file to the population.

PERSONS: META DATA

Variables:

1. Province (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: PROVINCE

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 9 provinces

2. Magisterial district (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: DISTRICT

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 354 magisterial districts. The first digit of the magisterial district codes refers to the province codes.

3. District Council (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: DCCODE

Notes for users
South Africa is divided into 45 district councils. The first digit of the district council refers to the province codes.

4. Transitional local Council/Rural Council (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: NEWLA

Notes for users
Different terms are used for the local authority boundaries in different parts of the country. There are Transitional Local Councils (TLCs); Transitional Rural Councils (TRCs); Local Authority Councils (LACs); Metropolitan Sub-Structures (MSSs); Metropolitan Local Councils (MLCs); Rural Local Councils (RLCs); District Councils (DCs); Transitional District Councils (TDCs) and Regional Councils (RC's).

To ensure confidentiality within the 10% sample, all local authorities with less than 2000 households have been combined with adjacent ones to form units which are spatially linked. As many local authorities had fewer than this number, they had to be grouped together to ensure that the minimum number of households was met. Hostel dwellers were excluded for the purpose of this exercise.

Local authorities with less than 2000 households were pooled with other local authorities based on the following principles: A TLC with less than 2000 households was grouped with the TRC within which the TLC was located and vica versa. Where a TRC plus all the TLCs within its boundaries were less than the minimum of 2000 households the TRC (including the TLCs within its boundaries) was pooled with the adjacent TRC. Where TLCs were adjacent to another TLC they were pooled to form one unit.

5. Remarks (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: REMARKS

Notes for users
This field indicates whether a TLC/TRC is combined with adjacent ones. An asterisks (*) in this field indicates that it is combined with adjacent ones and a blank indicates that it is used on its own.

6. Household number (Common variable in both SAPERSON and SAHHOLD files)

Variable: HHNUMBER
Numeric variable
Notes for users
A unique number within Province, District council and TLC/TRC allocated to each household.
Applicable population
All households
7. Person number

Variable: PERSONNO
Numeric variable
Notes for users
A unique number was allocated to each person within a household. The persons in hostels, institutions and 'Dummy households' were all set to 1.

See also household questionnaire type.
Applicable population
All persons in households and institutions.

8. Household questionnaire type

Variable: HHRECORD

Notes for users
Three types of questionnaires were used in Census'96. These are described in the section on 'Census questionnaires' and are:
* Household questionnaire
* Summary book for hostels
* Enumerator's book for special enumeration.
In addition, it was noted in the section on 'Dummy households' that it was necessary to create some dummy records on the household file to enable creation of the household database.

Only records with questionnaire type 'H' should be selected when merging with the household file.

9. Type of area (Also in household file)

Variable: URBAN

Notes for users
Enumeration area type is a classification of EAs according to (human) settlement. There were two principles guiding the assignment of an EA to a particular class or type. The first one was the EAs specific geographical location. The second principle was the kind of dwellings that were most common within the EA. These two principles led to locational and settlement types as follows:

Urban - EAs within municipal or local authority boundaries. These can be further classified as:
* Ordinary town or city area as well as vacant areas. Various formal structures can be found, e.g. houses, blocks of flats and businesses.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings (so-called 'squatter areas').
* Area with mainly hostels, e.g. mine, factory and municipal hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions e.g. prisons and hospitals.
Rural - EAs with population concentrations adjacent to a municipal border (an EA must have one common boundary with the municipal border) and EAs situated in rural areas (not sharing a common boundary with a proclaimed urban municipal area). These can be further classified as:
* Semi-town (i.e., a town without a local authority) with predominantly formal dwellings.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings.
* Area with mainly hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions.
* Semi-town (i.e. a town without a local authority) with predominantly formal dwellings such as mining, and industrial towns where housing for employees is provided by employers.
* Village/settlement without a local authority and which is not situated within a tribal area and with formal and semi-formal dwellings such as houses, huts and rondavels.
* Tribal authority area with villages.
* Area with mainly informal dwellings.
* Area with mainly hostels.
* Area with mainly institutions.
* Area with farms, agricultural holdings, holiday resorts, agricultural schools and colleges.
* Tribal authority area outside of villages.
Source
'Enumeration area type' relates to the types allocated during Census'96 demarcation, which were verified and, in some cases, updated during 'Project Eagle'. 'Project Eagle' involved the preparation of a GIS (Geographical Information System which is a computerised mapping system) covering the whole of South Africa. This project was conducted during the two years following the census.
Applicable population
All persons, all households

10. Type of institution

Variable: INSTTYPE

Notes for users
An institution is one that is not occupied by a household. It includes institutions such as a prison, hotel, hostel, home for the aged, etc.

