Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
Population, Housing and Establishment Census 2007
Census Micro Data for The West Bank Sample (20%)
Chapter One Background
1. Census Definition
The census is one of the pillars of the official statistical system; accordingly, all sectors of society and its private and governmental institutions were requested to support the national team which has the responsibility for planning and conducting the census activities.
The definitions used in the PHC-2007 are based on the de-facto concept as the United
Nations standard concepts and definitions stated in order to be consistent with the 1997 census and to ensure comparability.
2. Objectives of the Census
The main objective of the PHC-2007 is to provide figures for the Palestinian population and their geographical distribution in accordance with a number of relatively stable basic characteristics to inform socioeconomic development purposes. Preparations for conducting censuses take usually 3-5 years for piloting, testing tools, work plans, human and physical needs and timetable. The census is one of the most important statistical activities as it provides statistical data on the distribution of population, and their demographic, social and economic characteristics in a certain reference period of time for all the individuals within the borders of the state.
3. Enumeration Technique
The enumeration technique was based on direct interviewing of respondents in completing the questionnaires designated for collecting statistical data on the individuals, households, buildings, housing units and establishments. All of these categories underwent comprehensive enumeration, i.e. the operations were not based on any sampling. In addition, the instructions given to the fieldwork teams stressed the importance of returning more than once to absent households to ensure completing data from eligible persons. Field work officials used to play active roles in addressing non- response cases by providing the household with the necessary explanations to alleviate their fears or through public and official related ceremonies.
It implemented through selecting a random sample of 218 enumeration areas representing all types of localities. The purpose of conducting such a study was to measure the rate of coverage and individuals in the Census-2007 to take these rates into account when preparing estimates of the population in the years to come after the census
4. Census Coverage
The PHC-2007 covered all individuals who were in the Palestinian Territory on the census reference night (30/11-1/12/2007) regardless of nationality and citizenship. It also covered all
Palestinians who have usual residence in the Palestinian Territory (including those who were temporarily absent for less than one year for the purpose of visit, tourism, treatment, etc. while their households are still living at their permanent places of residence in the Palestinian Territory). All Palestinian students abroad while their households are still living at their permanent places of residence were also included, in addition to all prisoners and detainees in the Israeli jails regardless of the duration of detention. The census excluded all Palestinians holding identity cards who were absent for more than one year (except for the students), even if their households are still living in their places of residence in the Palestinian Territory.
This was a decision made by the Census National Committee in its first meeting. The resolution states the following:
1. Determine the coverage of the census to include the entire population, housing and establishments in the Occupied Palestinian Territory in 1967, with the exception of Israeli settlements.
2. The enumeration includes the following categories of individuals:
B. All Palestinians who live abroad temporarily and for less than a year whose normal place of residence is in the Palestinian Territory, are to be counted with their households.
C. All Palestinians who are studying abroad, regardless of the duration of the study and length of residence abroad, and all individuals detained in Israeli jails regardless of the period of detention, are to be counted with their households.
It consists of all the enumerated households in the Census 2007 and who are staying in the west bank at the time of enumeration.
We select a systematic random sample from each enumeration area in the Census, and we select 20% of the total households concluding all the individuals in the household.
We will calculate the weights for the sample depending on the method of selection. Those weights should be used in the Estimation.
Estimation Using Weights
We will use the weights when we want to estimate the mean, ratio, proportion and total.
We can do that when using the software package such as SPSS by activating the weight variable. Or we can multiply all the variables by the weight variable. Noting that the output estimates doesn't include the under coverage which calculated after the post-enumeration.
6. Reference date
The reference date refers to the moment in which the Census data are based. Normally, it refers to the midnight of the day proceeding the reference period. Thus, the findings of the Census relate to that night. The midnight of 30/11-1/12/2007 was adopted as the reference date of the Census.
