Project for the Population Census 1981
[Pages 1-14 were not translated into English]
The Population Census can be defined, in its modern concept, as the set of operations that consist in accumulating, summarizing, valuing, analyzing and publishing the data that is of demographic, cultural, economical, and social nature, for all of the inhabitants of the country and of the country's political-administrative divisions, referring to a given moment of period.
The Population Census of Spain, 1981, has as fundamental objectives the following:
Through the Census the number of inhabitants in the nation, the Autonomous Communities that constitute the nation, the Regions, the Provinces, the Municipalities, and the population entities are determined. The population numbers of the municipalities and the upper-level political-administrative units, will be declared official through a timely legal disposition.
b) The knowledge about the structure of the population.
The Census, through the research of some determined characteristics (geographic, demographic, cultural, economic, and social), proposes to facilitate a structural image of the population together with the objective of being able to serve as the basis for the preparation of demographic, economic and social politics that, indubitably, will have the human factor as a basic reference.
Other objectives that have a more specifically statistical interest are:
c) To serve as a background for inter-census statistics.
The Census hopes to provide a strong framework for the sampling polls. For one part, this permits the calculation of the parameters of the distinct variables of the population necessary for orienting the sampling methodology; for another, the census documentation can be used in the real selection of the distinct statistical units (municipality, section, block, family dwelling).
d) Respond to the statistical needs that are of international nature.
The international organizations request information about the different countries to prepare their demographic and social statistics, the Population Census being one of the principal sources for this data.
3.- Census area
3.1 Population area
Included in the census are the person who have a fixed residence in the national territory as well as those who are in the national territory at the time of reference, without omissions nor duplications.
The persons who have their residency in Spain constitute fixed population [population with rights]. The persons who are in the national territory at the moment of the census form the actual population [de facto].
With the goal of making the Spanish total population numbers comparable to those of other countries, and in agreement with the international recommendation, included in the fixed population [population with rights] are:
-Spanish merchant marine personnel, on fishing boats and air navigation, on trips outside the Spanish territory.
-Spaniards temporarily working in foreign countries whose family members continue in Spain.
-The foreign residents of Spain, even if they are temporarily in foreign countries.
In the same manner, included in the actual population:
-The Spaniards and foreigners that, without being residents of Spain, are circumstantially in the Spanish territory at the census moment.
The research extends to all of the Spanish territory that is made up of the fifty peninsular provinces and Ceuta and Melilla.
3.3 Time area
The counting of the inhabitants will be done with reference to the census date and the characteristics of the inhabitants will refer specifically to this instance or a perfectly defined time period. The census dates are:
3.3.1 Reference date
A date is chosen that falls between March 1 and May 31 according to [p.17]
Law 70/1980 dated December 16, by which the reference date was modified from the traditional reference date. With the Royal Decree 2810/November 14, 1980, of November 14, the exact date at 0 hours is established as March 1.
3.3.2 Reference week
The collection of data of the economic characteristics is carried out with reference to the week immediately previous to the reference date.
3.3.3 Other dates
For some characteristics, which is the case of migratory movements and fertility, the data is collected with reference to much longer periods.
4.- Basic units. Definitions
The basic unit of the census is the inhabitant. Since the identification of the inhabitants is carried out, generally, through the information about their respective families, the family appears as an additional census unit.
From the operative point of view of the census, there is a lot of interest in considering the family, since a careful previous identification of the families can facilitate the efficient collection of the census data, as well as control of the data.
Defined as inhabitant is each physical person that can be counted in the census, considering as such the person who at the census moment has his/her residence in Spain or is in the Spanish territory.
For the purposes of the census, the family is defined as a group of persons, generally linked because they are relatives, who live together, normally occupying the totality of a dwelling. Persons in domestic services who spend the night in the dwelling and guests who are part of the family group will be included as family.
5.- Characteristics of the inhabitants
The topics that will be the object of research in the census have been selected taking into account, in the first place, the needs of the statistical information of the country, and in second, the international recommendations on the subject. Also taken into account, among others, are factors such as disposition and capacity of the persons to provide information, the data collection method (auto-registration), and the balance in the size of the questionnaire.
These study topics are designated with the name of the characteristics that they classify in direct form and through derivatives. The first are researched through a question that is part of the census [p.18] questionnaire, while those that are derived are obtained though the compilation of data, obtained as the answer to one question in consideration of the answers to two or more questions.
