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2010 Census of Population and Housing
Enumerator's Instruction Manual

Central Statistical Office
P.O. Box 31908, Lusaka, Zambia
August 2010

[Table of Contents has been omitted.]

Chapter 1

Background

1.1 What is a census?

A Census of Population and Housing is defined by the United Nations as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time or times, to all persons in a designated area or the whole country. It is the primary source of information about the Population of a country. It is undertaken at regular intervals, usually after ten years. The population Census is distinguished from other kinds of field surveys by its traditional background, legal sanctions, coverage, and by the whole scale of the operation and the resources normally devoted to it.

1.2 Why hold a population census?

The main objective of conducting a Population Census is to enumerate all the people in the country in order to provide the Government, private organizations, individuals, and other stakeholders with the number of persons in each district, township, locality, village, etc, according to age, sex, and other characteristics. For every aspect of planning, it is essential to know the size, structure and distribution of the population of a country. This information is required for various aspects of social and economic planning.

In case of social services, information is needed on:

a) Education: Planning for education requires knowledge of the number of children of school-going age, who are likely now and in the coming years to require education at various levels. The Government cannot know where to build the necessary schools and train the required number of school teachers, unless it knows where the need is greatest in terms of the number of children of school-going age.

b) Housing: Housing is a problem, particularly in urban areas where many people are living under crowded conditions. If additional houses are to be built in order to alleviate overcrowding, the Government must know the number of people living under these conditions who will require more houses.

c)Health Services: It is always the wish of the Government to improve and expand health services of the country so as to control diseases and minimize the number of children dying during infancy and early childhood. If health services are to be adequately planned for, the Government needs to know the number of people affected.

Similarly, for economic services, information is needed on:

a) Agriculture: In Zambia, most of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. In order to develop agriculture, it is essential to know the number of people involved in agricultural activities, their sex, age, education level and where they are located.

B )Industry: Industry plays a vital role in any country's economy. For instance, mining is the major foreign exchange earner for this country. A large number of people are employed in mining and manufacturing industries (hence the need to know their numbers, ages, sex and skills).

For all these purposes, it is not enough just to know how many people there are at the time of the Census. We must also know how fast the population is increasing and how many people there will be in five years time, ten years time, etc. This is why we wish to obtain information, not only on people living now, but also on the number of children being born and the number of people dying.

1.3 Importance of your work as an enumerator

The Census of Population and Housing is an important national undertaking. As an Enumerator, your work is of great significance in the chain of events, and your responsibility is heavy. Without your conscientious attention to detail and a sense of devotion, it will not be possible to conduct the census successfully.

The data you will collect from respondents will be processed using the most appropriate information technology. As an original data collector, the quality of information to be derived from this data is very much dependent on what you collect from the respondents. After the data has been collected and found to be erroneous at the processing stage, it is not only an expensive venture to go back and make corrections from the source but could prove to be impossible, since the original respondents may no longer be at the location you visited. It is, therefore, important to note that your position is a very important one.

Note:
During field work, part of your allowances will be withheld and given upon successful completion of your work. The Enumerator with most mistakes will therefore be traced. This means that if the error rate for your SEA is high, you shall NOT receive your withheld allowance.

1.4 Legal powers

The Census is being carried out under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 127 of the Laws of Zambia. All people residing in Zambia, except foreign diplomats accredited to Zambia (i.e. only those attached to Embassies and High Commissions), are required by this Act to provide the necessary information. Zambians residing within ambassadors and high commissioners residences, e.g maids and garden boys, will have to be enumerated. The Central Statistical Office will get permission from Ministry of Foreign Affairs to go into those residences and interview the Zambians. However, willing co-operation of the people is most important if the Census is to be a success. You must show great courtesy so that you can get the co-operation of the people. Sometimes you may come across some persons who may be reluctant to be enumerated. When every effort to persuade them to provide the necessary information has failed, and they persist in refusing to answer questions, then the matter should be reported to your Supervisor. Do not take the law into your own hands by threatening people with possible prosecution.

