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France 1999 EXPLANATORY NOTES

[pp. 1-186 not translated or presented here.]

[page 187]

Legal population

The various populations determined on the occasion of the census are defined in decree number 98-403 of May 22, 1998, which establishes the date and the conditions of the execution of the 1999 general census of the population (J.O. [Journal Official] of May 24, 1998). Initially the breakdown of the questionnaires filled out by inhabitants made it possible to determine for each municipality the population without duplicate counts, defined from here on in as the municipal population, and the institutional population reduced by the duplicate counts.

The statistical count of the census questionnaires is carried out for the population which has not been counted twice i.e., in favoring, if need be, the municipality of personal residence. However, the population numbers which result from the statistical count may be slightly different than the population which was not counted twice appearing with the results of the December 29, 1999 authentication decree (number 99-1154), revised by decree number 2000-1021 of October 17, 2000.

Note 01. Municipal population [la population municipale]

The Municipal Population consists of:

Persons living in dwellings in the municipality, including military personnel and boarding school students enumerated in a municipal establishment, or in another municipality and who have their personal residence in the municipality;

Persons living in institutions in the municipality, i.e.:

1. Workers living in a hostel [foyer]
2. University students living in campus housing or dormitories;
3. Elderly person living in a retirement home or a hospice, (excluding those living in a retirement home run by the French public housing authority);
4. Persons who have been hospitalized or in treatment for more than 3 months;
5. Members of a religious community;
6. Persons accommodated in a residential center or shelter for a very brief period;
7. Persons accommodated in a residential center or shelter for a longer period;
8. Persons living in other types of collective institution;

Homeless persons or persons living in mobile dwellings who were enumerated the first day of data collection in the district;

Anyone who lives or works on a boat connected to the municipality, regardless of their place of enumeration.

Note 02. Institutional population [population comptée à part]
The institutional population consists of:

a) Service personnel in the French Army, Navy and Air Force residing in the municipality in military barracks, camps or other [lodging] in the same category and who don't have a personal residence in the district;

b) Boarders of high schools, technical schools, the grandes écoles, special education establishments, seminaries and all public or private educational establishments that have a boarding school, including the municipality's reform schools, and who don't have a personal residence in the municipality;

c) Inmates living in municipal penitentiaries;

d) Persons without an established domicile connected administratively to the district, but enumerated in another district;

e) Persons living in institutions in categories 1 through 8 in another municipality and having declared their personal residence to be in the municipality;

f) Students enrolled in a higher education establishment, residing outside of boarding schools or institutions, enumerated in another municipality and having declared that they have another personal residence in the municipality.

[p. 188]

Note 03. Population without duplicate counts [population sans double comptes]

Duplicate counts comprise a part of the institutional population. They are composed of the last 3 groups defined above, as well as of service personnel living in military housing and boarding school students living in an establishment in the municipality and having their principal residence in another municipality. Persons who are subject to duplicate counting are also counted in the municipal population of another municipality.

The total population is the sum of the municipal population and the institutional population.

The population without duplicate counts is the total population minus the duplicate counts.

The concept of population without duplicate counts is used to calculate the population of a group of municipalities. It is from the basis of this population that all the summaries included in this installment are made.

[p. 189]

Note 11. Categories of population

The population can be classified into many categories, most notably as a function of the type of dwelling and style of living, centered around the family or organized in a communal fashion.

Thus 2 broad categories are distinguished: the household population, and the population called outside of household.

The definition of household adopted corresponds to the concept "household-dwelling".

Household is the ensemble of the occupants of the same dwelling (a dwelling which is used as the principal residence), regardless of the ties that connect them. It can be reduced to a single person. It includes equally the persons who have their personal residence in the dwelling but who are staying in certain types of establishments at the time of the census (students who are boarding at an educational establishment, drafted servicemen and women who are "reintegrated" into the population of households). In 1999, as in all censuses since 1968, the number of household is equal to the number of principal residences. Mobile dwellings (including bargemen's boats) are not included in principal residences. In 1962, the totality of the occupants of a mobile dwelling constituted an ordinary household. Thus, mobile dwellings are used to constitute households, but not principal residences.

a) Persons living in a retirement home run by the French public housing authority are part of the household population.

b) The household population is by far the most important element making up the total population. However, more than one million people live outside of a household.

The non-household population consists of:

a) The population of institutions
b) Those without a personal residence who live in an institution (or for whom the dwelling form corresponding to the address of their personal residence has not been found);
c) The population of mobile housing including those living on boats and homeless people.

Communities, which group institutions, represent the main component of the population outside of a household.

The population of institutions consists of persons belonging to the following categories:

1) Workers residing in a hostel;
2) Students residing in campus housing or dormitories;
3) Elderly person living in a retirement home or a hospice, (excluding those living in a retirement home run by the French public housing authority) who are included in lodgings;
4) Persons who are hospitalized or have been in treatment for more than 3 months (in a hospital, a clinic, or any convalescent or health establishment);
5) Members of a religious community;
6) Persons staying in a residential center or shelter for a very brief period;
7) Persons staying in a residential center or shelter for a longer period;
8) Other cases (for example, a home for adults with disabilities).
[p. 190]

The population of public institutions includes persons belonging to the following categories:

1. Boarders at high schools, technical schools, the grandes écoles, special-education establishments, seminaries and all public or private educational establishments that have a boarding school, including the municipality's reform schools, and who don't have a personal residence in the municipality
2. Boarding school students at military schools;
3. Service men and women in the French Army, Navy and Air Force residing in military barracks, camps or other in the same category;
4. Prisoners in a penal establishment.

[p. 190 table of different categories of population not presented here.]

[p. 191]

Note 12. Marital status
Enumerated persons should indicate their "legal marital status:" single; married or re-married; widow(er) or divorced. The responses may not always be in agreement with the legal status of the person. For example: a) A person living apart from his/her spouse, but not yet divorced and thus legally married, married may not be sure how to answer when faced with the possibilities: "single," "married," or "divorced."
b) Persons cohabiting unofficially may hesitate at the "married" response; but some of them who are legally divorced or separated may prefer to declare that they are single.

Though in most cases the declared marital status remains a good indicator of the legal marital status of the person enumerated, these comments should be kept in mind when studying some specific sub-populations.

Note 13. Age
The age indicated is the age reached in the course of the year of the census, i.e., the age by generation. Stated otherwise, the age is calculated as the difference between the census year and the year of birth. It is also the age in completed years on December 31st of the census year.

In metropolitan France [Metropolitan France consists of mainland France plus Corsica] and in the overseas states [DOM], the "0" category in the 1999 census includes only those children born between January 1, 1999 and March 7, 1999.

The 1990 census for metropolitan France includes only the children born between January 1, 1990 and March 4, 1990; and for the 1982 census, only those born from January 1, 1982 to March 3, 1982; and for the 1975 census, those born between January 1, 1975 and February 19, 1975.

For the overseas states in the 1990 census, the "0" category includes only children born between January 1, 1990 and March 14, 1990; for the 1982 census, only those born from January 1, 1982 to March 8, 1982; and for the 1974 census, only those born between January 1 and October 15, 1974.

Note 14. Place of birth
Information about the place of birth allows one to know if the persons enumerated in metropolitan France were born in the same state; in the same region; in metropolitan France; in the Overseas States and Territories [DOM-TOM]; or abroad. In the latter case, the most frequently-occurring countries are distinguished: Spain, Italy and Portugal in the European Union; and Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey for countries outside the EU.

For persons enumerated in the Overseas States, the place of birth allows one to know if they were born in the same state, in another overseas state or territory, in Metropolitan France, or abroad.

Combined with the nationality criterion, the place-of-birth criterion allows the immigrant population to be defined: any person born abroad, in a foreign country, who lives in France, is an immigrant. This population is composed for the most part of foreigners, but also of persons who have acquired French nationality. All foreigners are not necessarily immigrants, and all immigrants are not necessarily foreigners. (See note 15, "Nationality.")

[p. 192]

Note 15. Nationality
The population is divided into 2 broad groups: French and Foreigners.

In some tables, the distinction among the French is made between:
a) French by birth (including by restoration of nationality)
b) French by acquisition of nationality (persons who have become French through naturalization, marriage, statement, or upon their majority)

The foreign population is defined as a function of a nationality criterion: any person residing in France who does not have French nationality is a foreigner. A foreigner can acquire French nationality in the course of his/her life as a result of legislative possibilities. He/she then becomes French by acquisition [of nationality].

Foreigners are grouped according to several nomenclatures.

The nomenclature in 10 headings selects the most-represented nationalities or nationality groups in metropolitan France.