However, this does not mean that all data related to the reference date of the Census, taking into account that the reference period for some characteristics refers to periods prior to the reference date of the Census operations. This applies to economic characteristics, births and deaths data. In general, most of the other data relate to the reference date including age, marital status, place of residence, educational attainment level, etc.
7. Enumeration period
This process was implemented in the West Bank during the period from 01/12/2007 to
16/12/2007, while in the Gaza Strip it was implemented during the period from 25/12/2007 to
08/01/2008, where enumerators visited all the households in their homes and obtained data on the housing in which they live and their different characteristics, as well as all household members and registered the demographic, social and economic characteristics of each household member.
8. Census Stages
The Population Housing and Establishment Census-1997 was undertaken in three stages:
The Preparatory Stage
This stage began at the beginning of 2005 and finished in July 2007. The preparatory stage was a preliminary stage during which formal decisions on the census were announced.
Different organizational structures and committees were formed during this phase. In order to meet expected governmental needs, PCBS cooperated with ministries and governmental departments so as to prepare a list of different variables and indicators.
Moreover, maps were prepared for localities, and these localities were divided into enumeration areas. Also, questionnaire design, modules, and different plans were developed in this phase.
The Field Work Stage
This stage began in August 2007 and was completed by the end of 2007. It included delineation of enumeration areas, marking and listing of buildings, housing units and establishments from 30/10/1997 - 23/11/1997, and the population count from 1-16/12/2008.
Data Processing Stage
This stage began in November 2007 and will continue up to the end of the year 2008. The main activities of the census data processing stage were: Office editing, Office coding, Data entry and Computer editing.
9. Data quality and control mechanism
The main objective of the quality control programme is to prevent or reduce errors to the greatest extent possible and to detect errors in order to take appropriate measures to correct them. Without using such a programme, census data might contain many errors and may not be suitable for use.
To achieve the required efficiency, an efficient system of quality control at all stages of the census had been developed to control all stages from the very beginning of the preparatory stage till data processing and dissemination to guarantee high level of data quality. Quality control is of vital importance particularly in the planning stage since it is connected with all stages to come, and thus every stage was allocated enough time and procedures to ensure the achievement of high quality and reliability of census data.
Control Procedures in the Preparatory Stage
The preparatory phase took into account the development of simple definitions and instructions and compatibility with international recommendations and the needs of beneficiaries in the design of questionnaires to the extent that instructions could be transferred honestly. Attention was paid to ensure that all booklets and questionnaires would be received and stored, and that all booklets and questionnaires would be entered into the computer in addition to preparing certain forms to control quality of work, achievement and the design and selection of data entry programs beforehand.
A plan was made for updating localities, enumeration areas manual, and detailed maps of the enumeration areas manual, where every establishment, building, housing, household and individual were counted, and adequate attention was given to special localities such as nomads, since they were covered in the census. Clear and simple instructions were developed for counting personnel at border crossings and the residents of collective housing.
It also set up procedures to examine the coverage rates for individuals and households through the post-Enumeration Survey. Also taken into account was the printing of booklets and questionnaires to validate data collection, entry and storage. A certain type of indexed bags was used for keeping the households and housing conditions booklets as well as the buildings booklets to be easily reached and used.
Through a pilot census comprehensive testing was done for all questionnaires, tools, procedures, forms, fieldwork and office editing, PES, printing of questionnaires and manuals at this stage, selection of data entry programs and error detecting programs, reviewing lists and coding manuals and tabulation processes and preparatory stage dissemination in advance. The expected requirements of human and financial resources, time schedule for the completion of all activities in this stage had been estimated in advance.
Control Procedures in the Stage of Data Processing
The data processing stage includes editing, coding, data entry, reviewing lists and checking all previous operations to data entry for all enumeration areas. All procedures and instructions were made so as to check the consistency of the data and coding fields and ensure the entry of all enumeration areas as well as all booklets and questionnaires, and their content of buildings and housing units, households and individuals data. As procedures to check the booklets and questionnaires and the process of moving them from one operation to another, to ensure that all operations required for each form were properly implemented, a store was prepared for all the documents to be indexed and categorized, so that the store keeper controlled the flow of bags and booklets and the preparation of daily achievement.