The characteristics that will be researched in the Population Census are explained below, grouping them into classes, including a summary table of the characteristics/
5.1 Direct characteristics
1. Residency situation
2. Place of birth
3. Place of residency on December 31, 1970.
4. Place of work or study
Related to the family:
5. Principal person in the family
6. Relationship or affiliation to the principal person in the family
8. Civil status
9. Date of birth
11. Elementary education
12. Current studies
13. Studies completed
14. Relation to economic activity
15. Branch of economic activity
16. Principal profession or occupation
17. Professional situation
Characteristics related to fertility of the women:
18. Number of children born alive
19. Date of marriage
2. Population of the Population Entities
3. Populations of the urban, intermediate, and rural zones
4. Inter-census migratory flow
5. Forms of co-habitation
6.1 Family nucleus
6.2 Types of families
8. Level of education
9. Population that is economically active and population not economically active
10. Socio-economic condition
2. Class of dwelling
3. Form of occupancy
4. Installations and services available to the dwelling
[The table has three columns: characteristics, direct, derived. For the purpose of this translation, each row will be translated and labeled for the three characteristics]
- Residency situation
- Place of birth
- Place of residency on December 31, 1970
- Place of work or study
- Real population and permanent population with rights
- Population of the Population Entities
- Populations of the urban, intermediate, and rural zones
- Inter-census migratory flow
- Related to the family
- Principal person in the family
- Relationship or affiliation to the principal person in the family
- Forms of co-habitation
- Composition of the families
- Family nucleus
- Types of families
- Civil status
- Date of birth
- Elementary education
- Current studies
- Completed studies
- Level of education
- Relation to economic activity
- Branch of economic activity
- Principal profession or occupation
- Professional situation
- Population that is economically active and population not economically active
- Socio-economic condition
- Number of children born alive
- Date of marriage
[End of the table]
7.- Definitions of the characteristics of the inhabitants
7.1 Geographic characteristics
The characteristics included under this denomination permit, fundamentally, the location and the knowledge of the residency situation and the geographic origin of the population. At the same time, the questions of place of residency on the reference date of the previous census and the place of work and study provide information bout the migratory movements and other movements.
The location of the population in the national territory, including the census section and block, is obtained through location data and identification of dwellings that are listed on the coversheet of the dwelling-population census questionnaire and that have been described with detail in the corresponding Dwelling Census Project.
Below, the geographic characteristics are defined, as much those that are based directly on the questions of the Population questionnaire as those derived characteristics.
7.1.1 Residency situation
The census definition of this characteristic is in accordance of the legal definition contained in the article 41 of the Law of Local Regiment (text of June 24, 1955, reformed by Decree 65/1971 dated January 15). Based on the above-mentioned legal precepts:
2) Persons who habitually live in a determined municipality will be considered residents.
3) Persons who are accidentally found in a determined municipality will be considered transients.
On the census date, a person who is a resident of a municipality can be present in the municipality or absent from the municipality.
In the census questionnaires it will be noted to which of the following three groups each of the inhabitants belongs:
1. Present: Residents in the municipality and that at the census moment are present in it.
2. Absent: Residents in the municipality and that at the census moment are absent from it.
3. Transients: Persons who are not residents in the municipality, but that at the census moment are present in it.
7.1.2 Place of birth
The persons who were born in Spain should indicate the municipality and province where he/she was born.
Those who were born in a foreign country should note the nation which, at the current time, corresponds to his/her place of birth.
7.1.3 Place of residency on December 31, 1970.
It is useful to include this characteristic in the census because it will permit the comparison of annual migration statistics.
The information will be obtained from the persons who have changed municipality of residency since December 31, 1970, noting the municipality and the province or the country of residency on this date, and the year in which they arrived to reside in the new municipality.
With the objective of adequately estimating the inter-census migration figures, the question will be asked only of the persons who, having changed place of residency after 1970, are over ten years olds at the census moments
7.1.4 Place of work or study
The place that is considered to be the place of work is the place where the employed person carries out his/her principal occupation. The place of study will be considered the educational center where a schoolchild or student carries out his/her studies. For the purpose of the census, this characteristic refers to the municipality where the persons have their place of work or study.
All of the inhabitants who work and study at the same time should consider first the place of work, to answer about this characteristic. For the effect of the census, the following three situations should be considered:
- Persons who work or study in the municipality of residency.
- Persons who work or study in a municipality different from the municipality of residency.
Included in the first group are those who do no have a fixed place of work, such as for example, the truck drivers, the traveling businessmen, etc. However, this makes an exception for those who, although they do not work in a specific municipality, always go to the same place to begin their activities (delivery persons, taxi drivers, drivers and collectors in train and bus services, etc.), who will be classified taking into account the municipality of said place.
The persons in the third group, which are those who work or study in a municipality different from the municipality of residency, should write the province and the municipality where they work or study.
In regards to the movement from the place of work or study, the following two characteristics will be researched:
- The means of transportation usually used for the greatest portion of the trip. The methods collected are on foot, bicycle, motorcycle, train, metro, school bus or bus provided by the company where he/she works, trolleybus or urban or inter-urban bus, electric tram, private car and other methods not included in the above listed.
- The travel time, in minutes, used to get to work or study, considering the following intervals: less than 10 minutes; from 10 to 19 minutes; from 20 to 39 minutes; from 40 to 50 minutes; and more than 50 minutes.
7.1.5 Actual population and registered population
The actual population of the municipality is formed by the residents who are present and the transients in the municipality. The sum of the present residents and the absent residents constitutes the registered population of the municipality.
The actual population of the province is made up of the sum of the residents present and transients in the municipalities of the province. The sum of residents who are present and residents who are absent makes up the registered population of the province.
