[Table of Contents omitted.]
ICDS-Inter- Censal Demographic Survey
PCC-Provincial Census Committee
PCO-Provincial Census Officer
DCC-District Census Committee
DCO-District Census Officer
OMR-Optical Mark Reader
This manual introduces both supervisors and enumerators to the concept of a census and gives a general overview of the history of censuses in Zimbabwe. It serves to define the role and place of the enumerator in the whole census process and to equip both supervisors and enumerators with skills on how to conduct census interviews, who to interview, how to complete the census questionnaire correctly and, how to handle and transport the census questionnaires.
1.1 Definition of a Population Census
A population census is the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing, publishing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining to all persons in a country at a specified time. It aims at providing four types of information namely:
- The number of persons in particular categories, e.g. men, women, children, school going age and working populations, etc.;
- The rate of population growth;
- Socio-economic data for the population.
In Zimbabwe, census taking began as early as 1901 but was initially confined to Non- Africans only. The population was successfully enumerated for the first time in 1962, then in 1969 but at differing reference periods for Africans. The 1982 and 1992 censuses were the first censuses with a national coverage. The 1982, 1992 and 2002 Censuses were conducted on a de-facto basis relating to the night of 17/18th August. Similarly, the 2012 census will also be on a de-facto basis. The 2012 population census is going to be the fourth after independence.
In the 1982, 1992 and 2002 censuses, the questionnaire covered such areas as population size, composition (sex, age, ethnic groups); geographical distribution including internal migration. Other topics covered were education, labor force and employment as well as basic living conditions like size of household, access to water, toilet facilities and, energy for cooking.
To supplement the data collected through the census, demographic surveys have also been conducted in 1948, 1954 and after 1982 as part of the Zimbabwe National Household Survey Capability Program (ZNHSCP), especially the Demographic Socio-Economic Survey of 1983/84, the Inter-Censal Demographic Surveys (ICDS) of 1987,1997, 2008 and Demographic and Health Surveys of 1988-89,1994, 1999, 2005-6 and 2010.
A decennial census program will be maintained, because conducting a census is an expensive exercise as well as a major task. Together with the Household Surveys program, the August 2012 Census will ensure the provision of population data on a continuous basis.
1.3 Objectives of the Population Census of Zimbabwe
Census objectives can be categorized as short-term objectives, which basically entail the delivery of data for immediate uses, and long-term objectives which point more towards the infrastructure and capacity building of the statistical system.
Short Term Objective
Long Term Objectives
- To develop national capacity to undertake censuses and related statistical activities.
- To provide a sampling frame for other statistical activities such as the Zimbabwe's National Household Surveys Capability program.
In order to plan for, and carry out economic and social development, administrative activity or scientific research, it is necessary to have reliable and detailed data on the size, distribution and composition of population.
- The population census is thus a primary source of these benchmark statistics, covering not only the settled population, but also the homeless persons and nomadic groups.
- Data from population censuses may be presented and analyzed in terms of statistics on persons, married couples, families and households and for a wide variety of geographical units ranging from the country as a whole to individual small localities or city blocks.
a. Uses in an Integrated Program of Data Collection and Compilation
- The value of each census is increased if the results can be used together with those from other investigations. The use of census data as a base or benchmark for current statistics can furnish information needed for conducting other statistical investigations.
- It can, for example, provide a statistical frame for other censuses or sample surveys.
- The population census is also important in developing the population estimates needed to calculate vital rates from civil registration data.
- The purpose of a continuing coordinated program of data collection and compilation can be served, therefore, if the relationship among the population census and other statistical investigations is considered when census planning is under way and if provision is made for facilitating the use of the census and its results in connection with such investigations.
- The use of consistent concepts and definitions throughout an integrated program of data collection and compilation is essential if the advantages of the relationships are to be fully realized.
-A population census also serves as the logical starting place for work on the organization and construction of a computerized statistical data base to serve continuing national and local needs for data in the Inter-Censal period.
- Information on the size, distribution and characteristics of a country's population is essential to describe and assess its economic, social and demographic circumstances and to develop sound policies and programs aimed at fostering the welfare of a country and its population.
- The population census, by providing comparable basic statistics for a country as a whole and for each administrative unit and locality therein, can make an important contribution to the overall planning process and the management of national affairs.
- Population census results are also used in policy development and in management and evaluation for programs in such fields as education and literacy, employment and manpower, family planning, housing, maternal and child health, rural development, transportation and highway planning.
- Detailed information on the geographical distribution of the population is indispensable for this purpose. Certain aspects of the legal or administrative status of territorial divisions may also depend on the size of their population.
In addition to serving specific governmental policy purposes, the population census provides indispensable data for the scientific analysis and appraisal of:
- The changing patterns of urban-rural concentration, the development of urbanized areas,
- The geographical distribution of the population according to such variables as occupation and education and the mortality and natality differentials for various population groups, as well as the economic and social characteristics of the population and labor force, and other questions of scientific interest that are of importance both to pure research and to solving practical problems of industrial and commercial growth and management.
d. Business, Industry and Labor
- Reliable estimates of consumer demand for an ever-expanding variety of goods and services depend on accurate information on the size of the population in sub-national areas and its distribution at least by age and sex, since these characteristics heavily influence the demand for:
recreational facilities, medical supplies and so forth;
a. Individual Enumeration
It is important to emphasize that individual enumeration does not preclude the use of sampling techniques for obtaining data on specified characteristics, provided the sample design is consistent with the size of the areas for which the data are to be tabulated and the degree of detail in the cross-tabulations to be made.
In this regard there has been a lot of concern from institutions dealing with disability and education on our coverage of the same. However, steps are being taken to collect this information.
The population census should include every person present and/or residing within its scope, depending upon the type of count required.
The time reference period needs not be identical for all of the data collected. For most of the data, it will be the night of the census. In some instances it will be a period prior to the census, e.g. in the last 12 months, e.g. data on deaths, activity, migration etc.