The questionnaire used in institutions included a question on the type of the institution. The response options provided were:
* Tourist hotel/motel
* Residential hotel/boarding house/private hotel
* Home for the aged
* Home for the disabled (sight, hearing, physical or mental)
* Hospital/medical facility/clinic (including mental hospitals)
* Hostel/compound for workers provided by mines, other employers, municipalities or local authorities
* Shelter for the homeless/night shelter/refuge
* School hostel/hostel at an educational institution
* Child care institution/orphanage
* Children's correctional institution/place of safety
* Initiation school
* Prison/correctional services institution/police cells
* Police quarters
* Nurses' quarters/doctors' quarters
* Church hall/community centre/recreation centre
* Convent/monastery/religious retreat/mission stations
* Caravan park/camping site/marina
* Diplomatic mission abroad
* Defence force
* Refugee settlements
* Ships in the harbours
* South African islands
* Border posts
* Other
Source
- Household questionnaire: Not included
- Summary questionnaire for hostels: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire for institutions: Second page - type of institution (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All institutions

11. Gender

Variable: SEX

Notes for users
Gender is a key demographic variable. Where it was not provided a response was manually imputed, based, if possible, on other information from the questionnaire.

Interviewers were instructed that they could complete this question based on their observation and did not have to ask it if the person was present.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q1.2 Is (the person) male or female? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q2 Is this person male or female? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C3 Gender (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All persons

12. Age

Variable: AGE
Numeric variable
Notes for users
The household and personal questionnaires asked for date of birth and, if not known, age in years. The special enumeration questionnaire included columns for both age in years and date of birth. Date of birth was requested because it is easier for some people to remember (rather than having to calculate age) and to try to minimise the tendency for people to round off responses to the nearest decade. If both age and date of birth were given, date of birth was accepted if the responses were inconsistent.

The question required the age in completed years. The household questionnaire included the following instruction: 'For babies under one year, write "0" years, if date of birth is not known.'

Responses of 120 or greater were set to 'Unspecified'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q2 What is (the person's) date of birth? (Give as much information as is known.). Or else, please give this person's age in years or give an estimate. (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q3 What is this person's date of birth? (Give as much information as is known.) Or else, if date of birth is not known, what is the (estimated) age of this person? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C4 and C5 Age in years; Date of birth (write in)
Applicable population
All persons

13. Relationship to head

Variable: RELSHIP

Notes for users
The questionnaire asked about the relationship of each person in the household to the head or acting head of the household. The list of relationships which could be specified were as follows:
* Head/acting head of household
* Husband/wife/partner
* Son/daughter/stepchild/adopted child
* Brother/sister
* Father/mother
* Grandparent
* Grandchild
* Other relative (e.g. in-laws)
* Non-related person
As respondents were only asked about the relationship to the head (or acting head) of the household, some marriage and parent/child relationships in households cannot be identified. For example, if a household consisted of two unrelated couples, the relationships would be:
Person 1: Head,
Person 2: Husband/wife,
Person 3: Non-related person,
Person 4: Non-related person.
Thus the second couple would not be identified as a couple.

It was dependent upon respondents to nominate the head of the household and no guidelines were provided on the questionnaire as to who this should be. The interviewer's instructions defined head of household as 'a male or a female who assumes responsibility for the household'.

The category 'Son/daughter' includes stepchildren and adopted children as well as natural children. On the questionnaire, 'in-laws' was given as an example for 'Other relative' although many other relationships would also fall within this category.

Although this question was not included in personal questionnaires, it is not possible to distinguish personal and household questionnaires on the dataset. Thus, persons in personal questionnaires have been included in the 'Unspecified' category.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q3 What is (each individual's) relation to (the person listed in column 1)? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Not included
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons enumerated in household questionnaires

14. Marital status

Variable: MARSTAU

Notes for users
A question was included on each person's marital status, regardless of their age. The following responses were allowed:
* Never married
* Married: Civil/religious
* Married: Traditional/customary
* Living together (with partner)
* Widower/widow
* Divorced/separated
'Married: Civil/religious' should include, for example, a person married in a church or in a magistrate's office. 'Married: Traditional/customary' should include a person married according to African traditions or customs. A person married according to Muslim rites, or one married according to both civil and customary rites, could have been listed under either.

Only information on the person's present marital status was sought. 'Living together' was treated as a legitimate option, even though the person may have a different registered marital status (eg. never married or divorced).

All persons aged under 16 were coded as 'Never married'.

It is possible that a person's marital status may apparently differ from the relationship stated. This may be as a result of the respondent perceiving the questions as relating to different issues or may be due to genuine errors.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q4 What is (the person's) PRESENT marital status? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q4 What is this person's PRESENT marital status? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household or personal questionnaires

15. Population group

Variable: RACE

Notes for users
The question asked 'How would the person describe him/herself?' Thus population group reflects the respondent's chosen identification and does not reflect any 'official' definition. Interviewers were instructed: 'Accept the response that is given even if you don't agree'.