By adding the provincial numbers the actual and registered populations are obtained for the Autonomous Communities and the Nation.
7.1.6 Population of the Population Entities
In addition to the official administrative divisions of the territory in provinces and municipalities, together with the Autonomous Communities and Regions, in Spain a subdivision of the municipalities is used, whose definition, which is contained in the Order of the Ministry of Economy dated October 18, 1978 which dictated the "Instructions for carrying out the preliminary tasks" that are listed below:
Therefore, determined locations, such as urbanizations, temporary residential zones or others, could have, with unique characteristics, be considered singular unities of population, even though they are not inhabited at the census moment.
A municipality can be made up of one or several singular population entities.
b) Collective population entity.- As an intermediate unit between the singular population entity and the municipality in some regions there are groupings of singular entities, that make up a collective entity of population with a specific personality which should be respected. These receive, according to the regions, many names, such as Parishes, Deputations, Brotherhoods, Councils, Committees, and other.
As much for nation uses as to facilitate the international comparison it is necessary to classify the population entities according to the size in three zones: urban, intermediate, and rural.
The zones are defined in the following manner:
Urban zone.- Set of singular population entities with 10,001 or more actual inhabitants.
Intermediate zone.- Set of singular population entities with 2,00o to 10,000 actual inhabitants.
Rural zone.- Set of singular population entities with 2,000 or fewer actual inhabitants.
7.1.8 Inter-census migratory movement
The global migratory movement is made up of persons who have changed municipality or country of residency after December 31, 1970. The answers of these persons to the questions about place of residency on December 31, 1970 will permit subtracting the following components:
b) Inter-provincial movement: migrations between municipalities that belong to different provinces.
c) Exterior movement: incoming migrations from foreign countries, since in the census there is no research about emigration to another country.
Given that the family is a fundamental socio-economic unit, in the census detailed characteristics about the family structures and other data of interest is researched, which are indispensable for sociological studies about the population.
The direct and derived characteristics that are included in the census are:
7.2.1 Principal person in the family
The person considered, for the effects of the census, as the principal person of the family that person who other members of the family recognize as having this quality.
7.2.2 Family or other relationship to the principal person of the family
In the census questionnaire, a declaration of family or other relationship to the principal person of the family will be requested (for example: spouse, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, grandchild, father, mother, father/mother-in-law, brother/sister, brother/sister-in-law, uncle/aunt, nephew/niece, guest, friend, servant, etc.).
7.2.3 Form of sharing living space
In regards to the forms of sharing living space, these will be classified in two large groups. These are: a) Persons who live with family and b) persons who do not live with family.
And on the other hand, regarding the relationship to the dwelling, the difference is between:
a) persons who live in family dwellings and b) persons who live in collective dwellings.
Both characteristics suppose that the persons who live in family units, usually occupy what is called a "family dwelling" and that the persons who do not live in family units form groups that live in "collective dwellings".
22.214.171.124 Persons who live in family groups
According to the census definition of family, persons who "live in family groups" are those who, generally linked by relationships, live together normally occupying the totality of a dwelling.
Within this large concept of census family are included, in principal, the guests to whom the use of one or more rooms is ceded, as well as other facilities (telephone, bathroom, etc.), generally providing services such as cleaning, laundry, etc. Also included are the persons in domestic service who usually spend the night in the dwelling.
The idea of census family appears more clearly if it is examined in relationship to the dwelling, to which the family is always linked and whose definition is included in the Project of the Dwelling Census (family dwellings and housing, part 5.1 and 5.2 respectively).
The following types can be considered:
b) Dwellings that are inhabited by two or more families. These are presented in the following manner:
1st: When a family that occupies a dwelling as owner or any other form of occupancy, decides to cede to another family (or families) part of their dwelling and the use of some services, such as bathroom, kitchen, telephone, etc.
2nd: When two or more families decide by mutual agreement to take a dwelling to share, distributing the exclusive use of some of the rooms and services and using others communally (dining room, kitchen, etc.) and services (bathroom, telephone, etc.).
For the purpose of the census, these families will receive the same treatment as those who live in separate dwellings, and should complete, therefore, independent census questionnaires.
126.96.36.199 Persons who do not live in family groups.
The persons who do not live in family groups form groups that inhabit collective dwellings whose definition appears in the Project of Dwelling Census (part 5.3).
7.2.4 Composition of the families
Within the broad census concept of family that is defined below, the denomination of family nucleus around which the diverse classes or mode of family are established is defined from the point of view of their composition.
188.8.131.52 Family nucleus
The idea of the family nucleus responds to a modern concept of family limited to the closest links of relationship (relationship of parents to children). The following modes are considered:
-Married couple with unmarried children
-Father alone with unmarried children
-Mother alone with unmarried children
184.108.40.206 Types of family
Taking into account the existence or not of a family nucleus, the following classes of families are considered:
- Families with a family nucleus.- The census family itself is made up around one of the modes of family nucleus considered in 220.127.116.11. These can be distinguished in two cases, according to the existence or not in the family of persons who do not belong to the nucleus.