A series of censuses makes it possible to appraise the past, accurately describe the present and estimate the future.
It is recommended that a national census be taken at least every ten years. Some countries may find it necessary to carry out censuses more frequently because of the rapidity of major changes in their population circumstances.
The census data of any country are of greater importance nationally, regionally and internationally if they can be compared with the results of other countries that undertook a census at the same time. Therefore, countries may wish to undertake a census in the years ending in "0" or as near to those years as possible.
It should be noted, however, that legal, administrative, financial and other considerations often make it difficult for a country to adhere to a standard international pattern in the timing of its censuses. In fixing a census date, therefore, such national factors should be given greater weight than the desirability of international simultaneity.
b) Local events like agricultural shows and the Zimbabwe International Trade Fair;
c) The radio and television;
d) Provincial Census Committee /District Census Committee meetings: these are the provincial and district census committees which are chaired by the administrators;
e) Census T-shirts distributed to members of staff at ZIMSTAT and all field staff;
f) Census information pamphlets and posters sent to schools, hospitals and other institutions. The pamphlets are written in eight language versions that are in Shona, Ndebele, English, Tonga, Kalanga, Venda, Nambya and Shangani.
Activities before enumeration will include the following:
a) Reconnaissance and mapping:
- Checking and amending the EA map where necessary, otherwise if changes are major inform supervisor.
- Updating the map accordingly if there are any new developments in the EA.
- Where there are imaginary boundaries, the enumerators sharing the boundaries must know the common boundaries.
- Errors on the map and its description should rarely occur if the mapping was done well. However, if errors are spotted they should be corrected accordingly.
c) Receiving documents and equipment e.g. clipboards, HB pencils
d) Locating dwelling units.
e) Arranging appointments for the interviews.
f) Preparing itinerary for the enumeration - this will help in spreading the work fairly and uniformly over the enumeration period.
g) Recording the geo-code for the EA on the questionnaires - record the first ten digits from left to right or up to enumeration area.
During enumeration the main activities are:
a) Asking questions correctly (avoid confused questioning).
b) Recording answers clearly, correctly and accurately.
c) Checking completed questionnaires, e.g. for consistency and completeness - no gaps should be left, this will result in the saving of time spent revisiting households.
d) At the end of each day, carry out verification of the questionnaires to check for completeness and complete EA Summary Sheet.
e) Scheduling call-backs, e.g. visiting respondents at different times.
This is the most important job in the census and every effort must be made to obtain complete and accurate responses and to record them correctly.
The post-enumeration activities include returning completed questionnaires and other equipment such as:
- Pencil sharpener
- Notebook for observations
- Enumerator manual
- Census leaflets
- Official ID/letter
- EA Map
- EA summary Sheets
- Call back cards (mostly in urban areas) to the collection point/supervisor. Any relevant issues or observations that are not reported in writing must be conveyed to the supervisor.
2.1 Place of Work
The enumerators will spend most of their time in the field. Each enumerator will be assigned an EA and their responsibility will be to visit every household in the assigned area and record, as accurately and neatly as possible, all the particulars required of every person and household. Each enumerator will report to an Enumeration Area (EA) supervisor.
Provincial Census Offices, headed by Provincial Census Officers (PCOs), have been established in the provinces. District Census Offices have also been established in the Districts, headed by the District Census Officers (DCOs), who will be in charge of several supervisors. An Enumeration Area (EA) supervisor will be in charge of about 4 - 6 EAs, which in rural areas may be equivalent to a ward.
Training is planned to consist of classroom training and practical exercises.
Before each lesson, study this manual carefully along with the questionnaire and note any questions you may have. Ask questions at any time to avoid mistakes during the actual interviews.
Be assured that others will learn from the questions as well as discussions on situations encountered in practice and actual interview situations.
The first phase involves a thorough examination of the questionnaire section by section. You will also observe demonstration interviews. 'Homework' assignment will involve reading the questions correctly to someone several times, so as to become comfortable with asking the questions.
The second phase involves role-playing where trainees assume the roles of enumerator and respondent. Later practice will pay particular attention to how the questions should be phrased in the different languages/dialects, to ensure that the meaning of the questions remain consistent.
The third phase involves field practice interviews, where you will actually interview household members. Trainers will work with you and will check and edit the questionnaire in the manner that will be done during the actual enumeration.
All prospective enumerators will be assessed on a continuous basis during all phases of the training. Assessment will focus on familiarity and understanding of the questionnaire, the census concepts and definitions including procedures.
The training will continue in the field when supervisors will meet with you to discuss your work.
The formal training provides enumerators with basic knowledge and information regarding the census, questionnaire, etc. Continued observation and supervision during enumeration completes the training process especially during the first few days. You may also run into situations that are not covered in the training. Discuss these with your supervisor. Others may be experiencing similar problems, thus all can benefit from each other's experiences.
You should always bear in mind that high quality work depends on:
- High morale:
- Close supervision: you will be informed as soon as possible when you make mistakes.
[Section 3 from the original document is not shown here.]
4.1 Preparatory Activities
Each enumerator must ensure that (s/he) has sufficient materials and equipment and is aware of the role to be performed.
Each enumerator will be provided with the following documents and equipment:
- HB Pencils
- Pencil sharpener
- Carrying bag(s)
- Notebook for observations
- Enumerator Manual
- Classification of Occupations Manual
- Torch and batteries
- Census leaflets
- Self-adhesive labels
- Official ID/letter and Census badge
- EA Map
- EA Summary Sheets
- Call back cards (mostly in urban areas)
An HB pencil and an eraser will be provided during training.
Keep your equipment safely because at the end of the census you will be required to return it. You cannot be paid until you have accounted for all the items to the supervisor.