1.5 Confidentiality of census information

You and all other Census officials are required to take an Oath of Secrecy, in the presence of a Magistrate or a Commissioner for Oaths. If it is found that anyone has shown the Census documents, or in any other way has disclosed the information contained in them to any unauthorized person, he/she will be liable to prosecution under the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 127 of the Laws of Zambia. In the course of your work, do not leave the Census questionnaires issued to you in any place where an unauthorized person may have access to them.

1.6 Census organization

The country is divided into 72 Districts. Each District is divided into Census Supervisory Areas (CSAs), and each CSA into Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs). There will be about 25,000 Standard Enumeration Areas. Thus, there will be about 25,000 enumerators employed to carry out the enumeration exercise.

The Enumerators will be supervised by supervisors. In all, there will be about 8,000 supervisors. The Census Administration in a district will be managed by the District Commissioners as the District Census Officer, together with Master Trainers.

Two to three enumerators will be working with each Supervisor. Your Supervisor will issue questionnaires and other materials to you, and will be responsible for organizing your activities. He/she will also explain to and show you the boundaries of your enumeration area and give you instructions as to the order in which you should enumerate the people living in different parts of your enumeration area. During the enumeration period, you must keep in constant touch with your Supervisor to enable him/her make adjustments to your program of work, if necessary. You should also report any difficult cases, such as persons who persist in refusing to answer questions, to your Supervisor. He/she will then either handle the matter personally, or give you advice on how to proceed. Your supervisor will also be visiting you at intervals during the enumeration to see how you are getting on with the work. He/she will check through your questionnaires and if he/she finds any mistakes, you will be required to correct them, even by re-visiting the households concerned, if necessary.

1.7 Materials

You will be given the following materials:
Census questionnaires, Enumerator's Manual, Stickers, Boxes to store questionnaires and writing Boards;

  • HB pencils and rubbers;
  • A note book;
  • Letter of introduction;
  • A map of your work area;
  • A pen;
  • A bag in which to keep the census materials;
  • A Census Uniform.

When you have completed your work, you should return all these materials to your Supervisor.

Chapter 2

Concepts and definitions

2.1 Enumeration area

An enumeration area is a geographical area assigned to an enumerator for the purpose of conducting a census count. It is apportioned taking into account the workload that an enumerator is expected to cover. Your Supervisor will assign this area to you and will also provide you with a map showing boundaries of your enumeration area and explain major features of this area in order for you to properly identify the boundaries. For you to cover your area in an orderly manner, you must follow the instructions given by your Supervisor carefully.

Since the co-operation of the people is an essential factor in the success of the Census, your Supervisor will sometimes introduce you to the local, traditional and political leaders and other learders/influential persons in the area to solicit their co-operation.

2.2 Household

For the purposes of the Census, a household is defined as "a group of persons who normally live and eat together. These people may or may not be related by blood, but make common provision for food or other essentials for living and they have only one person whom they all regard as head of the household." Such people are called members of the household if they normally live and eat together even if they do not sleep under one roof. There could also be situations where people live under one roof but have separate cooking and eating arrangements. Such persons should be considered as separate households. There can also be a one member household where a person makes provision for his/her own food or other essentials for living. Such a person is the head of his/her household.

A household normally occupies the whole of a Housing Unit or part of it, or more than one Housing Unit. A household is in most cases (if not in all cases) identified with a housing unit.

2.3 Usual household member

A usual household member is one who has been living with the household for at least six (6) months or has joined the household and intends to live with the household for six months or longer. He/ She may or may not be related to the other household members by blood, marriage, or may be a house-helper or farm-laborer. A usual household member normally lives together with other household members in one house or closely related premises and takes his/her meals from the same kitchen.