- Families with two or more family nuclei.- In this case, the census family is configured around two or more family nuclei that, generally, will be related to each other.
7.3 Personal characteristics
The following characteristics will be researched:
The persons are classified in one of two possibilities, man or woman, which is collected in the census questionnaire.
7.3.2 Legal status
The persons can be classified in one of the following groups:
- Divorced or separated
For the purpose of the census, the real situation [fact] will be considered, not the legal situation [rights].
7.3.3 Date of birth
For each inhabitant, the date of birth will be collected, which should contain the day, month, and year.
This characteristic will be collected only for foreigners, who should write the name of the country of which they are subjects or citizens. Those who have no country should write expatriates.
The age of the inhabitant is the interval of time that has transpired since the date of birth until the census date, expressed in years.
7.4 Cultural characteristics
For each inhabitant, information will be obtained about the elementary educational level, the current studies and the studies completed.
The data collected about these characteristics will permit classifying the population in regards to his/her educational level.
7.4.1 Elementary education
This characteristic refers to the ability of each inhabitant to read and write. For the purpose of the census, a person is considered literary if he/she is able to read and write, understanding what is read and written, a brief and simple factual account related to his/her daily life.
A person is considered literate if the person is 10 years old or more unless the contrary case is encountered. This [illiterate] means persons who only know how to read and write some numbers and his/her own name, or know how to read and write only one or several phrases that he/she has memorized, as well as persons who know how to read but cannot write or vice-versa.
7.4.2 Current studies
This information will be obtained for all of the persons that, at the census moment, are enrolled in regular studies for the entire period of a normal school year at an educational center, public or private, whatever the type or level of studies or the teaching method or modality (free, correspondence, etc.)
Information will be collected, in addition, about studies that are equivalent or lower than a title already achieved. Excepted from this, on the other hand, are training courses within a business [p.27] that is not part of the educational system, the specialization courses that have a shorter duration than the regular school year, and applicants.
For each person who is currently studying (included in the above explained census definition) the class or type of studies that he/she is enrolled in and the course that he/she is enrolled in at the reference date for the census will be researched.
7.4.3 Studies completed
This characteristic will be researched for all of the persons, which should refer to the highest level of studies carried out, independently of whether they were completed or not, specifying in all cases the last course passed.
If a person has not studies, although they know how to read and write, the answer will be "without studies."
7.4.4 Instruction level
For the purpose of the census, the level of instruction of a person is the highest level of studies carried out or the current grade, identified in the following manner:
- For the persons who are currently studying, except those who are enrolled in a level equivalent or inferior to the others already completed, as an answer to the question of "Current studies." If there are multiple answers to this question, as an answer to "Current studies" the one with the highest level will be taken into account.
7.5 Economic Characteristics
The characteristics that are taken into account below, together with their definitions, are called the economic conditions since the goal of this research is to obtain the coordinates that determine the position of each inhabitant in the economic activity of the country, and, with greater detail, the offer in the work market.
In effect, the economic characteristics included in this census will permit us to obtain the volume and the structure, from the points of view of the greatest interest, for each cited offer.
Trying to collect these characteristics of the inhabitants in a census establishes the previous problem of selecting of adequate reference period.
The selection is intimately related to the definition of active population that is used. If the notion that "the available labor pool for the production of goods and services" were adopted, it would be more convenient that the reference period be short, one week at the maximum. If, to the contrary, the notion used is based on the "usual economic characteristics," the period of reference should be broader, for example, one year.
Given that the notion of active population adopted in the census is that of "labor pool," [p.28] the period of reference selected for the economic characteristics is the week before the census date, as was explained in part 3.3.2.
The international standards recommend that the information be collected, at least for the volume of the offer of labor in the market, taking into account two points of view. However, great difficulties exist in practical terms for collecting the data at the same time for both aspects between the difficulties of the limited space on the questionnaire, the cost of collection, and the increase in the tasks of coding and tabulation.
Given the above presented explanations, in this census the economic characteristics of the inhabitants will be researched only based on the activity carried out in the week before the census, except for the persons who are unemployed in the reference week having been employed previously and that the reference week is the week previous to the person situation of being unemployed.
7.5.1 Relationship to the economic activity
With this characteristic, researched directly through a question in the questionnaire, the goal is to know the relationship between a person and the economic activity.
This will permit the classification of the total population of the country in population that is economically active and the population that is not active that we will call simply the active population and inactive population, whose conceptual content is defined below.
18.104.22.168 Active Population
For the effects of this census, the active population is integrated by the persons, of both sexes, that being sixteen years old or more, in the census week form part of the labor pool dedicated to the production of goods and services (employed active population) or are available for this and are looking for paid employment (unemployed active population).
The active population makes up the "civil labor pool" and the Armed Forces. In this last group, according to international recommendations, not only the permanent members are included, which means the professionals of the Armed Forces, but also the males that at the census moment are completing military service.
In the Spanish census, these last persons will be counted as population counted separately, which will follow the same method as in the Poll of Active Population of INE and at the same time, facilitate adding them to the Spanish active population when this is required for the international comparisons.