4.2 Contact Procedures
The country is divided into numerous Enumeration Areas (EAs). An EA consists of between 80-120 households. For each EA, there is an EA map with boundary descriptions. Read the EA map carefully so that you understand the boundaries both on the map and the ground. The boundaries in most cases follow easily identifiable features such as rivers, streams, roads, tracks, and footpaths. Where an imaginary boundary has been used, households on each side of the EA have been plotted.
One enumerator is expected to work in his/her selected EA. The enumerator should spend some time familiarizing himself/herself with the distribution of housing/dwelling units and establishing rapport with the local authorities and respondents, before the enumeration.
Prepare an itinerary. Use the EA map to plan your work to ensure that you visit each selected household. Work systematically to save yourself from unnecessary long walks in the EA. Inform your supervisor about your starting point, the paths you will follow to enable him/her to locate you easily.
4.3 The Household Concept
One basic issue in the census is the specific location of persons at a specific time. The specific location is the selected household where persons spent the census night.
Definition of household for 2012 census: A household as defined for the 2012 Census is a person or a group of persons who stayed the census night in the dwelling unit, whether or not they were related by blood or marriage, including visitors.
A household is NOT the same thing as a family (a concept which is NOT used in this Census); a family can be scattered while the household by definition is specific in its location, as it consists of persons who eat and stayed the census night together, whether or not they are related to one another.
Two types of households can be identified, namely, private households and collective households.
A private household can either be a single-person household or a multi-person household. In the former, a single person stayed the census night in the household alone. The person may occupy the whole or part of the dwelling unit (or several dwelling units). In a multi- person household, a group of two or more persons occupy the whole or part of the dwelling unit and stayed the census night together.
Persons working in institutions and who will be returning to their households in the morning shall be enumerated with their own households. Examples include nurses, night watchmen, police officers and shift-workers on night duty. Such persons are to be enumerated with their household.
Collective households are formed where institutionalized populations are found e.g. hospitals, hostels, hotels, prisons, military barracks, refugee camps, schools, colleges, old people's homes, orphanage, etc.
Who should be included in the household?
- A man with more than one wife and stays with each of them must be enumerated with the household where he stayed the census night. The other wives, if they have separate dwelling units and eat separately shall be considered as individual households and consequently enumerated separately.
- People who eat in one household but sleep in another shall be treated as members of the household that organized the sleeping arrangement.
Identify a chief respondent capable of giving accurate information on the household. Other household members may be called in to assist if necessary to enable you to obtain accurate information on all persons who were in the selected household. Effort should be made to ensure that questions on children ever born should be addressed to the biological mother. Remember that dwelling units might have more than one household.
4.5 Chief Respondent
The head of household should ideally be the chief respondent. If attempts to interview the head of household fail, then interview the most knowledgeable senior member of the household. Spouses should be given precedence over other most knowledgeable senior members e.g. if the head of household is away, the spouse would normally be considered as the chief respondent.
N.B. Avoid making domestic workers chief respondents relating to the household they work for.
Definition: Head of Household
For the 2012 census, the head of household is that member of household who was regarded as such by those who stayed the census night with the household and may be a male or a female. S/he must have stayed the night in the household or be returning on the morning.
4.6 Enumeration of Private Households
Start work early in the morning. Enumerate throughout the day but bear in mind that the best times of interviewing households depend on the activity of the household members. The enumeration will last for about five (5) days and this is the time limit within which interviewing of households in the EA assigned to you must be completed. If for any reason you think it will take longer inform your supervisor early so that arrangements for help are made.
You are NOT allowed to enumerate beyond eight (8) o'clock in the evening.
If there is no adult person at home at the time of your visit, inquire from the children when an adult will be present and make arrangements for a call-back accordingly.
If there is no one at home, ask the neighbors if anyone was there on the census night. If there was, inquire whether they have an idea when they are likely to be back and arrange your next visit accordingly.
In urban areas, complete the call-back card stating the day and time of your next visit and leave it at the dwelling unit, so that people will know when you will return. In rural areas, leave a message about the time of your next visit.
Send word so that people know when to expect you to avoid call-backs as much as possible. If you make an appointment to return, please keep it and be punctual.
In case you visit a household at an "inconvenient time," do not allow yourself to be put off unless there is weighty reason, e.g. a death in the household. In such circumstances, make arrangements to return later.
4.7 Enumeration of Institutions
Persons staying in institutions will be enumerated in their institutions through arrangements made by the supervisor and you may be asked to assist in this work. Instruction on how to enumerate collective households will be supplied to those enumerators assigned to work in such areas.
5. General Procedures for Completing the Questionnaire
For the first time in the history of censuses in Zimbabwe, ZIMSTAT will use Optical Mark Recognition forms (OMR). These forms are specially designed so that the information on them can be captured for the computer via an OMR scanner.
[Sections 5.1 to 5.4 from the original document are not shown here.]
5.5 Following Instructions
Care must be exercised not to ask questions that have become not applicable.
5.6 Checking Completed Questionnaires
One of the responsibilities of the enumerator is to check the questionnaire after the interview and before leaving the household, to be sure that:
b) All answers are clear and reasonable and the handwriting is legible so that others can make sense of your paraphrased responses as well as reading your writing;
c) Filter instructions have been followed;
d) Any errors have been corrected;
e) The identification has been shaded and
f) The totals for males, females and grand total have been shaded in appropriate boxes.
N.B. Arrange for a call-back if necessary
Check your work systematically as follows:
b) Totals for males; females and grand total have been shaded in Section H;
c) Relationship and ages are consistent, e.g. children are not shown as being older than their parents, men are not shown as having born children, babies are not shown as having university education, etc;
d) For females age 15-49 years, appropriate answers have been made as necessary in Section E;
e) Education questions in Section C have been asked for all persons age 3 years and above;
f) Activity questions in Section D have been asked for all those age 10 years and above and
g) Write the household number on the self-adhesive label and stick it on the door of the dwelling unit.