Coding manuals were prepared and examined beforehand as well as the instructions for editing and coding procedures for checking the consistency of the data and how to detect and correct errors. All editing and coding employees were selected among the best fieldworkers who collected the data from households and individuals. They went through training ensure unified of concepts and checking data to eliminate disparities in fieldwork in all governorates. Editing, coding and testing consistency of (100%) of the questionnaires was conducted, in addition to desk reviewing, editing and coding (100%) in order to eliminate differences between individual editors, and to discover and correct errors and circulating them daily.
With regard to data entry, tests had been held for all applicants, and those that performed best on the exam were trained centrally on unified procedures of data entry. During the first three days all that had been entered was deleted to be reentered again to correct errors and notify the employees to avoid such errors in the future. Certain procedures were adopted to ensure the correctness of data entry, since in the first stage a unique separate file was prepared for each enumeration area that included identification data (to ensure coverage) including the number of households and the total number of booklets to ensure that all booklets and all households had been entered. Upon data entry a thorough examination of the identification data and the range of each digital key question was conducted, so that the computer did not accept any figure outside this range, such as the head of the household relationship, sex and all the pre-coded questions in the household and housing conditions questionnaire, and the type of building in the buildings questionnaire, for example. The remaining other questions were exposed to a comprehensive re-examination of the range of each question after data entry, and extraction errors lists resulting from data of inconsistency.
10. History of Censuses in Palestine
1. The first population census in Palestine was executed in October 1922 during the British mandate era. The estimated population was 752 thousand.
2. A second population census was executed in November 1931. The population was estimated at 1.033 million.
3. A demographic survey was executed in 1944. The population of Palestine was estimated at 1.74 million.
4. Under the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan administration of the West Bank, the Palestinian population in the West Bank was estimated at 667 thousand in the 1952 census and 805 thousand in the 1962 census.
5. Under the Israeli occupation, a comprehensive enumeration of the Palestinian population was done in September 1967. About 599 thousand inhabitants were enumerated in the West Bank and approximately 400 thousand in the Gaza Strip. It is worth mentioning that about 400 thousand Palestinians were displaced from the Palestinian Territory immediately after the Israeli occupation in 1967.
6. PCBS conducted the first Palestinian census in 1997. The estimated population in the West Bank (West Bank excluding J1, i.e., the part of Jerusalem which was annexed by Israel in 1967) and Gaza Strip was 2.6 million. The estimated population of J1 at the time was about 210 thousand. The Israeli Occupation prevented the national census team from surveying the J1 population.
Concepts and Definitions
The following concepts and definitions were used in data file:
The process of collection, classification, processing, analysis, assessment, dissemination of statistical data on the number of population and their distribution by basic demographic and socio-economic characteristics in a specific reference period within the boundaries of a specific geographic area.
One person or a group of persons with or without a household relationship, who live in the same housing unit, share meals and make joint provision of food and other essentials of living. In PHC-2007, the household includes:
1. Household members found in the housing unit on the night of 01/12/2007.
2. Visitors living outside the Palestinian Territory but who spent the night of 01/12/2007 in the housing unit of the household (relatives and non- relatives).
3. Visitors from the Palestinian Territory who, as a whole household, remained for all of the enumeration period 1-16/12/2007.
4. Servants and other workers living usually within the household who spent the night of 01/12/2007 with the household.
5. New births born prior to the night of 01/12/2007 and still alive, irrespective of whether they were within the household or in the hospital.
6. Household members who spent the night of 01/12/2007 with the household and died after that night.
7. Household members who usually live in the housing unit but were not available in the night of 01/12/2007. This category includes:
Household members working at night 01/12/2007 in factories, hospitals, airports, etc.
Individuals who spent the night of 01/12/2007 traveling in the public ways inside the Palestinian Territory.