Only four options were provided on the questionnaire (African/Black, Coloured, Indian/Asian and White). Respondents were not given an option of 'Other'.

During Census '96 when some people whom identified as Griquas requested to be identified as a separate population group. At short notice, instructions were changed to allow interviewers to write '5 Griqua' on the questionnaire and these responses were coded separately. However, the number of people identifying themselves as Griqua was small and represented an under-identification of the number of people who would have been identified as Griquas if there had been such a category on the questionnaire to indicate that this was a valid response. People identifying as 'Griqua' have been included with 'Unspecified'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q5 How would (the person) describe him-/herself? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q5 How would this person describe him-herself? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C6 Population Group (pre-coded)
Applicable population
All persons

16. First language

Variable: LANGUAG1

Notes for users
The questionnaires asked what language each person spoke most often at home. Household and personal questionnaires then included questions on whether the person spoke more than one language at home and, if so, what was the next most often spoken language.

A coding list of languages was compiled, including the 11 official languages as well as other languages which are relatively commonly spoken in South Africa.

Interviewers were instructed: 'For babies, write down the home language of their parents. (If the parents have different home languages, write down the mother's home language).'
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q6.1 Which languages does (the person) speak MOST OFTEN AT HOME? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q6.1 Which language does this person speak MOST OFTEN AT HOME? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C7 Home language (write in)
Applicable population
All persons

17. Second language

Variable: LANGUAG2

Notes for users
See First language.

This question involved two parts - firstly, whether the person spoke more than one language and then, if so, what language was spoken next most often. The responses to both these parts have been incorporated into the single variable 'Second language'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q6.2 Does (the person) speak more than one language AT HOME? If 'Yes', specify the language he/she speaks NEXT MOST OFTEN. (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q6.2 Does this person speak more than one language AT HOME? If 'Yes', specify the language he/she speaks NEXT MOST OFTEN (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

18. Religion

Variable: RELIGION

Notes for users
This was the only question on the census questionnaire that was optional and indicated as such on the questionnaire. In addition, persons with no religion or belief could, if they wished, be identified as such. The questionnaire included the instruction: 'If no religion, write "none".' Where no response was provided for babies or children, interviewers and coders were instructed to allocate the religion of the parents or, if different, of the mother.

The list below contains summarised versions of the full coding descriptions. The detailed descriptions are available from Stats SA if required.

As many categories contain very small counts, it is recommended that the standard recode is used wherever possible.

The following grouping (recoding) was compiled by an academic from the University of Pretoria and is recommended to users in preference to the full listing:

- Dutch Reformed churches
Dutch Reformed churches
- Zion Christian churches
St Engena's Zion Christian Church
Zion Christian Church
- Catholic churches
Roman Catholic Church
Other Catholic churches
- Methodist churches
Methodist Church of SA
Other Methodist churches
- Pentecostal/Charismatic churches
International Fellowship of Christian Churches
Pinkster Protestante Kerk
Full Gospel Church of God in Southern Africa
Other Pentecostal churches
Salvation Army United Church
Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Assemblies of God of South Africa
International Pentecost Church
Other Pentecostal churches
Other (Seventh-Day) Adventist churches
Other assemblies
Christian Centres
Other Evangelical churches
Other Charismatic churches
- Anglican churches
Anglican Church
Church of England in South Africa
- Apostolic Faith Mission
Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa
- Lutheran churches
Lutheran Church of Southern Africa
Other Lutheran churches
- Presbyterian churches
Presbyterian churches
Other Presbyterian churches
- Bandla Lama Nazaretha
Bandla Lama Nazaretha
- Baptist churches
Baptist Churches of Southern Africa
Other Baptist churches
- Congregational churches
United Congregational Church of South Africa
Other Congregational churches
- Orthodox churches
Greek Orthodox
Other Orthodox churches
- Other Apostolic churches
Other Apostolic churches
New Apostolic Church
St John's Apostolic Church
Other African Apostolic churches
- Other Zionist churches
Other Zionist churches
- Ethiopian type churches
African Methodist Episcopal Church
Ethiopian type churches
Ethnic churches
- Other Reformed churches
Reformed churches
Nederduits Hervormde Kerk
Afrikaanse Protestante Kerk
- Other African independent churches
Other African independent churches
- Other Christian churches
Other Christian churches
Christian Scientist
- African traditional belief
African traditional belief
- Judaism
Judaism
- Hinduism
Hinduism
- Islam
Islam
- Other non-Christian churches
Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints
Buddhism
Taoist
Confucian
Bahais
New Age
Jehovah's Witnesses
Other non-Christian religions
- No religion
No religion
- Refused, Other, Unspecified
Refused
Other
Unspecified
- N/A: Institution
N/A: Institution
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q7 What is (the person's) religion, denomination or belief? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q7 What is this person's religion, denomination or belief? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