Check work on the spot to avoid re-visiting the household. It should not be necessary to copy a questionnaire as long as it is clear and readable. Transcribing increases the chances of making errors. Never use scrap pieces of paper to collect information but record directly onto the questionnaire. Explain anything out of the ordinary in the space for comments.
When you are satisfied that all is in order, write your name and enter the date of the interview on the space provided in the questionnaire. Your name is your certification that the information on the questionnaire is complete and accurate.
5.7 Action in Case of Non-Response
Non-response occurs when the enumerator fails to secure an interview with a particular household (respondent) during the period of data collection. The principal reason for non-response is the failure to find respondents at home despite repeated visits. In such a situation, report to the supervisor.
6. The 2012 Population Census Questionnaire
The Population Census questionnaire is a means of collecting population information, including certain socio-economic characteristics, for the whole population.
In general, the sections of the questionnaire are as follows:
- Section B: Information on all members of the household. Even if some of the members of the household are temporarily absent when you visit the household, (e.g. gone for work), information on them is still requires; (see sections 4.3-4.4). The same applies to visitors.
- Section C: School attendance, enrolment and level of education attained for those age 3 years and above
- Section D: Labor force questions for those age 10 years and above
- Second E: Fertility information for women age 15- 49 years
- Section F: Living conditions
- Section G: Deaths in household
- Section H: Total number of people in the household by sex
Completion of the questionnaire, that is, Sections A to H, should follow the above order as far as possible.
Complete a separate questionnaire for each household. If a household has more than 8 members continue listing the members on the next questionnaire making certain that:
b) if more than one questionnaire is used for one household, indicate that additional questionnaires follow by marking the appropriate box.
Section H has also been provided for inserting the total number of males, females and total number of persons in the household.
Please note that if more than one questionnaire is completed for a household, information relating to Section F to H should be completed on the last questionnaire for the household. If more than six deaths have occurred in the household, continue to the next questionnaire. Only Section A will be repeated on the subsequent questionnaire(s).
None of the questionnaires are to be destroyed, as you will have to account for all the questionnaires issued to you, whether they are spoilt, filled in or blank.
The Age Determination table is given in Appendix 1, the Administrative District and Country Codes in Appendix 2, Census and Statistics Act in Appendix 3, explanation of the Geo Code System in Appendix 4 and the EA Summary Sheet in Appendix 5. The enumerator must complete the EA Summary sheet accurately upon completion of enumeration at each household.
Provinces are coded 0 to 9
Census Districts are numbered serially in each province as follows
Urban district council = 21 to 40
Wards are numbered form 01 until all wards have been covered within an administrative district
Sector code which qualifies the EA with codes 1-8. First digits for the sector and the second for type of household.
EA: the EA code should constitute a serial numbering of the EAs demarcated in each ward.
Household: To be numbered serially within the EA by the enumerator.
Section B: For all Persons
Begin by saying, "I would like information on ALL people who stayed at this household on the census night. This information is on the names of the persons, their relationship to head of household, their age and sex, survivorship of their parents etc. It is important that you give me as accurate information as possible about each person".
Q1 Household Composition
Always bear in mind that the count covers all persons, including visitors, who stayed the census night with the household. The procedure to identify households and their compositions will be as follows:
Firstly, identify the household that share the same dwelling unit by asking "Who stayed the census night here?", "Did these people have the same eating arrangements?", "Did these people have the same sleeping arrangements?" This should be done in a conversational and casual manner.
Secondly, identify the head of each household by asking "Who is the head of this household?" It is important that the head of the household be identified at this early stage as it is this individual who is going to be the chief respondent. The person should have been present during the census night (see section 4.3 and 4.4 regarding temporary absence).
When the head of household is temporarily absent, he/she should appear on the first line of the questionnaire.
Thirdly, explain to the head of household that you want information on all household members who stayed the census night with the household. Also inform the head of household that at a later stage you would ask questions on education, employment and fertility for specified age groups.
After listing the household members and checking that all those who spent the census night there have been included, complete the questionnaire column-wise for questions 1 to 3 only.
The order of listing should be as follows:
- Married children, their spouses and children;
- Relatives of head and
In situations where a man has more than one wife, all of whom stayed the census night in the same household, list the first wife with her children; followed by the second wife and her children, etc, with man as the head of the household.
For babies who have not yet been named, write "Baby of (mother's or father's name)" in the space for name before person number. Write both the first name and surname but where members of the household have the same surname, the first name and the first letter of the surname can be used for the members other than the head. This is illustrated in the following example with the following members - Mavis Kandiro, Tsitsi Kandiro, Moses Kandiro, Baby:
Baby of Tsitsi (mother's name)
In cases where a respondent refuses to give the first name, explain that the name is used only in relation to subsequent information. State that publication of information will only be in statistical form and at no time will names be published.
Please note that the name of the head of household should be entered on the first row, as person number "1"
Check the above information by reading out the names you have written down and then by asking the head of household if the list is correct. At this stage probing and observation is essential especially where you feel someone who is physically present at the time of interview has been left out, e.g. a domestic worker, baby etc.
It is important that everybody is counted!
Q2 Relationship to the head of household
The response categories are as follows: Head, Spouse, Son/Daughter, Parent, Grandson/daughter, other relative, not related. Where several persons who are not related by blood or marriage constitute a household, e.g. in urban areas, code one of them as the head and the rest as "not related". Emphasis is on biological relationships to the head of the household.
If the person is around, you can observe the sex without necessarily asking the question but avoid inferring the sex of the person from names as there are unisex names i.e. names used by both sex like Chipo, Tapiwa, Blessing, Taurai, Sipho, Nhlanhla, etc.
Check the information provided for babies and infants and preferably from the mothers. You will not know the sex of a baby carried on its mother's back in which case you have to probe further and not guess.
Ensure that the spouse's sex is compatible with the relationship to the head of household.