The nomenclature in 8 headings selects the nationalities most-represented nationalities in the Overseas States [DOM].

In the case of the Overseas States, Maurice Island, Madagascar, The Comoro Islands (excluding Mayotte) and the Seychelles are called "Indian Ocean: West Islands." The foreigners called "Other Americans" are those coming from North American countries, Central America excluding Haiti, Santo Domingo, Saint Lucia, South America excluding [French] Guiana, Surinam and Brazil.

Countries other than France which make up part of the European Union in March, 1999 are: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Holland, Portugal, The United Kingdom and Sweden. The results related to those coming from the European Union are therefore not drawn from the same field as in 1990 (Austria, Finland and Sweden have joined the European Union since then).

Among foreigners in France at the time of the census, only those who have their permanent residence in France were enumerated, and those who work or study (permanent workers, interns, and students, as well as their families, if necessary) with the exception of seasonal workers and workers on the border. In addition, foreigners who were members of the diplomatic corps were not enumerated, but foreign embassy personnel (administrative, technical or service workers) living in France permanently were enumerated. Tourists and those in France for a short-term stay were not enumerated.

Note 16. Migrations -- Place of residence on January 1, 1990
Data concerning migrations come from the question on the individual form which asks, at each census, where the person was residing on January 1 in the year of the previous census. It allows the following to be distinguished among the enumerated:

Those who lived:
a) In the same dwelling
b) In another dwelling in the same municipality;
c) In another municipality (or municipal district in the case of Paris, Lyon or Marseille), specifying the name of the municipality as well as the state or, as necessary, the foreign country or overseas territory.

The answer to this question gives information on migration between census periods related to exterior migrations (by distinguishing those persons who were living in metropolitan France or in one of the overseas states on January 1st of the year of the previous census from those who arrived since then) and interior migrations (change of dwelling or geographical unit such as municipality, canton, district, state and region).

[p. 193]

Persons whose municipality of residence on January 1st in the year of the preceding census was different from the municipality in the year of the census in question are called "migrants."

Possible intermediate migrations are not taken into consideration. In particular, a person living in the same municipality on both dates may well have changed his/her municipality of residence in the interim.

Non-migrants for a given geographical level (for example, the region) may include migrants at the lower level (the state, for example).

All the individual characteristics (age, marital status, etc.) are the same as for the 1999 census.

In the primary statistical processing children born since January 1, 1990 are considered as "migrants" (in 1999) if the household reference person is a "migrant" himself/herself. Similar conventions were applied to previous censuses.

In the complementary statistical processing children of families (see note 31 "Household-Family Analysis") born since January 1, 1990 are considered as "migrants" (in 1999) if the "mother" of the family, or, lacking that the "father" of the family, is herself/himself "migrant." Children born since January 1, 1990 who are not children of families are declared "migrants" (in 1999) if they were so declared in the primary statistical processing.

Note 17. Place of study
Information related to the place of study is new for the 1999 census. For those "enrolled in an academic institution," the enrollment corresponds to the 1998-1999 academic year.

A comparison is made between place of residence and place of study according to the following categories:
a) in the same municipality;
b) in two different municipalities: "from the same urban unit;" "from the same state;" "from the same region" (except for overseas states [DOM] or other cases."

Note 18: Level of study
Information related to the level of education achieved is new for the 1999 census.

For the definition of persons 15 or older who are "studying," both enrollment in an academic institution and type of employment activity declared are both taken into account. Thus, students who work (considered as part of working population holding a job), and retired people enrolled in a teaching establishment (considered as part of retired working population) are not considered to be "studying."

Persons aged 15 or older who are neither high school students nor university students are broken down according to their level of study:

The different levels of study used are:
a) Primary school;
b) Technical school, classes from 6th through 3rd, Professional Training Certificate (CAP),
Vocational Training Certificate (BEP);
c) The last 3 years of the Baccalaureate;
d) Higher education (universities, technical universities [IUT], etc.).

[p. 194]

Note 19. Diploma
Information related to the last [dernier] diploma received corresponds to information that has been slightly modified in relation to what was asked in the 1990 census. From now on the general baccalaureate is distinguished from the technical or professional baccalaureate, and the level "no diploma" has been added.

Persons aged 15 or more who are neither high school nor university students are categorized according to the last diploma earned.

The different levels of diploma are: No Diploma; Certificate of Primary Studies [CEP]; General Certificate of Secondary Education [BEPC]; Vocational High-School Diploma [CAP-BEP]; Baccalaureate [BAC] and Professional Vocational Certificate [brevet professional]; BAC+2 and Higher Education degree.

[p. 195]

Working population

The working population includes the working population holding a job; the unemployed and (since the 1990 census), drafted military service personnel.

The employment rate is the percentage of people working in the total population. In the case of employment rate in an age classification, it is a question of the percentage of employed people within this age classification.

The working population holding a job are those people who have a profession that they are exercising at the time of the census.

Persons who help a member of their family in their work (for example, on a farm, in an artisan's workshop, small business, independent practice such as law or medicine, etc.) on the condition that the person being helped is not a paid worker.

Apprentices under contract, paid interns and persons who exercise a professional activity while studying are also part of the working population holding a job.

Those persons who have declared themselves "unemployed" (enrolled in the national employment agency, [ANPE], except if they have explicitly stated elsewhere that they are not looking for work, are classified as unemployed.

The unemployment rate corresponds to the percentage of unemployed persons in the working population. The unemployment rate by age classification corresponds to the percentage of unemployed persons in the working population of that classification. It is a question of unemployment in the census' meaning of the term.

The non-working population consists of retired persons, including those who have taken early retirement, high school students, university students or unpaid interns (except those who are simultaneously engaged in a professional activity) and other non-working populations.

For the 1982, 1990 and 1999 census the working population consisted of persons aged 15 or older, whereas during the 1975 population it included only those persons aged 17 or older. In the 1962 and 1968 censuses, the working population also consisted of persons aged 15 years or older.

In the Reference Tables and the Retrospective Tables which present [information from] the 1999 census and previous censuses, the working population does not include drafted military personnel, regardless of the year of the census.

Note 22. Length of job search
Persons looking for a job are categorized according to how long they have been looking for a job: "less than one year" or "more than one year."

[p. 196]

Note 23. Detailed employment status
This status allows a distinction between wage earners and non-wage earners. This status is applied only to the working population holding a job.

The non-wage earners consist of independent workers, employers or family helpers. The latter are people who help a member of their family who is working for him/herself, for example, on a farm, in an artisan's workshop, small business, independent practice such as law or medicine without being paid.

For the category of working population holding a job, the status allows the self-employed and the wage earners to be distinguished in a systematic way and, among the wage earners, those who work within the private and public sectors, respectively.

Wage Earners consist of:

a) Wage earners in the private sector;
b) Wage earners in the public sector (the federal government [l'Etat], local institutions);
c) Wage earners in public or national companies and the Social Security administration;

The distribution among the various categories depends on the type of employer.

Wage Earners in the Private Sector
Wage earners connected to a company which appears in the private sector in the SIRENE companies--the Répertoire National d'identification des Entreprises et de Leurs Etablissements, a national registry of French companies--or who does not belong to one of the other categories of salaried workers, is classified under this heading.

Wage Earning Workers of the Federal Government
Wage earners, whether or not they currently hold a position (ancillary employees, contract employees, temporary employees, etc.) of Federal Government services, companies or bodies, or quasi-governmental organizations.

Services dependent on the general budget:
All ministries and their services.

All annex budgets:
Civil aviation, Official Journals, the Mint, etc.

Special Treasury Accounts:
Manufacture of land (DSTI), aeronautical (DCA) and naval (DCN) armaments.

Diverse Bodies:
a) Public Higher Education (Universities, Technological Universities, etc.);
b) Student welfare agencies [CROUS];
c) Center for Professional Training for Adults [FPA];
d) Libraries, museums, government-run theaters;
e) National Employment Agency [ANPE];
f) National Scientific Research Center [CNRS];
g) National Agricultural Intervention bodies (ONIC, ONILAIT, OFIVAL, etc.).

Wage Earners at Local Institutions, Public Hospitals, Public Housing
[These are] wage earners, whether or not they currently hold a position, of the regions, states and municipalities and of the services or bodies attached to or deriving from them (municipal or corporate unions, etc.), and of the "various local administrative bodies" of various legal types but whose principal resources are transfers from territorial institutions.