Fishermen who spent the night fishing in the regional waters.
Members of internal security forces, and civil defense forces irrespective of where they spent the night of 01/12/2007.
Palestinian household members living usually within the household and who are holding an ID card, but who were abroad less than one year for temporary reasons (tourist, visit, pilgrim or any other reason).
Palestinian household members living usually within the household but who were absent during the night of 01/12/2007 due to urgent causes including hospital, detainee, etc.
Palestinian household members living usually within the households but who were absent during the night of 01/12/2007 due to their stay in a hotel in the Palestinian Territory.
Students studying abroad regardless of the length of their stay.
Students studying in Palestinian universities, institutes and other educational institutions irrespective of place of existence.
Household members detained in Israeli prisons.
The following were excluded from households:
? Persons who were born after the night of 01/12/2007.
? Persons who stayed during the counting in elderly homes, orphans homes, psychotherapy clinics and hospitals, and other collective households in the Palestinian Territory.
Type of households that underwent enumeration are divided into:
Collective (Institutional Households): It refers to the households enumerated in the previously mentioned collective households.
This refers to the private household whose head holds the Palestinian nationality. As for non
Palestinian household, it refers to the household whose head holds non Palestinian nationality irrespective of the nationality of other household members.
Special types of Households
A one-person-household: This refers to the household comprised of one individual.
Nuclear household: This refers to the living household comprised of a couple only; a couple and a son or a daughter (not adopted son or daughter) or more; or a male head of a household with a son or a daughter or more; or a female head of a household with a son or a daughter or more. It is worthy to note that no other relatives or non-relatives live with this household.
Composite Household: Refers to household consisting of at least one nuclear household with other non-relatives.
Average Household Size
This refers to the average number of household members calculated through dividing the total number of members for a certain category by the number of households for that particular category.
Head of the household
This refers to the person who usually lives within the household and is considered the head of the household by its other members. Often, he / she is the main decision-maker and responsible for financial support and economic welfare of the household.
Relationship to the head of the household
This refers to the type of relationship to the head of the household and is normally classified as follows:
Head of the household, spouse, son/ daughter, father / mother, brother / sister, grandfather/grandmother, grand--child, son/ daughter in law, other relatives, others.
Usual place of residence
This refers to the name of the locality in which the person spends most of his time during the year (lived there six months and above), irrespective of whether it is the person's same place of existence during the Census, or the place in which he works and performs related activities or the place in which his original household is based or not.
Reasons of changing previous place of residence
This refers to the reasons that caused the person to change the previous usual place of residence and move to the current usual place of residence. The reasons are classified as follows:
2. Study: This means that the reason that caused the person to move to the current place of residence was to continue his / her studies.
3. Marriage: This means that marriage was the reason that caused the person to move to the current place of residence.
4. Companionship (accompany): This means that the reason that caused the person to move to the current usual place of residence is accompanying one of the household members or moving to live with the household or a household member. This applies to the spouse and children of the head of the household who accompany him /her or move to live with him / her for any reasons (other than obligatory migration).
5. Compulsory migration: This applies to cases in which the person was obliged to leave his/her previous place of residence and move to the current place of usual residence due to compulsory migration during war, irrespective of age. This applies to deportees and their families as well as detainees in the Israeli prisons.
6. Return: The persons who return back to his place of usual residence from abroad for permanently residing without any other reason.
7. War: This reason means that the war was the reason that caused the person to move to the current place of usual residence, but not including first or second Intifada.
8. Maintain Jerusalem identity card: Those people who are obliged to reside in Jerusalem governorate in order to maintain the Jerusalem identity card.
9. Israeli measurements: means that the reason that caused the person to move to the current usual place of residence resulted from any kind of attack from Israeli soldiers and Settlers including shooting or other measures during the Intifada (except war).