Questions 4-27 should strictly be completed row wise. Ensure information is completed for each member of the household before proceeding to the next, as this will enable you to follow the skip pattern.
- Actual ages for those age 1-97 years;
- "98" for those age 98 years and over;
Age is one of the most important questions as almost all analysis of data depends on respondent's age, for example, fertility rates calculated by age of woman etc. Be careful not to round up ages to the next birthday; the age of a child who is four years and eleven months should be recorded as 04 and not 05.
For calculation of ages, the following could be useful:
- To assist you with verifications of these calculations, an age determination table is shown in Appendix 1. In the table you have the decade on the left hand column and the last digit in the year of birth on the top row. Two rows of ages are then presented. The top row indicates the age when the birthday is before the census night, while the bottom row gives the age when the birthday is after the census night.
If year of birth is given and respondent cannot recall the month:
- If the age is not known, probe to try to estimate age. This is time consuming and sometimes tedious, but it is important to take time to try to get the best possible information.
There are several ways that can be used to probe for age:
- You may probe for age at last completed birthday, i.e. you may ask whether their birthday has passed in the current year, and when that was.
- In the case of a woman respondent, you may ask how old she was when she got married or had her first child, then try to estimate how long ago she got married or had her first child.
- It might be possible to relate the age of the person to that of someone else in the household whose age is reliably known.
If probing does not help, you may have to estimate the age as a last resort when all other efforts have failed. Avoid the use of IDs as a means of estimating a person's age because, more often than not, if a person does not know when s/he was born, the age on the ID is also wrong.
Q6 Place of birth
Birth place refers to the place where the birth actually occurred. For those born in Zimbabwe, enter the code referring to the relevant census district, i.e. the Rural Districts, the Urban Council Area (Municipalities, Town Councils and Local Boards) and for those born outside Zimbabwe, the code of the country of birth.
A list of the administrative districts and country codes is shown in Appendix 2 of this manual.
For those who usually live in Zimbabwe, record the census district code and for those from outside Zimbabwe record the country code as per Appendix 2.
Q8 Usual residence during last Census in August 2002
This question applies to persons age 10 years and above. Enter census district code if usual place of residence last census was in Zimbabwe or country code if the person was out of the country during the last census. The codes are in Appendix 2 of this manual.
Please note that this does not necessarily mean the place where the person was counted but the usual place of residence. Those who were temporarily absent for such reasons as visiting relatives, or in hospital, or overseas for less than one year should be shown where they usually lived 10 years ago. For not known record code 999.
Q9 Ethnic origin
You should not infer the ethnic origin from the surname because there are Africans with English or Asiatic names. African refers to any black person, European refers to any white person and Asiatic refers to anybody originating from the Asian continent, i.e. Indians, Chinese etc. Mixed will include all colored of any combination. Record what the person tells you. 'Other' refers to ethnic origin not covered by those specified on the questionnaire.
Do not deduce someone's citizenship from the language an individual speaks or their country of birth. Record what the respondent tells you. As a way of probing you may ask if the individual has a passport and if so, the country that issued the passport.
NB: Citizenship is not the same as country of birth. Country codes are in Appendix 2.
A man and woman who live together and who so regard themselves as husband and wife should be recorded as married. Thus in the main, the answer must be accepted as given by the respondent and not to question the legal aspect of the marital status.
If a person has been widowed or divorced and has since re-married, s/he should be recorded as married. Co-habiting is a form of marriage.
Divorce does not have to have gone through the court or other formalities for it to be considered as such. Thus it is the respondent who defines his/her marital status.
Please note that "never married" is not equivalent to "single" as the latter include those who have never married and those who have been married but are currently divorced/separated or widowed. "Never married" strictly refers to those who have never entered any marital union.
Q12 and Q13 Parental survivorship
These questions should be asked to members of the household who are 17 years and below including visitors in respect of the person's biological father and mother. In some cases, check with question 2 for consistency. Ask survivorship of each parent separately.
b) Disability: refers to any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner within the range considered normal for a human being (refers to the person and function).
c) Handicap: is a disadvantage for a given individual resulting from an impairment or disability that limits or prevents the fulfilment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sex, social and cultural factors) for that individual (limitations experienced by people with disabilities in their interactions with society.)
- Disability: Inability to walk
- Handicap: Unable to get employment
Because there is no adequate transport, buildings are not accessible and potential employers do not wish to employ someone with a disability.
Disability: Difficulty learning
Handicap: Unable to attend school because teachers do not know how to work with children who are mentally retarded.
In Zimbabwe, the terms disability, impairment and handicap have been used interchangeably to refer to persons with disabilities. Reference has been made to children who are mentally handicapped, people who have visual impairment or people who are physically disabled. To the users, the meaning is only an exercise in semantics.
Classification of disability for Purposes of identification
Disability is difficult because it is not a well-defined condition. Different countries have used different definitions and census methodologies to come up with estimates of prevalence rates.
Developed countries have counted even those with minor disabilities as disabled while developing countries have only counted those that have moderate to severe conditions that need rehabilitation intervention. These are people whose conditions permanently prevent them from performing activities in a manner considered normal for human beings. A person may have minor impairment (e.g. amputation of two toes) but functions normally. Such a person is not considered disabled.
When identifying people with disabilities, the difficulties that they may have as a result of their conditions are classified as follows by World Health Organization:
b) Totally Blind
c) Difficulty seeing
d) Difficulty speaking
f) Difficulty hearing
g) Difficulty learning/mental handicap
h) Chronic fits
i) Strange behavior/mental illness
j) Lack of feeling in hands or feet/leprosy
For the 2012 Census, Zimbabwe will classify people with moderate to severe disabilities according to the same categories.