[p. 197]

These are principally:
a) Regions, states; municipalities; urban communities;
b) Industrial and commercial state-owned enterprises (excluding the City of Paris Transit Authority, RATP);
c) Associations [syndicates] and urban districts;
d) Municipal and state services;
e) High schools, vocational schools, schools;
f) Farm bureaus; chambers of commerce; and crafts guilds and the services and schools which are dependent on them (including apprentice training centers);
g) School Fund [a public body which deals with school lunch and recreation programs] (including lunchroom management, vacation centers) and social service offices];
h) Community arts and leisure organizations;
i) Trade unions;
j) Public hospitals, hospital complexes; public assistance;
k) Public Housing [HLM] offices (which are nonetheless private bodies)

Wage Earners at Public or National Companies
These are wage earners whose employer is one of the main public establishments of an industrial, commercial or financial nature, one of the principal national companies of the federal government, or joint public-private enterprises, or their affiliated companies.

Wage Earners of the Social Security Administration
This heading groups the wage earners employed by one of the agencies of the Social Security administration:
a) General agency: Central Agency of Social Security Organizations [Agence Centrale des Organismes de Sécurité Sociale, ACOSS], (including the URSSAF), old-age or health insurance mutual, family payments;
b) Special or statutory agencies;
c) Complementary agencies: supplementary retirement fund [Caisses de retraites complémentaires] (AGIRC, ARRCO, UNIRS, IRCANTEC, ASSEDIC, UNEDIC).

Comment:
Wage earners of insurance funds are not categorized with those working for the Social Security administration, but with wage earners in the private sector.

Non Wage-Earners consist of:
a) Independent workers
b) Employers
c) Family helpers
The latter are those who help a self-employed member of his/her family without receiving a wage for it (farm, artisan's workshop, small business, industrial enterprise or in an independent practice such as law or medicine) without being paid.

Non-Wage Earning Independent Workers; Employers
The notion "employer" or "independent worker" covers all persons working for themselves or who legally direct--without needing any delegation of authority--a business or a company.

[p. 198]

Persons declaring the following professions are considered non wage-earners:

a) Managing Director (senior or not) of a limited liability company [SARL];
b) CEO;
c) President of a corporation;
d) General Manager of a company;
e) Partner of a general partnership;
f) Partner of an unregistered partnership;
g) Entrepreneur;
h) Manager;
i) Managing Director of an Insurance Company;
j) Partner in a group practice (liberal professions such as law or medicine);
k) Director/General Administrator of a public corporation;
l) President of a nationalized company;
m) Partner of a GAEC [cooperative farm partnership]
As well as:
n) Doctors who have an independent practice and are also wage earners;
o) Lawyers;
p) Commercial contract managers (but wage-earning managers are still classified as wage earners)

Family Helpers
The category of family helpers consists of those persons who participate in the work of a family company (farm, shop, artisan's workshop, etc.) but are neither "independent workers or employees" or "wage earners." They are essentially spouses and children of heads of individual companies who are working for themselves.

The following have been given this status: The working population which has declared that they help a family member in their work (farm, artisan's workshop, small business, independent practice such as law or medicine, etc.) while declaring themselves to be independent or self-employed workers, and who have a profession compatible with the status.

If the person being helped is a wage-earner, the family helpers are considered as working and classified as wage-earners; this is usually the case for spouses of wage-earning managers of company branches. Persons who have declared that they are in the "other non-working" category and whose principal activity consists of helping a family member in their work are considered family helpers if the person being helped is self employed, and a wage-earner if not.

The spouses or children of farmers, artisans and shop owners who declared themselves independent or self-employed and who have not declared that they help a family member in their work are not considered family helpers but independent workers or as employers.

The children or wives of farmers, shop owners or artisans who have declared that they are "wage earners" in the family business directed by their father or their husband, and who have declared a profession compatible with the status, are in fact classified under the "wage-earner at a private company" status even if their position as a "wage earner" is often fictitious and simply intended to allow them to benefit from the advantages of the wage-earner [status] accorded by various social security agencies and family payments plans. The workforce for this category of wage earners related to the heads of companies fluctuates with the changes in social legislation as a function of the comparative advantages of the different policies.

[p. 199]

Finally, we should remember that the socio-professional category "family helper" is the same as that of the person being helped. The profession, however, may be different in the following 2 cases:
a) A family helper of a craftsperson who does only administrative or commercial work (PCS=2190: Non Wage-earning family person or craftsperson's associate doing administrative or commercial work");
b) Family helper to an independent professional such as doctor or lawyer doing only administrative or client-related work (PCS=3130: "Non Wage-earning Family Helpers Doing Administrative Work for Independent Professionals").

Note 24. Employment conditions
Employment conditions for the working population holding a job are presented according to their status.

They correspond, for wage-earning person, to the type of employment contract. Among the wage-earning population the following are distinguished: apprentices under contract; persons placed [in a job] by a temporary employment agency; assisted employment (Solidarity Employment Contract, Youth Employment Contract, Initiative Employment Contract, qualification [Contrat emploi solidarité, emploi-jeune, Contrat Initiative Emploi, qualification] etc.), paid interns, limited-term workplace training internship [stage d'insertion et de formation à l'emploi], etc., fixed-term contracts, (including short-term, seasonal, etc.), civil service employees [titulaire de la Fonction Publique] (federal government, local institutions, hospitals) and contracts (or jobs) without a fixed length).

Among the non-wage earning employees, independent employees, and employers and family helpers (see note 23 "Detailed Employment Status) are distinguished.

Note 25. Length of work (part-time/full-time)
The working population holding a job is divided according to the time of employment: full-time or part-time.

The time status of work is determined with respect to the normal working time in the organization.

Note 26. Categories of commute -- work
"Commute" is the travel between the place of residence and the place of work.

In metropolitan France, the working population holding a job is categorized according to whether they live and work:

a) In the same municipality;
b) In 2 different municipalities;
c) In the same urban unit;
d) In the same employment zone;
e) In the same state;
f) In the same region;
g) In areas other than those listed above.

In the case of the overseas states [DOM], the working population holding a job is categorized according to whether they live and work:
a) In the same municipality commune;
b) In 2 different municipalities which are in the same urban unit.

The specific geographical apportionment that constitutes the urban units and employment zones are not overlapping and are not always completely included within a single state. Thus, the municipality of the workplace may be in another state while at the same time being in the same urban unit.

[p. 200]

Certain persons who are engaged in very specific professions such as "truck driver," "taxi driver," "salaried sales representative" [VRP], "street vendors," or "sea fisherman" that cause them to travel fairly frequently for their work are, by convention, considered to be working in the municipality in which they reside.

Note 27. Means of transportation
Information related to the means of transport is new for the 1999 census.

The working population holding a job is categorized according to the most common method of transportation used to get to work:

a) No transport (works at home);
b) Walking only;
c) A single method of transportation:
1) two-wheeled
2) own car
3) Mass transit
d) Several methods of transportation

Note 28. Socio-professional categories
The socio-professional category is obtained by grouping headings from the "professions and socio-professional categories - PCS" nomenclature.

There are 3 headings;

a) "Level 8" (among which 6 are for the working population) represents the "socio-professional groups:" 6 groups who have a professional activity and 2 groups without a professional activity.

The unemployed who have already had a job are classified according to their last job in one of the 6 groups of people who have had a professional activity. The unemployed who have never worked and drafted military personnel are classified in the "other persons without a professional activity" group. The distinction between people having a professional activity and those without a professional activity which appears on some of the tables thus does not coincide precisely with the working/non-working distinction in the sense of type of employment;

b) "Level 24" (of which 18 are for the working population holding a job) is limited to categories which include many workers but nonetheless maintain in their broad outlines the main distinctions of the PCS nomenclatures: wage-earning /non wage-earning, level of classification, public/private;

c) "Level 42" (of which 31 are for the working population with a job) is the most detailed in order to allow users [to make] other groupings according to their need.

Since the 1990 census, drafted military personnel make up part of the working population while at the same time staying in the "other persons without a professional activity" group in the nomenclature of socio-professional categories. Career military personnel who are classified as part of the working population holding a job are excluded from this heading.

The "Professions and Socio-professional Categories" (PCS) nomenclature is the result of a complete revision (1982) of the job nomenclatures which were previously used. The entire list may be found in the "Nomenclature of Professions and Socio-professional Categories" volume (Nomenclature and Codes Series) at level 42 and below.

[p. 201]

To simplify the system, the most highly-grouped levels, those of the "socio-professional categories" (levels 8, 24, 42) are now a direct grouping at the most narrowly defined level, that of "professions" (level 455). This very clear structuring makes the understanding and use of the nomenclature much easier. Thus, in the first 2 numbers of the Profession Code is found the corresponding socio-professional category code (level 42).