19. Country of birth

Variable: BIRTHCOU

Notes for users
The question involved two parts - firstly, whether the person was born in South Africa and then, if not, in which country was the person born. The responses to both these parts have been incorporated into the single variable 'Country of birth'. The first question, relating to whether the person was born in South Africa, included the instruction 'Include the former Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, Ciskei - TBVC states)'. A coding list was established for coding country of birth for those born outside South Africa. Countries are listed according to the name in use at the time of Census '96. Thus Zaire is listed as such although later the name of the country was changed to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Many countries have very small counts. For most purposes, users may find the recode more appropriate.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q8 Was (the person) born in South Africa? If 'No', in what country was the person born? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q8 Was this person born in South Africa? If 'No, in what country was this person born? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

20. Citizenship

Variable: CITIZENC

Notes for users
The question on citizenship was a two-part question on the household and personal questionnaires. The first part obtained information on whether the person was a citizen of South Africa, another country or both South Africa and another country. The second part of the question asked for the other country of citizenship if there was one. The term 'citizen' was not defined on the census questionnaire.

On special enumeration questionnaires, only 'Nationality or Citizenship' was asked for and no information was obtained on dual citizenship.

The variable 'Citizenship' summarizes the information from all these questions. If a person was recorded as a citizen of both South Africa and another country, they are recorded as a citizen of South Africa in this variable. If information on dual citizenship is required, the variables 'Citizen of South Africa' and 'Citizen of other country' should be used.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q9 Is (the person) a citizen of... (If dual citizenship or citizenship or another country), what is the name of the country? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q9 Is this person a citizen of... (If dual citizenship or citizenship of another country), what is the name of the country? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C8 Nationality or Citizenship (write in)
Applicable population
All persons

21. Citizen of other country

Variable: CITIZENO

Notes for users
See Citizenship. This variable relates to the second question on citizenship on household and personal questionnaires. It records the country a person is a citizen of, if they are a citizen of another country. When used with Citizenship of South Africa, it is possible to determine whether or not the person is also a citizen of South Africa.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q9.2 If dual citizenship or citizenship of another country, what is the name of the country? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q9.2 If dual citizenship or citizenship of another country, what is the name of the country? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires.

22. Citizen of South Africa

Variable: CITIZENR

Notes for users
See Citizenship. This variable contains the results of the first question on citizenship/dual citizenship on household and personal questionnaires.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q9.1 Is (the person) a citizen of... (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q9.1 Is this person a citizen of... (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires.

23. Migrant worker

Variable: MIGWORKE

Notes for users
On the census questionnaire, a migrant worker was defined as 'Someone who is absent from home for more than a month each year to work or to seek work'. The interviewer's instructions further clarified that the month did not have to be continuous: 'A person away from home who returns home every weekend is regarded as a migrant worker providing that the total period away from home is a month or more.'

Although the question was asked in respect of all persons, those under 15 were set to 'Not applicable' in line with all other employment-related variables.

It is not possible to determine conclusively whether a migrant worker was enumerated at the place they consider home or the place they have migrated to for work. However, the questions on usual residence and district of employment may be of some use.

The data from this question was also used to derive the household variable indicating whether any migrant workers were present in the household (Migrant workers present in hhold). Complementary information was obtained from the question for each household on whether there were any people who were absent from the household because they were migrant workers (Migrant workers absent from hhold).
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q10 Is (the person) a migrant worker? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q10 Is this person a migrant worker? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 or older and enumerated on household or personal questionnaires.

24. Place of usual residence

Variable: TEMPRESI

Notes for users
For Census '96, each person should have been enumerated where they stayed on Census Night (the night of 9-10 October 1996). However, for some purposes, users may be more interested in where each person usually lived at the time of the census as some people may have been absent from their usual residence temporarily when enumerated. This information was obtained through the question 'Is this dwelling the place where the person usually lives, i.e. where the person spends at least four nights per week?'

A response of 'No usual address' was included. This response was included for people who did not have a permanent place of residence at the time of the census, such as homeless people. However, other people, such as people who moved regularly for work and had no home base, may also have selected this response.

The question on usual residence had two parts. The first determined whether or not the person was enumerated at their usual residence while the second recorded the location of the usual residence. This variable, Place of usual residence, contains the results of the first part of the question.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q11.1 Is this DWELLING (e.g. house, room, shack, flat) the place where (the person) usually lives, i.e. where (the person) spends at least four nights per week? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q11.1 Is this DWELLING the place where the person usually lives, i.e. where the person spends at least four nights per week? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

25. Magisterial district/country of usual residence

Variable: USUALDIS

Notes for users
This variable records the location of each person's usual residence. If they were enumerated at their usual residence, or did not have a usual address, then the information was copied from their location of enumeration. If they were enumerated elsewhere, then the appropriate code was allocated.