10. Others: It applies if the reasons of changing previous place of residence is not any of the aforementioned reasons.
2. Non-Registered Refugees: It applies to unregistered refugees who do not hold refugee registration cards issued by UNRWA.
3. Non-Refugee: It applies to any Palestinian not categorized under any of the two aforementioned statuses.
Attendance means registering the person in any formal education stage irrespective of whether it took the form of continuous attendance or distance learning. Formal education stages include the elementary stage, preparatory stage, (both of which are referred to as the basic stage), secondary stage, and higher education stage (universities, colleges, vocational institutes, etc.).
Enrollment categories are as follows
2. Attended and left: This applies if the person unsuccessfully left a regular education stage, i.e., without obtaining any degree.
3. Attended and graduated: This applies if the person successfully graduated from a regular education stage and did not enroll in any stage after that.
4. Never attended: This applies if the person is not currently enrolled and was never enrolled in any regular education stage.
Illiterate: This applies to persons unable to read or write in any language and who were never awarded a certificate from any formal education system.
Can read and write: This applies to persons who are able to read and write without completing any of the educational stages. Such persons are generally able to read and write simple sentences.
This includes persons who were at work at least one hour during the reference period, whether for their own account or for others paid or unpaid, or in the interest of the household. Employees classified according to the number of weekly working hours of the workers (1-14) hours, workers (15-34) hours, workers 35 hours or more.
Labour force status
A person's work status in terms of being inside or outside the labour force and also classified as follows:
2. Employed 15-34 work hours: All persons aged (7 years and over) who were at work during the reference week, and held a job or owned a business from which they were temporarily absent and usually working 15-34 hours per week.
3. Employed 35 hours or more: All persons aged (7 years and over) who were at work during the reference week, and held a job or owned a business from which they were temporarily absent and usually working 35 hours or more per week.
Does not work and seeking work - who has ever been employed:
5. Not seeking work because of discouragement: Those individuals aged (7 years and over) who had worked in the past but within a reference week did not work even one hour, were not looking for work and were willing to work or need to work and sought previously but had been unable to find work.
Does not work and wants to work -- Never Employed:
7. Not seeking work because of discouragement: Those individuals aged (7 years and over) who has not worked throughout their life with any kind of work, has not worked even for one hour during the reference period, was not looking for work, but has desire or need to work and sought work previously but was unable to find and has no income due to this and did not continue in looking for work.
Does not work does not want to work:
Individuals aged (7 years or over) for which the concept of employed or unemployed does not apply, are classified outside the labour force, in the sense that this individual did not work even one hour during the reference period, nor looking for work and does not wish to work and falls under this definition:
8. Full-time study / training: Individuals aged (7 years or over) who regularly study in order to obtain a qualified skill and not linked to work during a certain period of reference. It should be noted here that household chores and hobbies are not included in the concept of work.
9. Full-time housekeeping: Any person (male or female) aged (7 years and over) not working but has capability to work and not looking for work and not attending regular study and aims at serving the household home. This does not include the servicing of the homes of others in return for payment in kind or cash since this type of service is within the workplace.
10. Disabled /old age / illness: An individual who is aged (7 years and over) who cannot do any kind of work due to chronic illness or due to any disability This category also includes all individuals who are unable to work because of old age.
11. The existence of income / retiree: If an individual is able to work but does not work and did not wish to work nor look for work because there is revenue from real estate, or retirement, etc.
12. Other: Includes any individual for which all the previously stated did not apply, such as a prisoner, or individual capable of work but not wishing or looking for work and who has no income, such as sons and daughters who are not attending school, who do not apply to any situation mentioned previously.
The main job or type of work performed by the employed person or used to be performed by the unemployed ever worked person. The occupation refers to the activity in which the employee works more than half of his/her working hours or the most frequent job during the last three months prior to the enumeration night.
Main Economic Activity
Economic activity refers to the activity of the establishment in which an employed person worked during the reference period, or last worked if unemployed. This activity is defined in terms of the kind of goods produced or services supplied by the unit in which the person works. Economic activities are classified according to the unified commodity classification in the West Bank and Gaza Strip which is based on the International Standard Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC Rev3).