- Weakness/paralysis in arms or legs (spasticity)
- Joints that no longer straighten because muscles have shortened (contractures)
- Missing body parts - may be born that way or due to accidental/surgical amputations
- Loss of whole or part of upper limb - amputation
- Loss of use of one upper limb - deformity
- Loss of whole or part of lower limb - amputation
- Loss of use of one lower limb - deformity
- Loss of use of both lower limbs - paraplegia
- Loss of use of all limbs - quadriplegia
- Loss of use of upper and lower limb on same side of body - hemiplegia
- Deformity of spine
- Has problems seeing details/clearly
- Cannot see well in the dark
- Cannot see objects that are far away
- Cannot see objects that are very close
- Blind one eye
- Cannot speak clearly enough to be understood
- No speech
- Difficulty speaking (stammering and cleft palate)
- Deaf both ears (profound)
- May not hear words when people speak
- Only hear when people speak loudly and clearly
- Ranges from mild to severe retardation;
- Development of sitting, crawling, etc. may be slow;
- May be slow to respond to what others say and to what happens around her/him;
- May not understand as well as others what she sees, hears, smells and tastes;
- May not be able to express his/her needs or feelings in a way other people understand;
- May not understand the abstract;
- May remember what she/he has been told only for a short time;
- May have difficulty controlling feelings (can just scream, cry or have sudden bursts of anger without any visible external triggers).
- Learning disability e.g. (moderate or severe) Downs syndrome, Microcephaly, hydrocephaly
- The person is usually on continuous medication
- Can be mild to severe
- Mild fit: person stops whatever they are doing: stares unusual movements e.g. repeated units of the lips or hands
- Severe fit: person falls to the ground. Has strong uncontrollable movements and loss of consciousness
i) Strange Behavior /Mental illness - mostly in adults
- Behavior change started at an older age;
- He/she has not always behaved this way;
- May not talk to anyone anymore;
- May talk too much, more than before;
- May become angry/ excited for no reason or may frighten other people;
- May hear voices that other people do not hear or see things other people do not see (hallucinations);
- Person may stop keeping clean or dressing properly;
- Person may speak or move around in a strange way;
- May show no feelings or interest in other people;
- May start collecting rubbish and look less and less tidy;
- May believe that she/he is someone important;
- May begin to believe things that are obviously not true (paranoia).
Section C: Education
This section deals with participation at school, past and present, for all persons age 3 years and above. It includes participation at pre-school level hence we are asking for information relating to 3 year olds.
NB: for this section check with Question 4 (age) for consistency, particularly for children.
Q15 Ever attendance at school
"School" refers to full-time education in an institution like pre-school, primary, secondary school, post-secondary and tertiary institution. The attendance does not necessarily have to be for a full school academic year. For everyone age 3 or older, ask the question in column 15. Shade '1' for persons who have ever been to school and '2' for those who have never been to school.
b) If the person has never been to school, shade code '2' for No and go to Q20
NB: the response 'No' in Question 15 means the enumerator skips Q16-19 and goes to the next section on activity (which starts at Q20)
The outcome of attendance does not matter, i.e. whether someone passed or failed, the education level is immaterial and is not necessarily an outcome of formal schooling.
The education system has undergone periodic changes. At one time primary education lasted eight years then changed to seven years. There was once the F2 system, which went up to grade 11 (eleven) in secondary school. All these systems must be made to conform to the system currently in use. Furthermore, if a respondent was educated outside Zimbabwe, probe so as to find the Zimbabwe level of education that is equivalent to the respondent's level of education.
Equivalence between the old and new systems of education in Zimbabwe and the applicable codes are shown in the table below:
Other levels, Equivalents, Code]
Sub A, Grade 1, 1
Standard 1, Grade 3, 3
Standard 2, Grade 4, 4
Standard 3, Grade 5, 5
Standard 4, Grade 6, 6
Standard 5/6, Grade 7, 7
If the person has attended school, you will record his/her educational attainment in column 16. Do this by using the codes given below. You will first record the level of schooling by recording the highest level the person ever attended, even if he/she did not finish that level. Then you will record how many grades the person completed at that level. For example, a man who completed all the grades of primary school would be Level 1, Grade 7. A child who is currently in the third year of primary school would be Level 1 and Grade 2 (she has not yet completed the third year). A man who left during his first year of secondary school would be recorded as Level 1 and Grade 7. If a respondent has been to secondary school i.e. level 2, but the grade (number of years) is not known use grade 4.
Education, Education grade]
0: Pre-school, 1-3
1: Primary, 1-7
2: Secondary, Form 1-6
3: Higher, (1) a certificate or diploma after primary, (2) a certificate or diploma after secondary, (3) graduate and post graduate.
9: Not known
For someone who has never been to pre-school but is in grade 1, the codes would be 8 for level and another 8 for grade.
Any tertiary education is in level 3
Tertiary after Primary is Level 3 Grade 1 Tertiary after Secondary is Level 3 Grade 2
Any degree or postgraduate is Level 3 Grade 3
Q17 is similar to Q15 but is asking for information on current attendance. Shade the appropriate response. Depending on the response to Q17, the following are instructions on how to complete Q17-Q19
If the person is coded '1' (Yes) on Q17, which means they are currently attending school, skip Q18 and go to Q19.
If the person is coded '2' (No) on Q17, which means they are NOT currently attending school, ask Q18.
Ask whether the person attended school at any time during the current school year and shade '1' for Yes and '2' for No. The following are scenarios on how to proceed to Q19 depending on the response to Q18.
If the person is attending school (code '1' 'Yes' on Q17) or attended school at any time during the current school year (code '1' 'Yes' on Q18) ask Q19. Ask what level and grade the person is/was attending, and record the level and grade.
If the person did not attend school at any time during the current school year (code 2 'No' on Q17 and Q18), skip to Q20
NB: in Q15-16 we are considering grade completed whereas in Q17-19 current grade is being considered.
(For levels and grades refer to codes in question 16).
- Occupation: a set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are characterized by a high degree of similarity.