The following people regard the housing unit as their home or usual place of residence and should be counted as usual household members:

  • Persons whose usual place of residence is the place where the household lives and are present at the time of the enumerator's visit.
  • Persons whose usual place of residence is the place where the household lives, but are absent at the time of the enumerator's visit, eg:
  • Persons temporarily away on vacation, business or pleasure trip or any other purpose within the country who are expected to be back within six months or abroad without the rest of the household and expected to come back;
  • Students who usually go to their respective households during weekends and during holidays;
  • Persons working elsewhere who usually go home to their respective households at least once a week;
  • Patients confined in hospitals for any duration and detainees.
  • Convicts/Prisoners who have been sentenced for less than six months should be captured as usual members absent.
  • Lodgers of the household who are working, looking for work or studying, and who do not go home at least once a week;
  • Employees of household - includes servants who eat and sleep with the household and who do not go home at least once a week;
  • Persons (other than those in a, b or c ) whose usual place of residence is elsewhere, but who have been away from their usual residence for more than six months;
  • Persons found in the household who have no usual place of residence elsewhere;
  • Persons found in the household who are not certain of being enumerated elsewhere;
  • Citizens of foreign countries who have resided or expected to reside in the country for more than one year from the date of arrival;
  • Newly born babies and newly wedded persons.

2.4 Head of household

This will be the person all members of the household regard as the head. He/ She is the one who normally makes day-to-day decisions governing the running of the household. In cases of the one member households, the member will be the head of the household. Remember a person does not become the head of a household simply because he/she is the main respondent. In the case of a polygamous household, the enumerator will first establish whether:

  • It is one household with one household head i.e. all the wives eat together and consider the man as the head. In this case, it is only one household with one head and several spouses.
  • It is several households with one head i.e. every wife eats on their own but they all consider the man as the head. In this case, the man will be assigned as head in the household where he spent the night before the enumerator's visit, in the rest of households, the spouses will be considered as heads.

2.5 Building

A building is any independent structure comprising one or more rooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof. However, for census purposes one or more structures used for living by the same household on the same premises will be treated as one building. Each building will be given a separate Census Building Number irrespective of whether anyone is living there or not at the time of enumeration. Abandoned and incomplete buildings in which no one is living at the time of the Census should not be given a Census Building Number. Observe that an abandoned building differs from a vacant building in that an abandoned building is not habitable and may never be used again (condemned). A vacant building is one which is temporarily unoccupied.

There exist a number of variations of this definition. For example, a structure consisting of a roof with supports only, i.e. without walls, will be considered as a building if it is being used for living purposes.

Examples:

  • A house together with detached/independent structures for bathroom, latrine and /or kitchen, form one building.
  • Several huts for the same household constitute one building.
  • Please note that for cases (a) and (b) first make sure that all the structures are used by the same household.
  • A servant's quarter in a yard forms a separate building if the persons occupying it are not part of the household in the main housing unit.
  • A bungalow (main house) and its detached garage form one building.
  • A block of flats forms one building.

Where there are several structures in an institution, each of these structures will be given a separate Census Building Number.

Example:

School Premises: Each of the teachers' houses, each classroom block, each dormitory block will be given a separate Census Building Number.

2.6 Housing unit

A Housing Unit is an independent place of abode intended for habitation by one household. This should have direct access to the outside such that the occupants can come in or go out without passing through anybody else's premises, that is, a housing unit should have at least one door which directly leads outside in the open or into a public corridor or hallway. Structures which are not intended for habitation such as garages and barns, classroom etc., but are occupied as living quarters by one or more households at the time of the Census will also be treated as housing units. The following are the types of Housing Units, thus:

(a) Traditional Housing Unit: A traditional housing unit is indigenous to a particular village irrespective of building materials.

(b)Improved Traditional Unit: This refers to the type of housing also common in rural areas that is considered "improved" by the materials used for either the walls or the roofing. Some of these huts may have red brick or burnt brick walling and in some cases asbestos or even iron sheets in the roof. They are somewhat like traditional huts but have some improvement that sets them apart from typical traditional huts.

(c) Mixed Housing Unit: Mixed housing units are of a mixed type i.e. with a unique combination of building materials. An example could be that of a conventional housing unit with concrete block walls with an extension of rooms with pole and dagga walls or a "cabin".