The census definition of the active population demands, for better precision, to determine expressly the content of the two subcategories in which they are divided: employed active population and unemployed or striking active population.
The employed population, for the purpose of the census, comprises those persons who, according to his/her census declaration in the census questionnaire, found themselves in the reference week in one of the [p.29] following situations:
- Working in the business of a family member with whom he/she lives, without pay or set salary, for at least fifteen hours.
Also considered as employed are those who would have been included in one of the above situations, but that during the reference week they were absent from the work for vacations, illness, labor conflict, inclement weather, or technical problems.
It is necessary to point out that in this census, the inclusion of the employed population does not take into account the characteristics or form of employment, nor does it stipulate a minimum of hours worked (except for the unpaid family workers). The intention has been to achieve the greatest simplification possible taking into account that the data collection method is auto-enumeration.
The unemployed population is made up of those persons who have not worked in the reference week because they were in one of the following situations:
- The persons whose work contract is temporarily or indefinitely suspended, who are available for employment and are looking for paid work.
- Those who not having worked in the reference week for one of the reasons listed above, did not look for paid work in this week because of temporary illness or because they had found a situation in which they will begin to work at a later date.
- The persons who not having worked previously are looking for their first employment.
Also considered unemployed are the persons who are pensioned, retired, or having worked previously as family workers include themselves in "Was unemployed and looking for work, having worked previously."
22.214.171.124 Inactive population
This is integrated by the persons of both sexes who, no having included himself/herself in any of the situations listed in the previous section, are included in any or some of the following:
- Rent collectors
- Schoolchildren or students
- Persons dedicated to household chores
- Persons permanently incapacitated for work
- Other inactive persons (minors who do not attend school, applicants, etc.)
The first are those persons who enjoy retirement, pensions, etc. paid [p.30] by the State, the Local Administration, Organizations, Companies (old-age pensions, handicap or incapacity, etc.) or other assistances or subsidies.
The rent collectors are persons who do no practice any paid activity and whose income consists of the proceeds of rental properties that they own and other investments (interests, dividends, insurance, rent, or other proceeds).
The schoolchildren or students are those persons who participate in regular studies during the entire duration of the normal school year, whatever type or level of studies and whatever method or mode of education (free, correspondence, etc.).
The fourth group is comprised of the persons who dedicate their time exclusively to the household chores in their own homes, for example, the persons in the family who take care of the house and the children. In this sense, the domestic servants, as paid employees of the household, are classified as economically active.
Persons considered permanently incapacitated for work are those who for whatever physical impediment and/or psychological impediment cannot carry out any activity.
Also included in the last group are the persons who are economically inactive who are not part of any other groups, such as minors who do not go to school, applicants, those who depend on charity benefits or services, etc.
7.5.2 Branch of economic activity
This is the class of activity of the establishment, business or other economic unit in which an economically active person exercises his/her principal profession during the census week. The active persons who are unemployed having worked previously should provide the information about the business or establishment of his/her last employment before becoming unemployed. If the business or establishment carries out more than one activity, only the primary activity will be collected, this being the one that provides the greatness income or, if this is not the case, the one that employs the greatest number of persons.
The data collected in this manner will be coded, at the group level, according to the National Classification of Activities approved by Decree 2518/August 9, 1974.
7.5.3 Principal occupation or profession
The occupation or profession refers to the type of work carried out during the reference week by an employed person, ignoring the branch of economic activity and the professional situation (such as businessman, employee, etc.) in which the person should be classified. For the unemployed persons who have worked previously this information is obtained referring to the last occupation.
In the case of the persons who have more than one occupation, the information should refer to the principal occupation, being this the one that the person considers the principal occupation.
To obtain a better classification of this characteristic, the person will also [p.31] be asked explicitly the professional category. The information will be coded according to the National Classification of Occupations established by the Royal Decree 2240/ August 14, 1979, at the level of sub-group.
7.5.4 Professional situation
This characteristic refers to the occupation situation of the employed economically active persons (or the unemployed who have worked previously) with regard to their principal occupation during the reference week. For the unemployed persons who have worked previously it refers to the principal occupation situation of the week before the unemployment.
The following groups are considered:
2. Businessman or professional who does not employ personnel, or self-employed worker.
3. Member of a production or commercial cooperative who works in said cooperative.
4. Person who works for a salary, day wage, commission, or any other type of payment, as a permanent employee.
5. Person who works for a salary, day wage, commission, or any other type of payment, as an occasional or temporary employee.
6. Person who works, without set pay, in the company or business of a family member with whom he/she lives.
7. Other situation different from those listed above.
The first group is comprised of all persons who manage their own business, or practices a liberal profession, occupation, industry, or commerce for themselves, and hires one or more employees or workers, who he/she pays a salary, day wage, commission, etc.
The second group includes all persons who manage their own business, or practices a liberal profession, occupation, industry, or commerce for themselves, and does not hire any employees or workers.
A member of a production or commercial cooperative is any person who works in said cooperative and participates in the benefits.