- Economic Enterprise: defined as one in which at the end of the day one is capable of generating income in cash or kind.
To those who are 10 years and above, Ask "What was (the respondent)'s main activity in the last twelve months?" You may need to probe to insure that the respondent understands the concepts of activity.
The response categories are:
This refers to an employee/worker who worked for a public or private employer and are typically remunerated by wages and salaries but may be paid by commission or piece rates. Paid family workers, shop keepers, gardeners and house maids are also to be included here.
This refers to a person who operates his or her own economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and continuously hires one or more employees. Economic enterprise is defined as one in which at the end of the day one is capable of generating income in cash or kind. It should be emphasized that if one is employing a domestic worker he /she is not an employer since the household is not an economical enterprise. However, a housewife is continuously employing someone to sell e.g. freezits, sweets, airtime, vegetables, etc., to make some profits is considered an employer.
2 Own account worker:
These operate their own economic enterprise and work for their own consumption or profit. Own account workers can employ other workers without being classified as employers, as long as they do so on a non-continuous basis e.g. to help with the harvest or planting. Whenever, an own account worker continuously employees at least one employee he or she is classified as an employer. Examples of these are communal resettlement, peri-urban farmers, petty traders and carpenters. Both the head of household and spouse are considered communal, resettlement or peri-urban farmers. If another member of the household operates his or her own fields then he or she becomes a standalone farmer.
3 Unpaid family worker/contributing family worker
It refers to those family members of the household who work without pay in an enterprise that is operated by the household but cannot be regarded as partners because their degree of commitment is not at the level comparable to that of the head of establishment.
4 Looking for work/unemployed:
These are persons aged 10 years and above who during the last 12 months were without work, were available for work and were actively seeking work.
A student is a person who attends a regular formal education institution, public or private. He /she should be a full-time or part-time student not usually engaged in an economic enterprise. University student, trainee teacher, apprentices, student nurses are also students.
Homemaker is a person of either sex involved in the household chores in their own household e.g. fetching water, cooking, baby-sitting, etc and who do not work for pay or profit. If the person worked on the household business, s/he should be recorded as self- employed or unpaid family worker. Domestic workers engaged for pay should not be included in this category but under paid employee.
7 Retired person/sick/too old:
(NB: These are three combined categories)
- Sick: these are persons who are not engaged in any activity because of sickness.
- Too old: these are persons who reported that they had no activities because of old age.
This refers to those not referred to in any of the above categories e.g. prisoner.
Q21 Main occupation and Q22 Specialization
Responses on occupation and specialization are to be recorded firstly in the numerator's note book during an interview. Thereafter, the enumerator will code this information (see Classification of Occupations Manual) and shade in appropriate boxes on the questionnaire before leaving the premise.
This refers to trade, or profession performed by an individual during the last 12 months, irrespective of the industry or status in employment of the individual. Where multiple occupations are common, the main or usual occupation should be determined. This is done by determining the duration of work in each occupation during the reference period.
For those with multiple occupations, i.e. when a person is involved in more than one occupation at a given time, e.g. government official who teaches part-time, or a teacher who enumerates during the census, record the person's main occupation i.e. where he/she spends most of the time.
The type of work should be recorded as fully as possible, e.g. shorthand typist; grade 3 carpenter; key punch operator; motor vehicle mechanic; panel beating foreman; etc. Avoid such unclear and one word descriptions as operator; foreman; driver; etc. Probe so that you put people in the correct category. If in doubt ask for a description for the main kind of work and note it in the comments section and seek guidance from supervisor at the earliest possible opportunity.
Q22 what was (the respondent)'s field of specialization?
This question is meant to collect information on vocational, professional or academic training for persons who have undergone such training at tertiary level. For persons level 3 in Q16 and code 0-4 in Q20.
Section E: For Women Age 15-49 Years
Introduce this section by saying, "Now I would like to talk to you about all the live births you have, (if you are talking to the respondent) or (the respondent) has had (if respondent is a proxy). The live births I want information on are about children born alive who live with you, live elsewhere and those who have died".
Information on live births (fertility) should be obtained for all women age 15 to 49 years. Information should be requested of all of them irrespective of the marital status, whether or not they are visitors, at school, or you think they have never given birth to any children.
Effort should be made to get responses from the women themselves and permission to do this should be obtained from the head of household. Where the woman concerned is not present, a proxy should be used to answer the question.
Definition of Live Birth: a life birth is one which results in a child that shows any sign of life irrespective of the time or the period within which these signs are manifested, e.g. crying, movement of limbs.
Before proceeding with the actual interview, identify all eligible women using the age of the woman. Lumping ages should be discouraged as it can be shown on the pyramid that the age distribution has been improperly entered.
If the answer is "yes", shade code '1' and complete the other three parts of the questions as detailed in sections c to h below. It should be noted that the children referred to are the respondent's own children in biological sense and not foster children, e.g. children of the husband by another woman or children of another relative.
These children should have been present on the census night of Friday 17th August 2012 and be appearing as members of the household.
These are children who are still alive but are not living in the household, e.g. they may be staying with some relative; are at a boarding school; have been given up for adoption or are grown up children who have left the household.
Further probing might be necessary as these children are not members of the household.
This information is extremely important and is the most difficult on which to obtain accurate data, because some respondents may fail to mention children who died very young. Probe by asking "Any male or female who was born alive but only survived a few days or hours?"
Some respondents may be reluctant to talk about it or may become sad or upset that you are asking such questions. Be tactful in such situations. Say you know the subject is painful but the information is important.
- the child died after leaving the household; or
- the child was born to another man;
while at the same time faulty inclusions may occur for:
- children born to the current husband by another woman;
- adopted children; and
NB: all questions asked in question 23 will ultimately give us the total number of children ever born by the woman.
This should be consistent with the answers on Question 4. Probe as in Q4 to obtain the age.