During processing, coding was done for Magisterial district and Place name. However, at this time, only the Magisterial district data is available as the Place name codes are still being finalised.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q11 If 'No', where does (this person) usually live? (write in if elsewhere, derived if census address)
- Personal questionnaire: Q11 If 'No', where does this person usually live? (write in if elsewhere, derived if census address)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

26. Year moved to usual residence

Variable: MOVEDY2

Notes for users
If the person had ever moved, the respondent was asked for the year in which the person moved to the dwelling of usual residence and then for the location (Magisterial district and Place name) of the previous residence. This variable, 'Year moved to usual residence', records whether each person had moved and, if so, in what year they last moved.

This variable should be used in conjunction with 'District of usual residence', and 'District of previous residence'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q12.1 In which year did (the person) move to the dwelling (e.g. house, room, shack, flat) where he/she usually lives? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q12.1 In which year did the person move to the dwelling where he/she usually lives? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

27. Magisterial district/country of previous residence

Variable: MOVEDDIS

Notes for users
During processing, coding was done for Magisterial district and Place name. However, at this time, only the Magisterial district data is available as the Place name codes are still being finalised.

The questionnaire included the reminder 'Before moving into the dwelling where he/she usually lives' after the question in order to prompt for most recent previous place of residence.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q12.2 From where did (the person) move? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q12.2 From where did this person move? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons who have ever moved

28. Disability status

Variable: DISABLECD

Notes for users
Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not the person concerned had a serious visual, hearing, physical or mental disability. The identification of disability was dependent on the respondent's interpretation of what constituted a serious sight, hearing, physical or mental disability. The response categories gave prompts for sight and physical disabilities and were as follows:
* Sight (serious eye defects)
* Hearing/speech
* Physical disability (e.g. paralysis)
* Mental disability
The respondent or interviewer was required to circle all applicable disabilities for the person concerned.

Interviewer's instructions offered some assistance with the definition of serious disability: 'The question is subjective. Allow the respondent to decide on what he or she feels is a serious disability. As a guide, however, you can indicate that a serious disability is one which prevents the person from performing normal activities of daily living, for example, getting in or out of bed, dressing, washing or even working, without assistance or equipment.'

The data from this question should only be considered a rough indication of the incidence of disabilities in the population. Other sources of data, which incorporate rigorous definitions of what constitutes a serious disability, should be used as a supplement to this information. A person may have more than one disability. The variable 'Disability status' incorporates the information from the first question on whether a person has a disability as well as the type of disability if a person had only one type. For more detailed information on the number (if more than one) and combinations of disabilities people may have, it is necessary to look at the data for the separate variables on sight, hearing, physical and mental disabilities.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q13 Does (the person) have a serious sight, hearing, physical or mental disability? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q13 Does this person have a serious sight, hearing, physical or mental disability? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household or personal questionnaires

29. Sight disability

Variable: SIGHT

Notes for users
See Disability status
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons with a disability (on household and personal questionnaires)

30. Hearing disability

Variable: HEARING

Notes for users
See Disability status
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons with a disability (on household and personal questionnaires)

31. Physical disability

Variable: PHYSICAL

Notes for users
See Disability status
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons with a disability (on household and personal questionnaires)

32. Mental disability

Variable: MENTAL

Notes for users
See Disability status
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q13 (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons with a disability (on household and personal questionnaires)

33. Mother still alive

Variable: MOTHERAL

Notes for users
In order for users to be able to derive adult mortality information, questions were included to determine for each person whether their biological mother and biological father were still alive. As the respondent may not know whether the person's parents are still living, allowance was made for responses of 'Don't know'.

Interviewer's instructions clarified that the questions referred to the person's biological parents.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q14.1 Is (the person's) own mother still alive? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q14.1 Is this person's own mother still alive? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

34. Father still alive

Variable: FATHERAL

Notes for users
See Mother still alive
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q14.2 Is (the person's) own father still alive? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q14.2 Is this person's own father still alive? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

35. Number of children ever born

Variable: CHILBORN
Numeric variable
Notes for users
A series of questions were asked of women aged 12 years or above to obtain information on fertility. The questions enquired as to the number of live births, the number of children still living, the month and year in which the first child was born and, for women less than 50 years of age, the number of live births in the preceding 12 months (since 10 October 1995).

The four variables included in final census data are:
- No. of children ever born
- No. of children still living
- No. of births in last 12 months
- Age of mother at birth of first child.
If no response was provided to the first question on children ever born, the subsequent responses were set to Not applicable. This was done to improve analysis of the questions which followed as it is not possible to interpret them accurately without the response to the first, key question.