This choice is not merely the result of a need for simplicity; it is the result of a set of studies related to the notion of employment and how to measure it which the INSEE has been conducting for several years. These studies have shown that the stated designation was not sufficient to distinguish among the professions and that, from this basic level, complementary characteristics about the socio-professional status were quite relevant in classifying them. Among these characteristics are found those which were only used previously at the socio-professional category (status of wage--earning or independent worker, number of wage earners relative to independent workers, worker qualification) to which are added new ones, intended to enrich the nomenclature (size and specialty of agricultural enterprises, distinguishing employment in the public sector) or to allow a more rigorous coding in certain areas which were particularly vague or confusing in the social arena (In the classifications: "Technician," "Supervisor," "Engineer or Executive" in the collective conventions; job held, in these same categories; size of company for owners and directors).

The Broad Divisions in Nomenclature

The nomenclature makes a general distinction between independent workers -- categories 11, 12, 13, 21, 22, 23, 31 -- (the term "independent worker" is used here in opposition to "wage earning employees": it is not used in opposition to "employer") and wage-earning employees and other categories, but:

a) There are exceptions: some profession headings are mixed from the point of view of this criterion (especially in category 35) and some independent worker headings are classified in the categories containing mostly wage-earning employees (especially in categories 43, 46 and 47);
b) The notion of "independent worker" is broader than the notion of "non wage-earner." It covers all persons working for themselves or who legally direct (without needing any type of delegation of authority) an enterprise or a company, as well as non-wage-earning family helpers. A company manager can declare himself as wage-earning at the census because he combines a wage-earner's job with his appointment or because the tax code allows him to declare himself as such; nonetheless, he is considered an independent worker according to the nomenclature.

Excluding the cases of farmers and independent professional such as doctors and lawyers, independent workers are classified in category 2.

Wage-earning employees are classified according to professional category or rank; the public or private nature of the employer; and function and specialty.

The broad horizontal stratifications of the nomenclature for wage-earning workers (groups 3 -- Executive and Other Highly-educated Professionals, 4-Intermediate Professions, 5- Office Workers, 6-Laborers) are based on the designation of the profession, the professional position, and the rank for civil servants.

The nomenclature uses, in some categories (above all those of executives, intermediate professions and office workers) the public/private distinction. "Public" corresponds exactly to the positions "Federal Government employee" and "employee of local institutions, public hospital, public housing" of the Status code. Public and nationalized companies and social security agencies are not included.

[p. 202]

However, in certain economic activities - notably research, teaching, and social, cultural or sporting activities - the wage-earners whose employer is a mutual insurance company, an association under the law of 1901, or a foundation are considered to be dependent on the "public" [sector]. Thus, private teaching under contract and part of private teaching which is not under contract are considered as "public" in the nomenclature.

The public/private distinction is not, however, systematic; in particular the headings for professions such as nursing, care-givers, social workers, etc. are mixed from the point of view of this criterion. The headings for technicians are mixed except for the heading 4734 "Public Works Technicians of Federal and Local Institutions" [Technicien des travaux publics de l'Etat et des collectivités locales] reserved for the public sector, and the computer technician headings reserved for the private sector.

Additionally, the distinction is not applied to the categories of supervisor (in the sense of the existing nomenclatures), or laborers (excluding cleaning women).

These broad criteria, professional classification or rank and public or private nature of the employer, most often only allow one to situate oneself roughly in the nomenclature of socio-professional categories (the first 2 numbers). The more precise determination of the heading brings the specialty practiced and the function into play.

The non-working population are found in two distinct groups, one of which separates out the retired. Among them, there is a more narrowly defined distinction according to their previous professional activity and the social status which corresponded to it. Among the other persons without a professional activity, "the unemployed who have never worked," previously grouped with the unskilled workers, are now in their own category. The unemployed who have worked are classed in the socio-professional category of their previous job. The unemployed "who have never worked" and drafted military personnel, even though they make up a category which is included in a group which, apart from them only includes the non-working population, are part of working population [population active].

[p. 203]

Nomenclature of Socio-professional Categories

1. Working farmers
Level of Current Publication (24 jobs, of which 18 are for working population holding a job)

10. Working farmers

Detailed Level (42 jobs, of which 33 are for working population)

11. Farmers on small farms
12. Farmers on mid-sized farms
13. Farmers on large farms

2. Craftspeople, shopkeepers, heads of businesses
Level of Current Publication

21. Craftspeople
22. Shopkeepers and others of a similar nature
23. Heads of business with 10 employees or more.

Detailed Level

21. Craftspeople
22. Shopkeepers and others of a similar nature
23. Heads of business with 10 employees or more.

3. Executives and highly-educated professions
Level of Current Publication

31. Independent employees such as doctors or lawyers
32. Executives in civil service, intellectual and artistic professions
36. Business executives

Detailed Level

31. Independent employees such as doctors or lawyers
33. High level civil servants
34. Professors, scientific professions
35. News, arts and entertainment professions
37. Commercial and administrative business executives
38. Engineers and executives of technical enterprises

4. Intermediate professions
Level of Current Publication

41. Intermediate professions in teaching, health, civil service and others of a similar nature
46. Administrative and commercial intermediate professions in enterprise
47. Technicians
48. Foremen, supervisors

Detailed Level

42. Teachers and others of a similar nature
43. Intermediate profession in health and social work
44. Clergy, monks and nuns
45. Intermediate administrative professions in civil service
46. Administrative and commercial intermediate professions in enterprise
47. Technicians
48. Foremen, supervisors

5. Office workers
Level of Current Publication

51. Civil service office workers
54. Administrative office workers of an enterprise
55. Commercial office workers
56. Service workers providing direct services to individuals

Detailed Level

52. Civil service office workers and service agents
53. Police officers and service personnel
54. Administrative office workers of an enterprise
55. Commercial office workers
56. Service workers providing direct services to individuals

6. Laborers
Level of Current Publication

61. Qualified laborers
66. Non-qualified laborers
69. Agricultural laborers

Detailed Level

62. Qualified industrial laborers
63. Qualified laborers in the craft industry
64. Drivers
65. Qualified warehouse, storage and transportation workers
67. Non-qualified industrial laborers
68. Non-qualified laborers in the craft industry
69. Agricultural laborers

7. Retired workers
Level of Current Publication

71. Retired farmers
72. Retired artisans, shopkeepers, heads of business
73. Retired executives and intermediate professions
76. Retired office workers and laborers

Detailed Level

71. Retired farmers
72. Retired artisans, shopkeepers, heads of business
74. Retired executives
75. Retired intermediate professions
77. Retired office workers
78. Retired laborers

8. Other without professional activity
Level of Current Publication

81. Unemployed who have never worked
82. Various non-working population (other than retired) and drafted military personnel

Detailed Level

81. Unemployed who have never worked
83. Drafted military personnel
84. High-school and college/university students aged 15 or older
85. Various persons aged less than 60 without a professional activity (excluding retired people)
86. Various persons aged 60 or more without a professional activity (excluding retired people)

[p. 204]

Note 29. Economic activity
The notion of economic activity is distinct from the notion of profession. The latter corresponds to the individual occupation (for example, secretary): the first is related to the economic unit where the profession is exercised (for example: automobile construction).

Each economically active person in employment is assigned the economic activity of the local legal unit that is headed by the person or employs the person. Two qualifications are required to avoid ambiguous interpretations:

a) The reference is the local legal unit and not the enterprise, which may include many local legal units with different activities. A local legal unit is an economic cell (factory, office, store, warehouse, mine, etc.) situated in a specific location, in which one or more persons work under the same managing authority. As in previous censuses, the working population is classified according to the main activity of the local legal unit which employs them, and not the activity of the section of the local legal unit where they work, which may be different. Thus the tables do not furnish a classification by branch of industry, but sector of the local legal unit;

b) The working population of a local legal unit providing services or labor (cleaning service, equipment maintenance service, temporary employment agency, etc.) is under the branch of economic activity of the local legal unit of the service or labor which employs them, and not the economic activity of the local legal unit where they work. The two may be different.

The current Nomenclature of French Activities (NAF), composed of 700 basic jobs, has been in use since January 1, 1993, in conformance with decree number 92-2239 of October 2, 1992. It replaces the NAP 73 version "activities."

The principal goal in drawing up the NAF was to facilitate the organization of economic and statistical information. The criteria of a legal or institutional nature were discarded in the development of the nomenclature. [For example], commercially active agricultural cooperatives are found under the commerce classification along with enterprises which are registered in the commercial register, as well as companies which are not registered (mutual insurance companies, for example). Such criteria are present in the nomenclature only if they are appreciably different in the economic activity exercised, i.e. temporary agencies, (as per the meaning of the work code) and insurances companies falling under the statutes regulating mutual companies.