For the year, enter the last two digits of the year, i.e. "92" for 1992;
Multiple births, i.e. twins, triplets, etc, are accommodated because what is being recorded under the variables "sex" and "survival" of the last live birth are the numbers of boys and/or girls. The question to be asked should be modified to "How many are still alive?"
- Is this child still alive? If there was a single birth in Q26.
If the child is still alive and was with the mother on the census night, check that the age given in column for age of this child agrees with the year of birth.
Note that births occurring after the census night are not to be recorded.
Responses to Questions 28 to 33 are pre-coded and you have to shade the correct response.
Q28 Tenure status of the household
This refers to the arrangements under which the household occupies its living quarters in the nature of its right to be there. The categories, for which you are to shade the appropriate one, are:
An owner or purchaser is one who owns the house or is in the process of buying it with a mortgage or through the Government's home ownership scheme or is renting to buy.
A tenant occupies the whole dwelling unit and generally pays electricity and water charges to the urban authority as if she/he owned the property. The terms of renting are under a written agreement.
A lodger rents whole/part of a dwelling unit, which belongs to an owner/purchaser or is under a tenant. Terms are not normally under a written agreement.
4 Tied accommodation
A person living in tied accommodation occupies it by virtue of his/her job. The accommodation belongs to the employer and is made available as part of terms of employment. If the person leaves the job, s/he is required to move out of the dwelling unit.
Examples of this type of tied accommodation include:
- Industrial and factory compounds;
- Domestic workers' quarters;
- Railways and other industrial accommodation;
- Staff houses provided in schools.
This category includes those staying free in dwelling unit but constituting a separate household.
The explanations of these categories are as follows:
This is the old style family settlement in which a number of buildings are made of pole and dagga/bricks with thatched roofs and are used for living.
This type is found in old style family settlements where one or more of the buildings in a cluster are built of materials more modern than pole and dagga/bricks and thatch.
If, for example, one of the buildings is of brick with a corrugated iron roof and the rest are of pole and dagga, the type of dwelling is considered "mixed".
This is a structurally separate dwelling that is built of materials other than pole and dagga. Access to the street is by means of a path, or step, directly on the pavement, not shared by other dwellings, and which can be properly regarded as part of the house and/or its garden. A main house (modern) and outbuildings (modern) on one stand/plot are considered as detached.
This consists of one of two dwellings with a common wall between them, with their gardens separated by, e.g. a fence, hedge or wall and whose access to the street meet the conditions as given for the detached house.
One of three or more dwellings in a line or row, divided by common walls, with their gardens separated by fences, hedges or walls, and whose separate accesses to the street meet the conditions as given for the detached house. In rural areas the supervisor is to check if such type of dwelling units is found.
Dwelling unit constructed out of any cheap, locally available material such as plastic and wood material.
This may include temporary dwelling such as a tent, houseboat or bunker, caravan and wooden cabin that is not intended for permanent occupation.
b) The distance to that water source, measured from the kitchen.
The option 7 'Other' under question 31 includes: water tank and bowser.
If the main source of water varies during the year, record the source most usually used and if the main source is "Piped water inside house", then the distance is not necessary, and is automatically coded as "1" on the questionnaire. Probe to make sure that you obtain the correct source of water for drinking and cooking.
Q32 Toilet facility
This information can be used in obtaining a measure of sanitation level of the household since these facilities are important for disease control and health improvement. Please note that it is access to a toilet facility that is referred to here and not the ownership.
Some explanations on the categories are as follows:
Water carries the waste down a pipe whether the water is piped onto the toilet or poured in by buckets.
2 Blair toilet/VIP (Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine)
A special ventilated pit latrine protected from flies and which ventilates odors away from the latrine itself.
3 Pit toilet
A pit or latrine dug into the earth.
4 Communal toilet
Refers to a shared toilet, as in compounds.
Q33 Main source of energy for cooking
This refers to type of energy mostly used during the year.
The "other" category may include cow dung, straw, diesel etc.
If the household uses electricity, check whether the dwelling has electricity in Q30. Probe and make comments if the responses are inconsistent.
Section G: Deaths in the Household
Introduce section by saying, "In this section I would like to obtain information on all deaths that have occurred in this household in the last twelve months. The deceased persons must have been usual members of this household."
The data on deaths required here refers to deaths in the last twelve months of individuals who were living with the household. There is a slight shift from the de facto method to the de jure on this particular question on deaths. Members who usually lived with the household are to be captured. The deaths should not be confused with deaths in the family. Deaths that occur after the census night are not to be recorded.
NB: The 'last twelve months' refer to the period between September 2011 and August 2012.
The order of asking this question is as follows:
Q34-37 Deaths in the household in the last twelve months
First establish if there were any deaths in the household by asking "Did any deaths occur in the household in the last twelve months?" Shade the appropriate answer. If the answer is "yes" establish the number of deaths and obtain, for each death, the following details:
Q35 Sex of the deceased
For babies and infants, one might need to probe further. Shade the appropriate response, i.e. either "1" for male or "2" for female and check the survival status of the infant born within "the last 12 months" reference period.
- Actual ages for those age "1-97" years;
- "98" for those age "98" years and over; and
Please note that this question intends to identify women who died due to maternal causes. A pregnant woman, who for example, gets knocked down by a car, is not included.
Check responses given to make certain that you have recorded the responses correctly and accurately.
NB: If more than 6 deaths occurred in the household, then proceed to the next questionnaire to complete the information. Remember to fill in Section A: Identification in such cases.
Enumeration Administrative Details
After you have completed enumerating the households in the EA, check again to make sure that all the households have been covered .After you have checked and are satisfied with your work, record the physical address of the household, sign the questionnaire and enter the date of the interview.
If you reside in a household:
Have you been counted yourself?
[Appendices omitted: Age determination table, administrative districts and country codes, Census and statistics Act, geo code system, and enumeration area summary sheet