The fourth and fifth groups are made up of any person who works for a businessman or employer, public or private, and for this receives a salary, day wage, commission, or any other type of payment, distinguishing between permanent and occasional workers, according to whether their link with the business or employer is protected by a labor contract of one year or more.
A person is considered family help when the person who works at least a third of the normal labor hours in a business of a family member with whom he/she lives, not receiving a day wage or set salary, in money or materials. The person can receive, in exchange, maintenance, housing, and frequently a small amount of money for small expenses.
Finally, included in the last group, are the persons who cannot be classified in any of the above sections.
7.5.5 Socio-economic condition
This derived characteristic pretends to classify the population in distinct socio-economic groups, in such a manner that, within the same, the collective that makes up each group is the most homogenic possible and between the diverse groups the differences are sufficiently important, in such a way that all of the population is represented in them.
This is based primarily on the economic characteristics of the individual, taking into account, also, other characteristics such as the cultural level.
Following the recommendation of the European Conference of Statistics of the CEPE, the groups that will be considered in the Population Census are:
- Agricultural businessmen without salaried employees
- Members of agricultural cooperatives
- Directors and bosses of agricultural businesses and enterprises
- The remaining agricultural workers
- Professionals, technicians, and similar who practice their activity on their own account, with or without salaried employees
- Non-agricultural businessmen with salaried employees
- Non-agricultural businessmen without salaried employees
- Members of non-agricultural cooperatives
- Directors and managers of non-agricultural businesses and societies, directive personnel of the Public Administration and members of the State organizations, Autonomous Communities and Local Corporations
- Professionals, technicians and similar who practice their activity as employees of others
- The remaining administrative and commercial personnel
- The remaining service personnel
- Non-agricultural Contractors and overseers
- Non-agricultural qualified and specialized operators
- Non-agricultural non-specialized operators
- Professionals in the Armed Forces
- Persons who look for employment for the first time
- Persons who are economically active who cannot be classified in any of the above groups
- Inactive persons not dependent on others (rent collectors, retirees, etc.)
- Inactive persons who are dependent on others (without their own income)
- Other inactive persons
7.6 Fertility characteristics
The knowledge of the fertility of women and their relationship with the biological, social, economical, and geographical characteristics is of fundamental importance to the understanding and preparation for population tendencies, and therefore, to base the establishment of a wide range of government measures related to social or economic topics. This justifies that, following the tradition of previous census, these characteristics are maintained among those that will be included in the census.
For the next census information will be obtained about the number of children who were born alive and date of the marriage.
The knowledge of the number of children born alive complements the information obtained with the Natural Movement of the Population, since this collects the data only about those women who have had a child in the current year, while in the census, as a direct question, this information is requested of all women who are not single.
7.6.1 Number of children born alive
The information will be collected for women who are married, widowed, divorced and separated, who will indicate the total number of children that they had who were born alive during the course of her life up to the census moment.
7.6.2 Date of marriage
This will be researched only for women who remain married in their first marriage, of whom only the year will be asked.
8.- Definition of the characteristics derived from the Dwelling Census
In the tabulation plan that is established in the third part of this Project, tables are included that are obtained through the crossing of variables from the Dwelling questionnaire (family and collective) and the one for Population. This permits the classifying of the population and of the families taking into account the fundamental characteristics of the dwellings that they inhabit, whose definitions are those adopted in the Dwelling Census.
Organization and census procedures
Organizational Flow Chart
Central Executive Commission
Permanent Sub-Commission / Sub-Commission for Realizing the Census
Central Inspection / Census Office
Local Advising Enumeration Office / Collection Personnel
_ _ _ _ _ Relationship of reciprocal consultation
_ _ _ _ _ Relationship of control of persons and functions
_______ Relationship of decision over persons and functions
1.- Census Organization
1.1 Central Organization
The Central Executive Commission will be in charge of adopting measures that are of general character that it estimates convenient, and the supervision of the census labor carried out by all of the organizations. The Commission will also take care of the administration of the budget; supervision of the publicity campaigns; concession of prizes and imposition of sanctions.
The Central Executive Commission will also have, for the correct development of its functions, two sub-commissions: Permanent Sub-Commission and Sub-Commission for Realizing the Census.
The Permanent Sub-Commission will be in charge of: the elaboration of general calendars; the elaboration of the Project; organization of the treatment, filtering, and coding the questionnaires; tabulation and publication of the results, analysis of same.
The Sub-Commission for Realizing the Census will prepare the organizational flow chart of the Census; will approve the calendar of data collection; will direct and supervise the execution of the field work; will approve the inspection plan; will propose to the Executive Commission the nominations and residences of the inspection personnel.
Dependents of the Sub-Commission for Realizing the Census form part of the Central Inspection and the Census Office.
The Central Inspection will carry out the technical advising of the Provincial Delegations and the realization of upper-level training courses. This inspection will be under the care of the personnel of the Body of Facultative Statistics.
The Census Office will be in charge of transmitting the agreements of the different central organizations to the Provincial Delegations; will channel the communications directed to or originating from the Provincial Delegations in relationship to the Census tasks.