(d) A Conventional House/Flats (Housing Unit): A conventional housing unit is a room or a set of rooms and its accessories in a permanent building. It can also be a structurally separated part of the permanent building by the way it has been built, rebuilt or converted. A conventional house is intended for habitation by one household and is not, at the time of enumeration, used wholly for other purposes. Examples: bungalows, flats/ apartments, etc. A Conventional Housing unit may just be one structure, several structures or part of a big structure. If it is part of a structure, then other parts may also be housing units, like in a block of flats, or be other than housing units, like a shop, an office, etc., or mixture of such units. In some cases, a place may be originally designed as a barn, warehouse, etc., and thus not intended for human habitation. Later on it may be converted into a housing unit by structural alterations, re-design, etc., and thus may now be fit and intended for habitation. In such cases, these will now be classified as conventional housing units.

(e) Mobile Housing Unit: This is any type of living quarter that has been produced to be transported e.g. a tent. A mobile housing unit may also refer to a moving unit such as a ship, a boat, a caravan, trailers, boats, tents, etc. occupied as living quarters at the time of the census.

(f) Part of Commercial building: This is a living quarter which is part of a commercial building, e.g. shop owners living on top of their shop or living quarters attached to the commercial building.

(g) An Improvised/Makeshift Housing Unit: An improvised housing unit is an independent, makeshift-shelter or structure built of mostly waste or salvaged materials and without a predetermined design or plan for the purpose of habitation by one household, which is being used as living quarters though it may not comply with generally accepted standards for habitation. Such a unit will be generally found in suburban shanty areas. Not all structures in shanty areas may be considered as improvised as many of these may have been built in a planned manner from regular building materials.

(h) Collective Living Quarters: Collective living quarters include structurally separate and independent places of abode intended for habitation by large groups of individuals or several households with no common bond, public objective or interest. Such quarters usually contain common facilities such as kitchen, bathrooms, lounge or dormitories, which are shared by occupants. Examples are hotels, motels, inns, lodges, rooming houses, etc., which provide lodging on a fee basis.

(i) Institutions: Institutions are sets of premises in a permanent structure or structures designed to house groups of persons (usually large) who are bound by either a common public objective or a common personal interest. In this type of living quarters persons of the same sex frequently share dormitories. Examples are hospitals, military barracks, boarding schools, convents, seminaries, prisons, etc.

(j) Unintended Living Quarters: Unintended living quarters are structurally separate and independent places of abode. They may have been built, constructed, converted or arranged for human habitation provided they are not at the time of the census used wholly for other purposes. They may also be in use for habitation at the time of the census although not intended for habitation.

(k) Other: Other is a residual category of living quarters and includes bridges, storage warehouses, market stalls, shop corridors, garages, ship containers etc.

A building may have one or more housing units but not vice versa. Some buildings may not have any housing units because they are used exclusively for non - residential purposes. Although a housing unit is intended for habitation by one household it may be occupied by more than one, or may even be vacant.

Chapter 3

Census procedures

3.1 Sticker

In order to identify the housing unit, a special sticker will be pasted on the main door of the housing unit after the persons in that household have been enumerated.

The sticker will be marked with Province, District, Constituency, Ward, Census Supervisory Area (CSA), Standard Enumeration Area (SEA), Census Building Number (CBN), Housing Unit Number (HUN) and Household Number (HHN) and the enumeration date. The date will be that on which you enumerate the household and not that of any other visit when you do not contact a respondent. The sticker you will paste on the main door looks like the one below. You will fill in the necessary details before pasting the sticker.

[Image omitted]

Sometimes you will not find people at home. In such cases you will have to go back to the housing unit to enumerate the household later. Since the sticker is to be pasted on the door of the housing unit after enumeration of the household has been completed, assign the Census Building Number (CBN) and Housing Unit Number (HUN) but do not paste the sticker until after the household has been enumerated. Remember to note this down in your note book.

Only one sticker should be used for each housing unit occupied by one household. In case of a block of flats, separate stickers having different Housing Unit Numbers, should be used for each flat occupied by a separate household. When a household is spread between two or more structures, write the same Census Building Number (CBN) on each of the structures. This means that each structure will have a sticker having the same Census Building Number.

For cases where a number of households are found in one building with only one door way, paste one sticker on the door. However, you will record the number of households in the box provided for household number. For example, if there are 4 households in one building having only one door way, you will record 1-4 (1 to 4) next to the box provided for household number or cross out the box for household number and write 1-4.