The NAF gathers all levels of activities of the European Community (NACE revision 1) and adds to them a national level which unpacks (or not) the NACE classifications (last level) to be able to take into account specific aspects of national behavior. [NACE = Statistical Nomenclature of Economic Activities in the European Community].

In the published tables, the economic activities appear according to 3 groupings, which correspond to the summary economic nomenclature:
a) Grouping in 4 job titles
b) Grouping in 16 job titles
c) Grouping en 36 job titles

[p. 205]

Active population
Economic Activity: Levels 4, 16 and 36 of the Nomenclature of French Employment (NAF)
Level 4; Code ES; Job title Agriculture
Level 16; Code EA; Job Title Agriculture, forestry, fishing
Level 36; Code AO; Job Title Agriculture, forestry, fishing

Level 4; Code ET; Job title Industry
Level 16; Code EB; Job Title Agriculture and food industries
Level 36; Code BO; Job Title Agriculture and food industries

Level 16; Code EC; Job title Consumer Goods Industries
Level 36; Code C1; Job Title Clothing, leather goods
Code C2; Job Title Editing, printing, copying
Code C3; Job Title Pharmacy, perfumes, upkeep
Code C4; Job Title Household equipment industries

Level 16; Code ED; Job title Automobile Industry
Level 36; Code D0; Job Title Automobile Industry

Level 16; Code EE; Job title Capital Goods Industries
Level 36; Code E1; Job Title Naval, aeronautical and railroad construction
Code E2; Job Title Mechanical equipment industries
Code E3; Job Title Electric and electronic equipment industries

Level 16; Code EF; Job title Intermediate Goods Industries
Level 36; Code F1; Job Title Mineral products industries
Code F2; Job Title Textile industries
Code F3; Job Title Wood and Paper industries
Code F4; Job Title Chemical, rubber, plastics
Code F5; Job Title Metallurgy and metal processing
Code F6; Job Title Electrical and electronic components industries

Level 16; Code EG; Job title Energy
Level 36; Code G1; Fuel production
Code G2; Water, gas, electricity

Level 4; Code EU; Job Title Construction
Level 16; Code EH; Job Title Construction
Level 36; Code H0; Job Title Construction

Level 4; Code EV; Job Title Tertiary

Level 16; Code EJ; Job Title Commerce
Level 36; Code J1; Job Title Automobile sales and repair
Code J2; Job Title Wholesale business
Code J3; Job Title Retail business, repairs

Level 16; Code EK; Job Title Transportation
Level 36; Code K0; Job Title Transportation

Level 16; Code EL; Job Title Financial activity
Level 36; Code L0; Job Title Financial activity

Level 16; Code EM; Job Title Real estate activity
Level 36; Code M0; Job Title Real estate activity

Level 16; Code EN; Job Title Services to business
Level 36; Code N1; Job Title Post and telecommunications
Code N2; Job Title Consulting and customer support [assistance]
Code N3; Job Title Operational services
Code N4; Job Title Research and development

Level 16; Code EP; Job Title Services to individuals
Level 36; Code P1; Job Title Hotels and restaurants
Code P2; Job Title Cultural, sporting and recreations activities
Code P3; Job Title Services to individuals and private homes

Level 16; Code EQ; Job Title Education, health, welfare
Level 36; Code Q1; Job Title Education
Code Q2; Job Title Health, welfare

Level 16; Code ER; Job Title Administration
Level 36; Code R1; Job Title Public administration
Code R2; Job Title Extra-territorial and community [associative] activities
[p. 206]

Households-families

Note 31. Households-families analysis (Complementary statistical processing)

General definition

The definition of household corresponds to the "household-dwelling" concept (see note 11 in "Categories of Population).

The family is considered a framework which is able to accommodate one or more children. It is composed of at least 2 persons, of which at least one is an adult.

Any person who is not part of a family is called an "individual".

A household may include zero, one or two families. The case of a dwelling with 3 households is extremely rare, and members of the 3rd family are considered as "individuals" or "outside of family".

Due to the importance given to families, parents, economic activity and age, a single person is designated as the reference person for each household. For this reason it is necessary to determine in advance what a family is.

Make-up of families

Each person in a household can belong to one family at the most.

A family includes either:
a) A couple (married or not) and, if such is the case, their children;
b) A person without a partner, and his/her children (single-parent family).

A child of any age is counted as a child of the family if he/she does not have a partner or child living in the household in which he would comprise a family as an adult. This may be the child of two parents, of one or the other of the parents, an adopted child, a ward of one or the other of the parents. There is no upper age limit to be considered a child of the family. A grand child is not considered a "child of the family."

Families comprised of a couple (including de facto couples, i.e., married or not), and single-parent families are also defined. Single-parent families are families composed of a father or a mother without a partner and with one or several children.

Determining the reference person in a household

The rule for determining the reference person in the household is as follows:
a) If the household includes several families, at least one of which contains a couple, the reference person is determined from among the male partner in these couples, and among the men, the eldest of the employed or, if none are employed, the eldest;
b) Otherwise, if the household includes at least one single-parent family (and no family which includes a couple), then the person of reference from among the single-parent families is the eldest of the employed or, if none are employed, the eldest;
c) Otherwise, if the household does not include any family (it includes only "individuals"), the reference person is the eldest of the employed, or, if none are employed, the eldest (excluding boarders or employed lodgers).

The person of reference for the household is not always the one written on the first line of the household make-up table on the dwelling form.

When a family includes the reference person of the household, that family is called the main family. If there is another family it is called the secondary family.

[p. 207]

Relationship to the Household's Reference Person

Once the household's reference person has been determined, the relationship between members of the same household to the reference person are recalculated according to the declared relationship.

This relationship may be:
1. Household's person of reference;
2. Partner [conjoint] of the household's reference person;
3. Son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, stepson, stepdaughter, adopted child, foster child of the household's reference person or his partner;
4. Grandchild of the household's reference person or his partner;
6. Other relative of the household's reference person or his partner;
7. Friend;
8. Boarder, sub-tenant;
9. Employed lodgers.

Persons who fall into categories 3 or 4 are called children of the household.

Note 32. Household's reference person (complementary statistical processing)
The characteristics of the household's reference person, used in the program of standard tables, are sex, age, nationality, type of economic activity and socio-professional category.

Note 33. Reference person for the family
The reference person for the family is the man in the case of a couple, and the single parent in the case of single-parent families.

Note 34. Method of cohabitation
The method of co-habitation pertains only to the population of households and is distributed among:

a) The population of households living in a family;
b) Those outside of a family in a single-person household;
c) Persons living alone.

Among the population of households living in a family, the following are distinguished:

a) Children of families: children of couples and of single-parent families;
b) Parents of families: members of a couple without children, parents in a couple with a child and in single-parent families.

Note 35. Household structure
This classification distinguishes households according to their make up:

a) When the household is not composed of a family, the classification distinguishes households consisting of a single person (man or woman) and households consisting of several unrelated individuals (other households without family);
b) When the household is composed of at least one family (and thus a principal family), the classification describes the household as a function of the type of principal family (single-parent family, or family comprised of a couple). It does not take into account, in this case, the possible existence of other persons in the household, unrelated individuals or persons belonging to a secondary family (which may be either a couple, if the principal family consists of a couple, or a single-parent family).

For principal families comprised of a couple, the couples are distinguished according to the employment activity (employed worker or other) of the 2 partners. The working population holding a job (or employed workers) are the persons who have a profession which they are engaged in at the time of the census.

[p. 208]

Note 36. Household classification according to number of persons
Households composed of one person, 2 persons, 3 persons, 4 persons, 5 persons, and 6 persons or more are distinguished.

Note 37. Type of family
The type of family characterizes each family. It allows for the following descriptions:
a) Single-parent families according to the sex of the parent and his/her type of economic activity (employed worker or other);
b) Families comprised of a couple according to the economic activity (employed worker or other) of the two partners and, possibly, the presence and number of children in the family.

Note 38. Families according to number and age of the children
Every family can be described as a function of the number of children it includes.

In the analytical table FAM1 (Characteristics of Families according to the Number and Age of the Children) and the reference indicators (single-parent families by sex, families comprising a couple according to the number of children from 0 to 24 years), children from 0 to 24 year are taken into account.

In retrospective table 9 (Families according To the Number of Children from 0 to 16 Years), children from 0 to 16 are taken into account.

Note 39. Composition of the couples
Couples are de facto couples: the partners may thus be married, single, or other.