2. National private (outdoor): This comprises all persons who worked as self employed and do not work for fixed establishment; instance for that the street venders who worked as own account, own account taxi driver, or the worker in construction without being employed as permanent worker for any establishment or contractor or farmer who works in his own farm.
3. Foreign private (indoor): This comprises any profit establishment owned by about 51% of its capital to a group of persons or establishments non-resident in the Palestinian
Territory, and also it includes all employed in the foreign establishments branches in the Palestinian territory, but the employed persons in the official diplomatic missions for this governments not included.
4. Foreign private (outdoor): This comprises all persons who worked as self employed and do not worked at fixed establishments outside Palestinian Territory such as Israel or Arab Countries.
5. National government: This comprises the central government and the local authorities and public sector government establishments.
6. Foreign government: This comprises any government establishment attached to foreign government also included the diplomatic missions and official foreign government.
7. Non-profit organization: This comprises the charitable association and the nonprofit establishments such as the unions, all women and youth organizations, churches and the establishments attached to it
8. UNRWA: This comprises all the UNRWA establishments for employing the Palestinian refugees; administration services offices, schools, training centers, clinics.
9. International organization: Comprises the international organizations attached to the
United Nation, any international or regional organization (excluded UNRWA) such as
UNISCO, UNDP, and the similar international organization ( WB, IMF, etc.)
2. Self-employed: A person who works in an establishment that is totally or partially belonging to him / her and hires no waged employees. This includes persons engaged independently in a profession or trade.
3. Regular wage employee: A person who works for others or for employer and receives remuneration in wage, salary, commission, tips, piece-rates or pay in kind, and must take in consideration that there is a agreement (written/orally) between the employer
/work side and the employee which guarantee for employee work for period of time and guarantee for him some rights. This concept include employees in the ministries and the other public parties, in addition to wage employees in household projects or for others,
employee/National Government, employee/Foreign Government, employee/ UNRWA, employee/International Organization, employee/Nonprofit Organization, regular employee/ private sector, regular employee/ foreign private sector.
4. Irregular wage employee: A person who works for employer, or under enterprise supervising as irregular employee, such as casual workers, daily or weekly without any official commitment for work, and when they are unemployed in the reference week they do not classified as employed
5. Unpaid family member: A person who works without pay in an economic enterprise (farm, undertaking, etc.) operated by a related person in the same family.
2. In the same locality: It applies if the employee works inside his locality.
3. In the same governorate: It applies if the employee works in one of the localities belonging to the same governorate.
4. In other governorate: It applies if the employee works in one of the localities belonging to a different governorate.
5. In Israel: It applies if the employee works in the Palestinian Territory occupied by Israel in 1948.
6. In Settlements: It applies if the employee works in one of the Israeli settlements established in parts of the Palestinian Territory occupied in 1967.
7. Abroad: It applies if the employee works in another country outside the Palestinian Territory.
2. Legally engaged: This applies if the person aged 12 years and over has an official marriage document (issued by a competent court) but has not been actually married yet according to customs and traditions applicable in the country. The divorced, widowed, and married twice do not belong to this category.
3. Married: This applies if the person aged 12 years and over is actually and officially married (according to customs and traditions applicable in the country) irrespective of his / her past marital status as well as of whether the couple were together during the reference period or not. The person married to more than one wife is classified as married.
4. Divorced: The person aged 12 years and over who previously married and legally divorced but was not married again.
5. Widowed: The married person aged 12 years and over whose marriage was ended by the death of the spouse and was not married again.
6. Separated: The individual 12 years old and over who was married, but his/her marriage was revoked for some reason without any legal or official registration, and he/she did not marry again.
Infants born alive and are sill living regardless of age.
A building or part of a building constructed for one household only, with one or more independent entrance leading to the public road without passing through another housing unit.