Even though no one is living in a housing unit, you must use one questionnaire to indicate this fact and, if possible, record the housing characteristics of this unit in the housing characteristics section of the questionnaire. Fill in a sticker and stick it on the door of the housing unit.

3.2 Ethics and rules of conducting interviews

As an Enumerator, it is your responsibility to keep strictly confidential anything you learn or observe during an interview. Never disclose the facts about anybody you interview to someone else. Respondents should be told that the information they provide will be used for statistical purposes only and that their names will not be associated with their answers when the information is analyzed.

In order to carry out your work successfully you should follow the following guidelines:

3.2.1 Preparing for the interview

There are four important steps which must be taken before you start your work:

1. Reviewing the Enumerators Manual: This includes reviewing the general interviewing procedures, the specific field procedures and the question-by-question instructions.

2. Reviewing the Questions in the Census Questionnaires: Before you begin interviewing, practise using the questionnaire to build up your confidence. A successful interview requires enumerators who fully understand the Census questionnaires and can use them easily and correctly. Fumbling through the questionnaire like losing your place, shuffling papers, etc. can disturb the person to be interviewed.

3. Organizing Census Materials: Be sure you know what materials you need and that you have them with you before going into the field to interview. Check that you have the relevant questionnaire ready at hand before you start asking questions in order to avoid looking confused as you shuffle things around looking for it in the presence of the respondent.

4. Appearance and Behavior: The first thing the respondent notices about the Enumerator is appearance. It is important that you present a good impression by being neat, polite and courteous.
3.2.2 Establishing a good relationship

A comfortable relationship between the Enumerator and the respondent is the foundation for good interviewing. The respondents' impression of you will largely determine the atmosphere for the whole interview. If you seem uninterested, bored or hostile the respondent will most probably act in a similar way. You should remember that people tend to react favorably if they think the interviewer is someone with whom they will enjoy talking to. This means that you need to impress the respondent by being a friendly and understanding person. Through your good behavior you can create an atmosphere in which the respondent can talk freely.

3.2.3 Using the questionnaire

The purpose of the interview is to collect accurate data by using the questionnaire and following standard interviewing practices. To achieve this, you need to understand the census questionnaire including how to ask the questions, how to follow instructions in the questionnaire and how to identify the various types of questions.

3.2.4 Asking the questions

You should ask the questions in the way outlined below:

  • Remaining Neutral: You must maintain a neutral attitude with respondents. You must be careful that nothing in your words or manner implies criticism, surprise, approval or disapproval of either the questions asked or of the respondents' answers. You can put respondents at ease with a relaxed approach and gain their confidence. The respondents' answers to the questions should be obtained with as little influence as possible from you. The questions are all carefully worded to be neutral. They do not suggest that any one answer is preferable to another. When a respondent gives an ambiguous answer, never assume what the respondent means by saying something like "Oh, I see, I suppose you mean................., is that right?" If you do this, very often the respondent will agree with your interpretation, even though it may not be correct.
  • Asking Questions in the Order Presented: Never change the order of the questions in the questionnaire. The questions follow one another in a logical sequence. Changing that sequence could alter the intention of the questionnaire. Asking a question out of sequence can affect answers you receive later in the interview.
  • Asking Questions As Worded: Do not change the question. If the respondent does not seem to understand the question, simply repeat it. In order that the information from the questionnaire can be put together, each question must be asked in exactly the same way for each respondent. In some cases, the respondent may simply not be able to understand a question. If it is apparent that a respondent does not understand a question after you have repeated it using the original language, you can rephrase it in simpler or colloquial language. However, you must be careful not to alter the intention of the question when doing this. Sometimes, respondents will ask you to define words in a question or explain part of the question. When this occurs, refer to the relevant section in the manual.
  • Avoid Showing the Questions to the Respondent: Respondents can be influenced by knowing what questions are coming next or by seeing the answer categories which are not asked with the questions.
3.2.5 Instructions in the questionnaire