Additionally, enumerated persons indicate their "legal marital status": single, married or remarried, widowed or divorced. The responses may not always be in agreement with the legal status of the person. For example:
a) a person living separate from but not yet divorced from his/her partner and thus legally married may not be sure how to answer when faced with the possibilities: "single," "married," or "divorced."
b) Persons co-habiting may hesitate at the response "married;" but some of them who are legally divorced or separated may prefer to declare that they are single.

Though in most cases the declared marital status is a good indicator of the enumerated person's legal marital status, these comments should be kept in mind when studying some specific sub-populations.

Note 40. Number of cars in the household
This is the number of cars which the inhabitants of a dwelling have available to them:
a) No car;
b) One car;
c) Two cars or more.

[p. 209]

Note 41. Number of motorized two-wheeled [vehicles] in the household (overseas states [DOM] Only)
This is the number of motorized two-wheeled vehicles which the inhabitants of a dwelling have available to them:
a) No two-wheeled vehicles
b) One two-wheeled vehicle
c) Two or more two-wheeled vehicles.

Note 42. Number of households with no motorized vehicles (overseas states only)
The information on the number of households without a motorized vehicle involves only the overseas states. It is related to the number of households which have neither a car nor a two-wheeled motorized vehicle at their disposal.

[p. 210]

Dwellings -- Buildings

Note 51. Dwelling categories
Four dwelling categories are distinguished:

1) Principal residences: housing or independent rooms where the household stays most of the year;
2) Dwellings (or independent rooms) used occasionally: dwellings used part of the year for professional reasons. Persons who find themselves in the dwelling at the time of the census are enumerated in the place of their principal residence;
3) Secondary residences (dwellings used for weekends, leisure or vacations) or rental residences for leisure or vacation. Multi-owner dwellings are included in this category:
4) Vacant dwellings: dwellings which are unoccupied. Some of these, new or old, are available for sale or rent; others are dwellings reserved by their owners and not yet occupied by the new occupants; or are unoccupied (very old dwellings, premises in the process of probate, etc.); or are slated for removal.

Dwelling is defined with respect to how it is used: it is a separate and independent premise used for habitation.

It should be separate, i.e. completely enclosed by walls and dividers without communication with another premise except through common areas (stairways, hallway). It should be independent, i.e. it should have an independent entry from which there is direct access to the outside or common areas of the building without having to cross another premise. It should be used for habitation, keeping in mind its current use and not its original use; old dwellings which are now used entirely for professional purposes are not considered dwellings at the time of the census and, as a result, are not enumerated. Conversely, parts of professional premises which are used for habitation are indeed enumerated. In the same way, make-shift housing [les habitations de fortune] (apart from mobile housing), shelters which were not intended for habitation but which are in fact used for habitation are included in this housing category. Mobile housing, including boats inhabited by bargemen and premises occupied by the community, are not included in the housing statistics.

In addition, in the definition of dwelling, the current layout and not the original layout is kept in mind. If two older dwellings have been joined to make a single apartment, the combined dwelling only counts as one dwelling. If a dwelling has been divided into 2 independent parts such that each one has its own access, and all communication between them has been removed and each one is occupied by a separate set of people, then two dwellings are enumerated.

When maids' rooms comprise an independent annex to a dwelling and the occupant of the main lodging uses the annex for himself (to lodge a member of his family, or a servant) the room does not constitute a dwelling. If, on the other hand, the annex is rented out, sublet, or lent to individuals (students, for example), then it is a dwelling.

[p. 211]

Note 52. Type of dwelling
Principal residences by type of dwelling are distinguished in the following categories:

a) Individual houses or farms;
b) Dwelling in a collective building;
c) Retirement homes for the elderly: these are in establishments providing shared optional services (lodging, restaurant) to persons lodged there while at the same time preserving their independence. These persons are generally able-bodied. The retirement homes are occupied by persons older than 60 and they are equipped with at least cooking facilities. This category of dwelling is thus halfway between shared housing (nursing home, hospice) and individual dwellings;
d) Furnished rooms (hotel or furnished house/boarding house): rooms occupied by persons who live most of the year in a hotel or furnished house, or who have no other residence;
e) Temporary constructions, make-shift housing [habitations de fortune]; premises unfit for habitation which are nonetheless occupied at the time of the census, campers [roulette] which have been immobilized, cellars, barns, buildings in ruins, etc.) and temporary housing built to house disaster victims;
f) Independent rooms (having their own entrance) either rented, sublet or lent to individuals: independent annexes, such as maids' rooms, when they have been given over to a third party by the occupant of the dwelling which they are part of;
g) Dwellings in buildings used for other than habitation (factory, studio, office building, store, school, technical school, hospital, town hall, train station, post office, stadium, etc.).

Note 53. The appearance of the site (overseas states [DOM] only)
The appearance of the site is information specific to overseas states.

It includes the following categories:

a) Make-shift dwellings
b) Huts [cases] in the traditional style
c) Traditional houses or wood buildings
d) Houses or buildings with hard siding/walls.
Note 54. Time period in which building construction was completed
The time period in which the building construction was completed is defined according to the following categories for metropolitan France: before 1915, from 1915 to 1948, from 1949 to 1967, from 1968 to 1974, from 1975 to 1981, from 1982 to 1989, 1990 or later.

For the overseas states [DOM], the categories are as follows: before 1975, from 1975 to 1981, from 1982 to 1989, 1990 or later.

If different sections of the construction are not from the same time period, the year in which the inhabited section of the building, or the biggest inhabited section, is used.

[p. 212]

Note 55. Classification of dwellings according to number of rooms
Rooms used for dwelling include bedrooms, dining rooms, family rooms, living rooms, studios, etc., regardless of their surface area, as well as maids' rooms (or other annexes) which have not been let to a third party.

They do not include entryways, hallways, bathrooms, closets, alcoves, toilets, laundry areas, offices, etc., nor do they include rooms used only for professional purposes.

The kitchen is counted as a room used for dwelling when it more than 12 square meters in size, i.e. based on an objective physical characteristic. As a result of this convention the figures for rooms used for dwelling include the kitchen only for those dwellings whose kitchen is larger than 12m2.

Specific Examples

a) In some dwellings, there is no separation (or there is a moveable separation) between 2 "rooms." In such cases, 2 rooms were counted if there were partial walls, and just one room if not.
b) In rural areas or in modern buildings there are frequently ordinary dwellings composed of a single room equipped with cooking facilities (faucet, stove, etc.). In this case, this room has been counted regardless of whether its surface area was greater than 12 square meters: there is no "zero-room" dwelling.

Note 56. Dwelling surface area (Metropolitan France only)
Information related to the surface area of the dwelling is new for the 1999 census.

All rooms such as hallway, kitchen, bathroom and toilet are counted in the surface area of the dwelling. However, balconies, terraces and patios, verandas, cellars, parking areas and barns are not included in the surface area.

The surface area of a dwelling is categorized as follows: fewer than 40 square meters; from 40 square meters to fewer than 70 square meters; from 70 square meters to fewer than 100 square meters; from 100 square meters to fewer than 150 square meters; 150 meters or more.

Note 57. Dwelling occupation status [Statut d'Occupation du Logement]
The dwelling's owner status includes different forms of ownership access. In the case of overseas states [DOM], the owners of both the land and the dwelling are distinguished from the owners of the dwelling and not the land.

The status of tenant or sub-tenant pertains to the rental of furnished and unfurnished dwellings, as well as the rental of hotel rooms when it is the principal residence of the individual or the household. In the case of metropolitan France, the following are distinguished:

a) The tenants or sub-tenants of non-public housing which is rented unfurnished;
b) The tenants or sub-tenants of public housing which is rented unfurnished;
c) The tenants or sub-tenants of a furnished dwelling or hotel room.

Persons housed for free are those who are housed by their parents, friends or employer, for example.

[p. 213]

Note 58. Move-in date of principal residence
The move-in date of the principal residence is new information for the 1999 census.

If all of the occupants who are present at the time of the enumeration did not move in together, the move-in date corresponds to that of the person who moved in first. If that person has always lived in the dwelling, the move-in date corresponds to his/her year of birth.

Note 59. Dwelling comfort
The "Dwelling Comfort" code is determined by a combination of specific characteristics of the dwelling:
a) In metropolitan France: By the presence or absence of a bathtub or shower, a toilet, and central heat;
b) For the overseas states [DOM]: By the presence or absence of electricity, hot/cold water, a bathtub or shower, and a toilet.

A dwelling is considered to have a bathtub or a shower only if it is within the dwelling itself and for the sole use of the occupants of the dwelling.