1.2 Provincial and Local Organization
The Provincial Inspection, whose head will be the Provincial Delegate of Statistics, will be in charge of the Body of Statistics Authority. It will be in charge of fulfilling and making other fulfill the norms dictated by the Central Organizations for the realization of the work in the provinces; will propose the division of the Inspection Commarks; will teach the training courses of Agents and Group Supervisors; will direct and coordinate the work of the Commark Inspection; and will propose the appointment of the personnel that will carry out the work.
For the direct control of the census work, the provinces will be divided in Commarks with an analogous content in terms of the supervision difficulty. Each Commark will be assigned a Commark Inspector of the Body of Degreed Technical Statisticians, or in the absence of this officer, Military Personnel in Civil Services, who will have at his/her charge the following functions: instruction courses for Agents and Group Supervisors; inspection, control and supervision of carrying out the [p.38] tasks; inspection and provisional approval of the census numbers, control and advising in the census jobs sent to the Enumerating Offices.
In each municipality, the municipal government will set up an Enumeration Office which will have at its head a Local Advisor- an officer of the municipal government, recommended by the same and named as such by the Provincial Delegate of Statistics- forming part of the same the Group Leaders, where there are any, and the Census Agents. These offices will depend, for the purpose of the census tasks, of the INE. The number of Census Offices can increase in some municipalities, to the degree of their size, at the instruction of INE.
In the municipalities with more than 10,000 inhabitants and with seven sections or more, there will be a Group Supervisor for each seven census sections, which will take care of the control of the Agents, the first filtering of questionnaires, and the formations of summaries.
The collection of the questionnaires will be carried out by the Census Agents of which there will be about 30,000 for the national territory.
The specific function of the Commark Inspectors, Local Advisors, Groups Leaders and Census Agents will be included in the corresponding manuals which are the foundation of the instruction courses that will be given at the four level of personnel that have been mentioned.
On page 36, there is an organizational flow chart of the organization described in the sections 1.1 and 1.2.
[Note: This refers to page 22 of the present translation.]
2.- Census Procedures
2.1 Collection of data.
The tasks of data collection are projected to be carried out on the basis of a complete enumeration, according to what has been done in previous census.
For the collection of data, two models of questionnaires will be used: one for the population that lives in family dwellings and another for the population that lives in collective dwellings.
The mentioned questionnaires are prepared to utilize the method of self-enumeration, with which the mission of the Agent is reduced, generally, to the tasks of delivering and collecting the questionnaires and verifying the correct completion of the same.
However, the mission of the Agent is broad, since he/she should advise the inhabitants on the correct manner to complete the questionnaire, having to, when necessary, personally complete the form with the data that is provided.
2.2 Verification of the land
The National Institute of Statistics can order the verification of the census in the municipalities in which it estimates that there are too few or too many inscriptions, or even an if an imperfection is shown in the same.
2.3 Filtering the questionnaires in the phase of data collection.
This has as its objective to assure that the questionnaires have been correctly completed, paying attention fundamentally that the data contained in them are complete and that they are coherent. This labor will be in charge of the Group Leaders, who will revise the questionnaires one by one, obligating the Agents, if it were necessary, to go personally to the corresponding dwellings with the defective questionnaires, to collect the pertinent information.
2.4 Obtaining the fixed and actual population numbers in the municipalities, by sex.
Obtaining the number of fixed population actual population, by sex, of all of the municipalities and population entities of Spain, will be carried out starting with the summaries prepared manually by the Agents, Inspectors, Provincial Delegations, and Central Services. The rest of the information will be tabulated mechanically.
2.5 Application of the sampling in the Census
The use of sampling in the census is actually a usual practice in the majority of the countries. It has as fundamental objectives: a savings in the cost of the research, a reduction in the interval of time measured between the date of reference and the publication of the results, and an improvement in the quality of the results by concentrating the available resources for the filtering, coding, recording, and verifying in a part of the collected questionnaires.
Only the most general characteristics will be treated in an exhaustive manner: number of inhabitants in the municipalities, situation of residency, and sex.
For the population that lives in family dwellings, the remaining characteristics will be obtained through sampling, which will be applied:
b) To obtain the definitive census results, through a sample of a size that is about 25 percent of the total population.
For the population that lives in collective dwellings, all of the characteristics will be obtained through exhaustive treatments.
2.5.1 Type of sample
A systematic sample of conglomerations will be applied, which is single-staged, with stratification of the primary units, one of these being the family dwelling and the last unit, the individual. The selection will be carried out in systematic form, with starting point of the census questionnaires for dwelling-population which will be numbered correlatively within each province, municipality, and census section. These conglomerations will belong to a certain stratus according to the province and the size of the municipality where they are located.
Each person who is registered in the selected census sheets will belong automatically to the sample.
2.5.2 Method for estimating and calculating the sampling errors
Within each level, estimators will be applied at six levels of study (males present, absent, and transient, and women present, absent, and transient) using as an auxiliary variable the census results obtained through an exhaustive recount of each study category.