Villas normally have a roofed parking area (garage). Villas may also include a separate small building or extension as part of them.
2. House: A building usually established for the residence of one household or more; it is the typical form of residential buildings prevailing in Palestine. The house may be comprised of a single story or more that is utilized by a single household.
3. Apartment: It is a part of a building or a house, consisting of one room or more and annexed with kitchen, bathroom and toilet, which are all closed by an external door leading to the road through a stairway and/or path way. It is prepared usually for one household.
4. Independent Room: It is a separate room with no kitchen, bathroom or toilet, but sharing these basic services with other households, and it is prepared for living.
5. Marginal: It is a separate unit, usually comprised of one or more rooms. The main construction material of the ceiling and the external walls is zinc, tinplate, etc, but it does not undergo listing unless it is occupied.
6. Tent: It is made of textile, wool, or hair. It is typically used in the Bedouin localities.
7. Other: It refers to any type of building other than the aforementioned. Examples of this type include cottages, caves, grottos, and booths occupied by a tenant during the Census.
2. Rented Unfurnished: If the housing unit is rented without furniture.
3. Rented Furnished: If the housing unit is rented with furniture.
4. Without Payment: If the housing unit is used without any payments.
5. For Work: If the housing unit is offered to the household as a result of a working relation with one member of the household or more.
6. Other: If the tenure of the house is not mentioned above.
2. Mekorot Israeli company: A network of pipes for the purpose of providing clean water to households. It normally belongs to Mekorot Israeli company.
3. Collection Water Wells: Wells that are dug in the ground for the purpose of collecting rain water.
4. Springs: Water that is discharged from the ground at an intersection point between the topographic surface and the groundwater table; it could be permanent or seasonal, and it is considered as one of the natural resources for irrigation.
5. Water Tanks: Using water from vehicles that distribute and transfer water.
6. Others: If the source of water was not mentioned above.
2. Private Generator: Device used for electric power generation and supply to housing and owned by the owner of the household or group of individuals.
3. Not Available: In the case of lack of means and therefore foregoing electricity.
2. Porous Cesspit: A well or a pit in which night soil and other refuse is stored, constructed with porous walls.
3. Tight Cesspit: A well or a pit in which night soil and other refuse is stored, constructed of tight walls.
4. Not Found: In case of no provision from the above methods.
Definitions of Jerusalem J1 and J2
For mere statistical purposes, the Jerusalem Governorate was divided into two parts:
(J1) Includes that part of Jerusalem which was annexed forcefully by Israel following its occupation of the West Bank in 1967. This part includes the following localities: (Beit Hanina, Shu'fat Refugee Camp, Shu'fat, Al' Isawiya, Jerusalem "Al-Quds"(Sheikh Jarrah, Wadi Al-Joz, Bab Al-Sahira, As Suwwana, At-Tur, Ash-Shayyah, Ras Al-Amud), Silwan, Ath-Thuri, Jabal Al-Mukabbir, As-Sawahira Al-Gharbiya, Beit Safafa, Sharafat, Sur Baher, and Um Tuba, Kufr A'qab).
(J2) Includes the Remaining parts of the governorate, namely: Rafat, Mikhmas, Qalandya
Refugee Camp, the Bedouin Community-Jaba', Qalandya, Beit Duqqu, Jaba', Al-Judeira, Beit
Anan, Al-Ram, Dahiat Al-Bareed, Al Al-Jib, Bir Nabala, Beit Ijza, Al-Qubeiba, Khirbet Um
Al-Lahem, Biddu, An-Nabi Samu'eil, Hizma, Beit Hanina Al Tehta, Qatanna, Beit Surik, Beit Iksa, A'nata, The Bedouin Community -- Al-Khan Al-Ahmar, Az Za'eem, Al-Sawahreh Al-
Sharqiyeh, Ash-Sheikh Sa'd, The Bedouin Communities. Al-Eizariya, Abu Dis.