Dwellings with central heat are those which have either individual sources of central heat with their own furnace (not including electric heat with wall radiators), or collective central heat (heat for all or most of the building, for a group of buildings, or through a municipal heating company).

In the case of the overseas states the issue of central heat is pointless and is not taken into consideration.

On the other hand, the presence or absence of a potable water supply inside the dwelling (hot water or cold water only), as well as the presence or absence of electricity, is taken into consideration for the overseas territories. There is electric lighting if at least one room has an electric light fixture.

Note 60. Sanitary facilities
The information related to the sanitary facilities pertains to the presence or absence of a bathtub or a shower (see note 59, Dwelling Comfort); the presence or absence of a toilet [W.C.] within the dwelling and, in metropolitan France, the presence or absence of a bathroom.

The last question was introduced in the 1999 census and specifies whether there is a "bathroom" (a room reserved for washing containing at least a bathtub or a shower), or 2 "bathrooms" or more. [In France the W.C. contains a toilet only, and there is typically a separate room from the tub or shower.]

Note 61. Wastewater disposal
The building's method of wastewater disposal is one of the following: "water-borne sewage system"; "septic tank," or "other."

This information did not exist for the 1990 census, but did in the preceding censuses.

The "water-borne sewage system" is the disposal of waste water by pipes connected to a sewer. Storm run--offs are not in this category. Likewise, in the case of a dry well or a septic tank, there is no "water-borne sewage system."

[p. 214]

Note 62. Source of water supply (overseas states [DOM] only]

This information pertains to potable water sources inside of the dwelling in the overseas states [DOM].

The options are as follows:
a) Cold water only;
b) Hot water;
c) No source of water.

Note 63. Method used to heat dwelling (Metropolitan France only)
Central heating is called collective when it is common to all or most of the dwellings in the building. This includes municipal heating networks.

Central heat is called individual if the method of heating (furnace/boiler, heat pump) is specific to that dwelling. As opposed to the 1990 census, electric heating with wall radiators is not considered individual central heat, but has its own separate category.

The method of heating the dwelling is combined with the type of fuel used for heating the dwelling.

The following types of fuel are used:
1. Municipal heating network;
2. Town or network gas;
3. Fuel oil (mazout);
4. Electricity;
5. Gas from bottles or a tank;
6. Coal;
7. Wood.

Note 64. Method used to heat building (Metropolitan France only)
Buildings are categorized according to the presence of municipal heat, collective heat for a group of buildings, a collective heating system specific to a building (for all or most of the dwellings in the building), or the absence of central heat fittings (even if some dwellings have individual fittings).

The method of heating buildings with collective heating is combined with the main type of fuel used for heating the building.

The following types of fuel are used:
1. City or network gas;
2. Fuel oil [mazout];
3. Electricity;
4. Gas from bottles or a tank;
5. Coal;
6. Wood.

[p. 215]

Note 65. Household goods and appliances (overseas states [DOM] only)
Household equipment is only that equipment which works. In the case of a combined refrigerator-freezer, the only appliance indicated is the refrigerator.

The household goods and appliances tracked are: refrigerator, freezer, telephone, washing machine and television. The question on air conditioning was replaced with "at least one air-conditioned room."

The information is new for dishwashers, VCRs and microwave ovens.

Note 66. Garage, parking stall or parking lot
This information is new for the 1999 census. It pertains to the presence of a reserved parking space (garage, parking stall or parking lot) intended for the household's personal use and located in the building or on the property.

Note 67. Dwelling occupancy ratio
The dwellings in question are the principal residences: dwellings or independent rooms in which the household stays most of the year.

There are 3 types of dwelling occupancy ratios;
a) Average number of people by dwelling;
b) Average number of people by room;
c) Average number of rooms by dwelling.

Note 68. Buildings according to number of dwellings
In census terminology a building is a construction which includes at least one dwelling, regardless of the nature of the construction.

Buildings are classified according to the number of their dwellings.

In metropolitan France and the overseas states [DOM], the following types of building are distinguished:
a) Buildings with a single dwelling;
b) Buildings with 2 to 9 dwellings;
c) Buildings with 10 dwellings or more.

In metropolitan France, among buildings with at least 2 dwellings the following are distinguished:
a) Buildings with 2 dwellings;
b) Buildings with 3 to 4 dwellings;
c) Buildings with 5 to 9 dwellings;
d) Buildings with 10 to 19 dwellings;
e) Buildings with 20 dwellings or more.

[p. 216]

Note 69. Building services (Metropolitan France Only)
Information about building services is new for the 1999 census and applies only to metropolitan France. It pertains to collective buildings (buildings with at least 2 dwellings).

The services referred to are the following:
a) The presence of a caretaker for the building or group of buildings;
b) The presence of a security system (an electronic lock [digicode] or intercom) at the entrance of the building or residence;
c) The presence of an elevator.

Note 70. Number of floors in the building (Metropolitan France only)
The information about the number of floors in the building is new for the 1999 census and is for metropolitan France only. It pertains to collective buildings (buildings with at least two dwellings).

At issue is the number of floors above the ground floor, including inhabitable attic-level floors but not including cellars or basements. An elevated ground floor is considered in the same category as a regular ground floor, but the mezzanine level counts as one floor. If there are several buildings, at issue is the number of floors of the highest of these buildings.

Buildings are classified according to the number of floors they have:
a) Buildings of 4 floors or fewer;
b) Buildings of 5 to 8 floors;
c) Buildings of 9 floors or more.

[p. 217]

Geographic apportionment [découpages géographiques]

Note 81. Territorial limits of administrative districts
The population and other information included in the present installment correspond to the administrative boundaries in effect on March 8, 1999, which is the reference date for the general population census. However, if municipalities have exchanged portions of land inhabited by more than one hundred people during the period between the censuses, the results shown for 1982 and 1990 correspond to the municipal boundaries in effect on the reference dates of these censuses.

The changes affecting the municipalities which took place between 1990 and 1999 are indicated and described in the "Population of France" volume for 1999 (with notes following the results related to each state).

Note 82. Summary by canton
The data relative to a canton comprising entire municipalities and portions of such districts are established without taking into account the inhabitants and dwellings of the portion. These cantons are identified by the descriptor "Partial." Partial cantons are presented following the other cantons.

The cantons which are made up of only one portion of a municipality are not included in the summary. However, the entire communes in question are added at the end of the list.

The cantons and the municipalities are arranged in alphabetical order.

Note 83. Summary by district [arrondissement]
The districts are arranged in alphabetical order. The data for the whole state [département] is at the end of the district information.

Note 84. Urban unit [Unité urbaine]
In this section of the manual, the rural municipalities are grouped by urban unit according to the boundaries set out during the 1990 population census.

An urban unit is one or several municipalities in an area in which is found a grouping of habitations which have a certain continuity among them and include at least 2,000 residents.

An urban unit comprised of several municipalities is called an "agglomeration of multiple municipalities" (preceded by an A). An urban unit comprised of a single municipality is called an individual town (preceded by a V).

Each urban unit and each of the municipalities comprising it are assigned a 3-digit municipal code number. The first number of the code corresponds to the section of the population without duplicate counts in 1999 from the entirety of the urban unit (of the entirety of the French part in the case of international urban units), as follows:

1. Urban unit of fewer than 5,000 inhabitants;
2. Urban unit with 5,000 to 9,999 inhabitants;
3. Urban unit with 10,000 to 19,999 inhabitants;
4. Urban unit with 20,000 to 49,999 inhabitants;
5. Urban unit with 50,000 to 99,999 inhabitants;
6. Urban unit with 100,000 to 199,999 inhabitants;
7. Urban unit with 200,000 to 1,999,999 inhabitants;
8. Paris area.

[p. 218]

Geographic apportionment

The last 2 numbers of the code make up a ranking which is attributed to each urban unit within each of the above classifications, in an increasing sequence according to the population without duplicate counts in each state for the urban units included in a single state (from 01 to 49), and in all of France for interdepartmental urban units (from 51 to 99).

A municipality is called urban when it belongs to an urban unit.

Urban units are arranged in alphabetical order.

For each of the agglomerations of multiple municipalities a "center" has been defined. It is a set composed of one or several municipalities in their entirety and determined as follows:

a) If a municipality represents more than 50% of the population of the urban unit, it is the only "central" city.
b) Otherwise, all the municipalities which have a population of greater than half of the population of the largest municipality, and the latter as well are "central" cities.

The municipalities which are "central" cities are preceded by a C.
Municipalities which are not "central" cities comprise the suburbs of the urban unit. These municipalities are preceded by a B.