The questionnaire included the instruction 'Please include her children who are not living with her and those who have died'. Responses of up to 30 were coded for the number of children ever born. Responses greater than 30 were set to Unspecified.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q15.1 How many children, if any, has the woman ever given birth to? (live births) (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q15.1 How many children, if any has this woman ever given birth to (live births)? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
Women aged 12 years or older

36. Number of children still living

Variable: CHILDLIV
Numeric variable
Notes for users
See No. of children ever born

Women who had not had any children born were set to 0 for this variable. Again, an upper limit of 30 was used for responses.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q15.2 How many of her children are still living? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q15.2 How many of her children are still living? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
Women aged 12 years and older for whom there was a response to No. of children ever born

37. Age of mother at birth of first child

Variable: AGEFRSTB
Numeric variable
Notes for users
See No. of children ever born

This variable was derived from the month and year when the woman's first child was born and from her age. If either the year of the first birth or the mother's age were unspecified, this variable was set to 'Unspecified'. Also, the range of ages for the first birth was limited to 12 to 49 and any derived ages outside this range were set to 'Unspecified' as well.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q15.3 When was her FIRST child born? (live birth) (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q15.3 When was her FIRST child born? (live birth) (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
Women aged 12 years and older who have given birth to at least one child

38. Number of births in last 12 months

Variable: BORNLAST
Numeric variable
Notes for users
See No. of children ever born

This question was only asked in respect of mothers born after 10 October 1946, i.e. those less than 50 years of age at the time of Census '96.

An upper limit of 9 was used for responses to this question. However, most responses greater than 4 are likely to be erroneous and this users may want to make allowance for this in their analysis.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q15.4 How many children (live births), if any, has she given birth to IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS (since 10 October 1995)? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q15.4 How many children (live births), if any, has she given birth to the last 12 months? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
Women aged over 12 years and under 50 years who gave a response to No. of children ever born

39. Highest school class completed

Variable: SCHOOL

Notes for users
See 'Highest education level'

This variable should be used where information on schooling only is required, regardless of any possible further educational qualifications. This variable is not available for persons enumerated on special enumeration questionnaires as information on schooling and higher qualification were not obtained separately.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.1 What is the highest school class/standard that (the person) has COMPLETED? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.1 What is the highest school class/standard that this person has COMPLETED? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 5 years or older on household and personal questionnaires

40. Highest post-school qualification field

Variable: QUALFLD

Notes for users
See 'Highest post-school qualification level'.

As only the name of the qualification was requested on the census questionnaire, the available information on the field of qualification is limited. For example, persons with a BA (Bachelor of Arts) may have majored in languages, history, geography, demography, philosophy or a range of other subjects but this information is not available from the census data. Originally qualifications were coded according to a detailed code list of fields but, given the limitations, only the summary data provided in this variable can be considered relatively reliable.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.2 What is the highest qualification he/she has? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.2 What is the highest qualification he/she has? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C9 Highest level of education completed (write in)
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years or older

41. Studying status

Variable: STUDY

Notes for users
See 'Highest education level'

This question enquired as to whether the person was currently attending school, college, technikon or university and, where this was the case, distinguished between full-time and part-time study. The response options were:
* Yes, full-time
* Yes, part-time
* No
No definition was given in the questionnaire of 'full-time' or 'part-time' and respondents were thus required to interpret these terms themselves. Usually this should not be difficult as educational institutions define courses as full or part-time. However, if the respondent is giving information on behalf of someone else they may not be aware of the details of a course.

The questionnaire included an instruction to the effect that correspondence education, but not pre-school education, were to be included. The instruction read as follows: 'This includes study by correspondence, but excludes creche and pre-school.'

Analysis of the results of this question indicated that there may have been a problem with the quality of the data. Some responses to this question contradicted responses given to a later question. That is, some persons recorded as not studying for question 16.3 were recorded as being 'scholar/full-time student' for question 18.1 on usual activity. The cause of this problem is not clear but respondents could have mistakenly thought that the question on studying applied only to post-school institutions as it appeared after the question on post-school qualifications. Where responses contradicted, the response to the second question was considered to be correct and the variable 'Studying status' was amended accordingly. However, if users would prefer the unedited data, this is available from Stats SA as a special request.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.3 Does (the person) presently attend school, college, technikon or university? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.3 Does this person presently attend school, college, technikon or university? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 5 years and older on household and personal questionnaires

42. Highest post-school qualification level

Variable: QUALLEV

Notes for users
See 'Highest education level'

The question on post-school qualification consisted of two parts. The first part asked 'Does the person have a technical or artisan certificate, a diploma or degree completed at an educational institution?' and then, for persons with a post-school qualification, the second part requested the name of the qualification. The information from both parts of this question are combined together in the variables 'Highest post-school qualification level' and 'Highest post-school qualification field'.

Information on the level of the qualification was based on the name of the qualification given by the respondent. Thus, the code was derived from the level associated with the name or abbreviation provided and not from a description of level.