As a census estimator of the class total of level h of the characteristic A object of study, this formula will be used:
ahij -- the number of persons in the sample that possess the characteristic of the dominium j, dwelling is i, level h.
mhij -- number of persons in the sample that belong to dominium j, dwelling i, level h
Mhj -- total number of individuals in the population of dominium j of the level h
nh -- number of dwellings in the sample of the level h
For a set of level: [mathematical formula]
The formulas that should be applied for estimating the sampling errors correspond to a design by conglomerations, single-staged stratified in which estimators are used at the rate of on for each of the six study dominium.
In general, the sampling error relative to the level h will be estimated with the formula:
Being fh the fraction of the sample in the level h.
For any set of levels:
The population questionnaire has been designed in such a manner that these characteristics will a small number of modalities that have an easy definition will be pre-coded. However, there are characteristics such as the level of instruction, profession, and others in which an extensive and complex nomenclature will be used and which must be coded.
The coding tasks of the questionnaires that will be the object of later processing, will be carried out in two stages, carried out, the first by the personnel of the Provincial Delegations of the INE, and the second, by specialized personnel of Central Services. The questionnaires for which a correct codification is not possible will be subjected to verification.
For the computer processing, the data from the dwelling and population questionnaires will be recorded in magnetic tape, using equipment of data entry of multi-keys controlled by a central unit. This system permits the programming of different types of error control in real time, which means that the errors are detected by the machine at the moment in which the operator records them, which permits taking different actions according to the type of error. This allows for retiring the questionnaire to examine it and correction if the detected error affects the geographic identification codes the only thing that will be done will be verifying the code validation, to avoid introducing errors due to the recording operator.
2.8.1 Detecting errors in coverage and systematic errors
The data recorded are processed by a central computer, which carries out a series of controls that are not possible nor convenient to carry out at entry. These control have as their objective to assure, on one hand the completeness of the data and on the other, the quality; in the realization of these [p.42] tasks a contrast of the recorded data with the summary of the contents in the file of the geographic dictionary of the census is employed
2.8.2 Detection and Correction of errors of consistency
Within the census we can distinguish different logical units:
In the data that pertains to each logical unit a series of specific relationships of consistency which indicate an error, if not verified, can be defined. The very serious errors, which affect the basic fields for the automatic correlation, are corrected returning to examine the questionnaire and updating the corresponding registries. After this revision, the data passes through a system of automatic imputation.
For the population data the system AERO will be used, developed by the office of Statistics of Hungary and used in several countries for the correction of census data. For the utilization of this system it is necessary to examine and give a detailed description, in coded form, of all of the possible inconsistencies between the variables that are managed. The data is examined and the correction is based on the change in the minimum number of variables that combined with the rest of the content of the registry provide coherent information.
The correction of logical units of family and family nuclei, which is one of the corrections "between registries," is carried out through specific programs of detection and imputation.
2.8.3 Calculation of factors and obtaining final registries
With the corrected registries, we calculate and assign the corresponding factors of elevation of each registry, and also the derived codes which facilitate the process for obtaining the tables. The final registries will have a hierarchical structure formed by a series of geographical levels from major to minor and within the lowest geographical level, the dwellings, the families, and the persons.
2.8.4 Tables of results
For the process of obtaining the tables, we will use a general system of tabulating TPL, developed by the office of Labor Statistics of the USA, which is being used successfully in the Institute for various statistics in the past years.
2.9 Evaluation of the quality of the census results
The fundamental objective is to evaluate the quality of the census, analyzing two types of errors not connected to the sample:
- Errors in the content produced at the time of classifying units correctly included, according to the diverse characteristics that are researched in the census.
The evaluation will not be limited by a quantification of errors, rather the characteristics of the erroneous units will be analyzed in a detailed manner.
To obtain the proposed objectives two complementary evaluation procedures will be used:
- Inverse verification of the data (Reversed record check)
For the repeated interviews a sample of approximately 5,000 family dwellings and non-mobile housings divided into about 500 sections will be selected from the notebooks of the agents of the Dwelling Census. The census will be repeated in these dwellings, substituting the auto numeration for interviews carried out by group leaders of census agents specially prepared for this task.
Through the comparison of the census data with those obtained through the interviews the errors of coverage will be evaluated and content of the resident population in family dwellings and non-mobile housing will be included correctly in the Dwelling Census.
For the inverse verifications of the Population Census, the General Population Poll will be used. Through this, in dwellings selected in the third sub-sample of the first trimester of the General Population Poll, the persons residents in these dwellings on March 1 as well as the transients will be obtained. The comparison with the census data in these same dwellings will permit us to obtain an estimate of the coverage errors.
We will also evaluate, through the contrast of the data from the General Population Poll and the Census, the errors of the content and the characteristics with the same period of reference in both statistics.
2.9.3 Characteristics object of the evaluation
From the dwellings selected for the ER sampling, the following population characteristics will be obtained:
- Name and last names
- Residency situation
- Relationship to the principal person
- Place of residency on December 31, 1970
- Elementary instruction
- Current studies
- Completed studies