The international agglomerations are indicated by an asterisk (*).

When drawing the boundaries of the urban units (defining the built-up area), administrative boundaries are not taken into account. An urban unit can thus cross national borders, but these numbers relate only to municipalities located in France.

The numbers presented in this manual only include state data.

The urban units are described in the volume titled "Municipal Composition of Urban Units," from the "Codes and Nomenclatures" series of INSEE, April 2000.

Note 85. Employment zones (Metropolitan France only)
Executed jointly by INSEE and the Statistical Services of the Ministry of Employment, the division into employment zones comprises a geographical framework adapted to local studies on employment and its environment. Following the results of the 1990 census, a new apportionment was completed and has been in effect since January 1, 1994.

For each region, the apportionment proposed by the Regional Council respects certain criteria and rules as far as possible: homogeneity and economic solidarity, alternating migrations, minimum size criteria, respect for administrative boundaries (mandatorily in the regions, almost always in the cantons).

Note 86. Summary by importance of bracket
Rural municipalities, i.e. the municipalities which do not belong to an urban unit, are summarized in 7 classifications according to their population without duplicate counts in 1999.

A state's urban municipalities are summarized in 8 classifications according to the population without duplicate counts of the urban units to which they belonged in 1999.

In addition, all municipalities within the state are summarized in 13 classifications according to their population without duplicate counts in 1999.

[p. 219]

Statistical processing of the results

Note 91. The count
The count is the first statistical processing once the data are collected. It allows the population and dwelling counts for all geographical levels (from the census district to the different administrative districts) to be obtained. Starting from the municipal level and then combining these results with those of civil status and population censuses from preceding years allows evolutions in population (natural and migratory movements) to be obtained.

These counts are obtained from the summary forms drawn up during the data collection period. The number of dwellings and the populations for households, communities and duplicate counts are entered for each district.

The results of the counts from the individual forms are authenticated by decree.

Note 92. Statistical processing [les exploitations statistiques]
The statistical processing follows the population count. From the forms filled out by the population or the enumerator (essentially the individual form, or BI [bulletin individual]; the dwelling form, or FL [feuille de logement]; and the common/shared building form, or DIC [dossier d'immeuble collectif]), INSEE proceeds to the statistical processing of the data.

Data input of the information on the forms is done by outside brokers in 2 stages: data input for the primary processing, and then input for the complementary processing according to INSEE's selection of which forms to process.

INSEE then proceeds to automatic coding of the questions (for example, transforming a municipal label into a code) and to the statistical processing required to obtain a file of "clean" anonymous individual data (imputation of missing values, adjustments, reclassification) to prepare for the dissemination of the results.

The statistical processing is carried out in 2 stages in such a way as to make the most important information from the results available as quickly as possible.

Note 93. Primary statistical processing [exploitation principale]
The first statistical processing, called the "primary" processing (previously called "light" processing) is comprehensive, i.e. covers all individual forms [bulletins individuals] and housing forms.

The results of this primary processing correspond to the processing of most of the study criteria for all the forms.

The socio-economic results which are drawn from this processing can be classified into 12 themes (10 for the overseas states [DOM]):

a) Population (age, sex, marital status, employed working population or unemployed working population, etc.);
b) Employment (labor force participation by sex, unemployment, employment conditions, etc.);
c) Employment (wage earning or not, part-time or full-time, etc.);
d) Commute between Home and Work;
e) Training (education and place of study, diplomas, level of education, etc.);
f) Migrations (place of birth, place of residence as of January 1, 1990);
g) Nationality (nationality according to age, sex, size of household, etc.);
h) Immigration (French by birth or by acquisition, foreigners etc.): for metropolitan France only;
i) Households (sex, age and economic activity of the reference person, etc.);
j) Dwellings (type, number of rooms, etc.);
k) Principal Residences (move-in date, occupation status, surface area, garage-parking stall-parking lot, comfort/heating, number of cars, etc.);
l) Buildings (completion date, number of floors, number of dwellings, whether or not they are public housing, shared heat, wastewater disposal, security system, caretaker, etc.): for metropolitan France only.

[p. 220]

Note 94. Complementary statistical processing [l'exploitation complémentaire]
The 2nd statistical processing, called the "complementary" statistical processing (previously called the "heavy/detailed" processing) allows the employment characteristics to be refined and (to proceed to) a detailed analysis of the composition of households and families.

Obtaining these variables is a more complex process, which is why the complementary statistical processing is carried out by sampling in metropolitan France. Overseas states and certain zones in metropolitan France are processed comprehensively (see note 95, "sampling").

To allow for the validation of the statistical processing, (imputation of missing values, adjustments, reclassification) and the most rapid distribution possible in the social and economic activity categories, a 1/20th processing (by selecting 1/5 of the quarter sample) is also performed for metropolitan France.

The socio-economic results which are drawn from this processing can be classified according to 12 themes (11 for the overseas states [DOM]):

a) These are the themes already given in the first statistical processing, with the addition of an analysis of socio-professional categories and the employment sector; only the building theme is not repeated;
b) A new theme appears in this statistical processing: Families (couples; single-parent families; national and socio-professional category of the reference person; number and age of children, etc.).

Note 95. Sampling [tirage des échantillons]
The quarter sampling.
The ¼ sample is a systematic sample of 1 unit out of 4 units picked from a sorted file. The method gives results similar to a stratified sampling for the same selection criteria.

The sampling applies to dwellings for households and quasi-households, to vacant dwellings, and to individuals for communities and quasi-communities.

For households and quasi-households, the records are sorted according to 5 criteria:
1) The state and municipality of residence;
2) The household's reference person's approximate social category;
3) The household; type
4) The household size;
5) The partner's approximate social category of the partner.

For vacant housing, the records are sorted according to the state and municipality.

For communities and quasi-communities, individuals are drawn from a file sorted according to municipality, type of community and date of birth.

Geographic Boundaries
Some of the geographic zones which are comprehensively processed have been integrated into the complementary statistical processing. This is the case especially for the overseas states [DOM], the 2 Corsican states, a few municipalities and certain infra-municipal zones (small Sensitive Urban Zones [Zones Urbaines Sensibles]) and some street blocks.

[p. 221]

The 1/20th sampling.

The 1/20th sampling comes directly from the quarter sampling by drawing 1/5 of the forms according to the same criteria. Certain specific populations have nonetheless been comprehensively processed: these are those who live or work on boats who are administratively connected to the municipality, and the institutional population without a personal residence (or for whom the housing form corresponding to the address of their personal residence hasn't been found).

Note 96. Accuracy of the Results
In spite of the care taken during the data collection, the census questionnaires contain imperfections due to a variety of causes: non-enumerated units, people enumerated twice, lack of an answer to some questions, and inaccurate responses. These imperfections affect units found in complex or marginal situations above all. In addition, some processing errors may have occurred during the data processing stage.

The existence of these imperfections, which is inherent to all statistical operations, should not be forgotten. This is so even if they are not readily apparent when examining the results since inconsistencies and, in certain cases, the attribution of a plausible value to information not given may have been corrected during the codification.

In the case of results drawn from the complementary statistical processing, there is an additional uncertainty due to the sampling, except if the area of interest was treated comprehensively.

Sampling theory should allow us to estimate the precision of each piece of data for each of the methods used on the condition of proceeding to a complex tabulation for each one of them. Pilot studies have shown the robustness of the theory, with simulations giving a specific idea of suitable applications.

The uncertainty concerning a total is basically a function of the size of the group to be estimated. For a first approximation, we can take a 95% confidence interval, i.e., a range of values that has 95 chances out of 100 of matching the result of a comprehensive tabulation:

x+ 1.96 v4x rounded off to x+ v4x if the result is taken from the 1/20th sampling

x+ 1.96 v4x rounded off to x+ v4x if the zone referred to was processed by ¼ sampling

The table below gives the confidence intervals calculated in this way for several values of x:

Result: 95% Confidence Interval
1,000,000: 1/20 sample: 991,000-1,009,000; ¼ Sample: 996,000-1,004,000
100,000: 1/20 sample: 97,100-102,900; ¼ Sample: 98,700-101,300
10,000: 1/20 sample: 9,100-10,900; ¼ Sample: 9,600-10,400
1,000: 1/20 sample: 710-1,290; ¼ Sample: 870-1,130
100: 1/20 sample: 10-190; ¼ Sample: 60-140

It should be noted that the smaller numbers may be subject to a very large relative error. However, they can be kept in the tables, as this allows additions as well as cross-analysis of different tables.

[pp 222-225 not presented here; pp. 226-230 and samples of forms not translated.]