The assumption was made that persons aged under 15 can't have post-school qualifications and so they were set to 'Not applicable' for the qualifications questions.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.2 Does (the person) have a technical or artisan certificate, a diploma or degree, completed at an educational institution? If 'Yes', what is the highest qualification he/she has? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.2 Does this person have a technical or artisan certificate, a diploma or degree completed at an educational institution? (first part pre-coded, second part write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: C9 Highest level of education completed (write in)
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years or older

43. Highest school class completed

Variable: DEDUCODE

Notes for users
See 'Highest education level'

This variable should be used where information on schooling only is required, regardless of any possible further educational qualifications. This variable is not available for persons enumerated on special enumeration questionnaires as information on schooling and higher qualification were not obtained separately.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q16.1 What is the highest school class/standard that (the person) has COMPLETED? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q16.1 What is the highest school class/standard that this person has COMPLETED? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 5 years or older on household and personal questionnaires

44. Employment status

Variable: ECONACTT

Notes for users
Employment status refers to whether a person is employed, unemployed or not economically active. The two sub-categories of employed and unemployed together constitute the category economically active. The category of not economically active includes all those who are not currently regarded as part of the labour force.

Employee status is derived from two questions - Q17 'Does the person work?' and Q18.1 relating to the reasons a person is not working. As all the information from the individual questions is included in the derived variable, the individual variables were not required on the final census database. The census questionnaire provided respondents with some guidance as to what constituted 'work'. It was defined as including working for pay, profit or family gain. The following activities were listed as work:
* Formal work for a salary or wage
* Informal work such as making things for sale or selling things or rendering a service
* Work on a farm or the land, whether for a wage or as part of the household's farming activities.
If the person did not fall in one of these categories, they were to be considered not working and were required to answer the following question on the reason for not working. The following response options were listed and no additional definitions or prompts were provided:
* Unemployed and looking for work
* Unemployed, not looking for work, but would accept work
* Housewife/home-maker
* Child not yet scholar
* Scholar/full-time student
* Pensioner/retired person
* Disabled person
* Not wishing to work
* None of the above
There are few 'Unspecified' codes as, in most cases, coders followed the instructions to allocate codes of 'No' (Not working) and 'None of the above' where no information related to employment was provided.

Stats SA has developed two definitions of unemployment for use in household surveys -- a strict and an expanded definition. The strict definition is the official definition. The two definitions differ in the requirements for people to be actively looking for work and available to start work. It is not possible to replicate either definition in the census as the information obtained does not include sufficient detail. However, the first category of unemployed ('Unemployed and looking for work') is roughly equivalent to the expanded definition of unemployment used for other surveys. The second category of unemployed ('Unemployed, not looking for work, but would accept work'), despite the inclusion of the word 'unemployed', was treated as not economically active as it does not include the requirement that the person be looking for work. As such, it has been renamed 'Not working - not looking for work' in the dataset to ensure it is treated correctly in analysis.

While all persons aged 5 years and older were asked the questions on employment, the final census file includes only the data for persons aged 15 years and older. As a result, the category of 'Child not yet scholar' was set to 'Unspecified' as it is not applicable to persons aged over 15. Information on child labour will be available from the Child Labour Survey to be conducted by Stats SA in early 1999.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q17/18.1 Does (the person) work? (For the person who is not working), is (the person) one of the following... (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q17/18.1 Does this person work (for pay, profit or family gain)? (For the person who is not working), is this person one of the following... (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older on household and personal questionnaires

45. Full-time or part-time work

Variable: WORKTIME

Notes for users
This question was asked only in respect of those people who were working i.e. with employment status of 'Employed' (see Employment Status).

There was no definition of 'full-time' or 'part-time' provided on the census questionnaire or to interviewers. Thus, respondents may have interpreted the terms differently. This should be remembered in analysing the data.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.1 Does (the person) carry out this activity full-time or part-time? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.1 Does this person carry out this activity full-time or part-time? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were working (household and personal questionnaires only)

46. Work status

Variable: WMPLOYME

Notes for users
Work status refers to whether a person is an employee, an employer, self-employed and working alone, or works in a family business.

This question asked for the best description of the person's 'activities or work status'. The following options were provided:
* Works for him-/herself without employing anyone else (self-employed)
* Works for him-/herself and employs other people (employer)
* Works for an organisation or someone else (employee)
* Works in family business
The category 'Works in family business' could overlap with other responses. It was up to the respondent to decide which was appropriate.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.2 How can one best describe (the person's) activities or work status? (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.2 How can one best describe this person's activities or work status? (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were working (household and personal questionnaires only)

47. Occupation

Variable: OCCUPAT

Notes for users
This question was only asked in respect of people who were employed (See Employment status). Two questions were asked to assist in accurately coding each person's occupation. The first asked for the name of the occupation and gave the following list of examples: 'plumber, street trader, cattle farmer, primary school teacher, domestic worker'. The second asked for more detail on the person's main duty/activity and gave the examples of 'installing pipes in new houses, selling fruit and vegetables, breeding cattle, teaching primary school children, cooking and cleaning'.

Coding was done using a code list of occupations based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO 88). Originally coding was done to four-digit level but problems with the quality of coding and the fact that many categories had extremely small numbers meant that the data will only be released at three-digit level. Recodes will be available to provide data at one- or two-digit level which should be sufficient for most purposes.

The category 'Elementary' was formerly termed 'Unskilled' and can be understood as routine production work.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.3/4 Focus on the occupation of (the person). What would you call this occupation? Describe (the person's) main duty/activity in more detail. (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.3/4 Focus on the occupation of this person. What would you call this occupation? Describe this person's main duty/activity in more detail. (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were employed (household and personal questionnaires only)

48. Occupation last employed

Variable: LSTWRK1

Notes for users
This question was asked in respect of all people who were not working/employed at the time of the census, and who were said to be either (a) unemployed and looking for work or (b) unemployed/not working and not looking for work but would accept work. The question was thus addressed to all people with a response of unemployed on the census questionnaire (see Employment status).
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q18.2/3 Focus on the type of work (the person) used to do in his/her last occupation. What would you call this occupation? Describe (the person's) main duty or activity that (he/she) used to do in this occupation in more detail (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q18.2/3 Focus on the type of work this person used to do in his/her last occupation. What would you call this occupation? Describe this person's main duty or activity that he/she used to do in this occupation in more detail (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were either 'Unemployed, looking for work' and 'Not working - not looking for work') (household and personal questionnaires only)

49. Industry

Variable: INDUSTR

Notes for users
Industry refers to the economic sector in which the person works. The question was only asked in respect of people who were employed (see Employment status).

The classification used for coding was based on the International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) 1993. Coding was done to the three-digit level but will only be released at the two-digit level due to the very small numbers in some three-digit categories.

Coding was based on the question 'What does the business do (main economic activity)?' Additional instructions were provided as follows: 'Describe the MAIN INDUSTRY, economic activity, produce or service of the person's employer or company, e.g. gold mining, road construction, supermarket, police service, hairdressing, banking; OR activity of the person, if self-employed, e.g. subsistence farming.' The question on the name of the business or company that the person works for was also referred to when needed in coding. The instruction for the question on the name of the business or company specified that the respondent or interviewer should indicate 'Domestic Service' for persons doing paid domestic work in a private household.

Domestic workers in private households are included in the industry category 'private households'.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.5/7 What is the FULL name of the business/company or organisation for whom (the person) is working? What does the business do (main economic activity)? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.5/7 What is the FULL name of the business/company or organisation for whom this person is working? What does the business do (main economic activity)? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were employed (household and personal questionnaires only)

50. Magisterial district of employment

Variable: WORKINGD

Notes for users
This question was only asked in respect of people who were working/employed at the time of the census (see Employment status).

The question inquired about each individual's place of work. Respondents were asked to give the name of the suburb, village or settlement, the name of the city, town, farm or tribal authority, and the name of the magisterial district. If the place was not in South Africa, they were asked for the name of the country. This was coded to both 'Magisterial district' and 'Place name'. At this stage only 'Magisterial district' data is available.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q19.6 Where is this place of work? (write in)
- Personal questionnaire: Q19.6 Where is the place of work? (write in)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons aged 15 years and older who were working (household and personal questionnaires only)

51. Individual income (monthly)

Variable: INCOME

Notes for users
Income was collected in categories rather than single rand amounts to increase the response rate and to obtain more accurate data.

Respondents could choose to think of income in terms of weekly, monthly or annual amounts. The census questionnaire gave the following instructions: 'Think of the past year (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1996) and the money each person received. Please indicate each person's income category before tax. ... Include all sources of income, for example, housing loan subsidies, bonuses, allowances such as car allowances and investment income. If the person receives a pension or disability grant, please include this amount.' The income asked for therefore included both income earned from work and other income.

This question was asked of all persons, whether working or not at the time of the census. However, for many purposes, users may want to restrict this to all persons aged 15 years or older, or all employed persons. Individual income was used in the derivation of a crude estimate of household income. See the section on household income for more detail. Household income is presented in annual amounts.
Source
- Household questionnaire: Q20 Please indicate each person's income category before tax (pre-coded)
- Personal questionnaire: Q20 Please indicate this person's income category before tax (pre-coded)
- Special enumeration questionnaire: Not included
Applicable population
All persons on household and personal questionnaires

52. Person weight

Variable: PESPWEIG
Numeric variable
Notes for users
The weight variable is the adjustment factor for undercount to inflate the person file to the population.