In addition to the questions you must ask, the questionnaire contains instructions for you. The instructions are there to help you use the questionnaire correctly and must be followed closely.
These are:-

  • Skip Instructions: This directs the flow of the interview by telling you which question to ask the respondent next. In other words, it is a method of tailoring the questionnaire to fit the respondents' situation and to prevent you from asking irrelevant questions. You must read these instructions with care so that you do not skip the correct questions and thus, miss out important information. When a question is not asked because of a skip instruction, you do not have to enter anything in the space provided. A good example from the questionnaire is P-26, where persons who have never attended school are not asked the questions regarding the highest level of school they have attained, which happens to be the next question in the sequence.
  • Question Specific Instructions: Such instructions are always printed in brackets, sometimes bold. They are good reminders for specific instructions. An example is in P-12 where you are instructed to enter the code for the ethnicity.
  • Screening Instructions: These instructions specify which persons should be asked the questions. They appear before some sections. For example, questions on education will be asked of persons five years and older only; fertility questions are to be asked of females aged 15 to 49 years; and economic activity questions will be asked to persons aged 12 years and above.

3.2.6 Probing

This is the technique you will have to employ in order to obtain a complete and relevant answer from the respondent. An answer is always probed if it is incomplete, unsatisfactory or not meaningful. There are a number of reasons why respondents sometimes do not answer questions adequately.

In everyday social conversation, people normally speak in vague and loose terms. Therefore, it is understandable that respondents may at first answer questions in a way which is not clear or specific. It is essential, however, to encourage respondents to express themselves more precisely and in more specific terms. Respondents may not understand the meaning of the question and could provide a response without necessarily answering the question. It is easy to be misled by a respondent who is talkative and gives a full and detailed response that is quite irrelevant and beside the point. In most cases, respondents give an irrelevant answer because they have missed an important word or phrase in the question.

Probing, therefore, has two major functions:

1. To motivate respondents to expand upon or clarify their answers; and
2. To make the respondents answer precisely so that irrelevant and unnecessary information can be eliminated.

Probing must be done without antagonizing the respondent. Respondents must not be made to feel that you are probing because their answer is incorrect or unacceptable.

The kind of probe to use must be adapted to the particular respondent and the particular answer given. There are some general types of probes that are frequently used but it is important to avoid getting into the habit of using the same probe. Instead, you must seek to understand what the intention of each question is, so that you will always know in what way a particular answer falls short of being satisfactory. The probe then should be devised to meet this gap. This will require you to be tactful. It is very important to use neutral probes, that is, you must not imply to the respondent that you expect a particular answer or that you are dissatisfied with an answer. The reason for probing is to motivate the respondent to answer more fully or more precisely without introducing bias. Bias is the distortion of responses caused by the Interviewer's favoring of one answer over another.

Some respondents have difficulties in putting their thoughts into words; others may give unclear or incomplete answers; still others may be reluctant to give you certain information. In dealing with such cases, use procedures which encourage and clarify answers. The following kinds of probes may help you obtain more accurate responses.

  • Repeat the Question: When the respondent does not seem to understand the question, or when he/she misinterprets it, or seems unable to make up his/her mind, or when he/she strays from the subject, the most useful technique is to repeat the question just as it was asked the first time.
  • An Expectant Pause: The simplest way to convey to a respondent that you know he/she has begun to answer the question, but that you feel he/she has more to say, is to be silent. A pause often accompanied by an expectant look or a nod of the head gives the respondent time to gather his/her thoughts.
  • Repeating the Respondent's Reply: Simply repeating what the respondent has said as soon as he/she has stopped is often an excellent probe.
  • Neutral Questions or Comments: Neutral questions or comments are frequently used to obtain unbiased, clearer and complete responses. The following are examples of the most commonly used probes:
  • Anything else?
  • Any other reason?
  • Any other?
  • Could you tell me more about your thinking on that?
  • Would you tell me what you think?
  • What do you mean?
  • Why do you feel that way?
  • Which would be closer to the way you feel?

These probes indicate that the Interviewer is interested and they make a direct request for more information. Occasionally, a respondent will give an "I don`t know" answer. This can mean a number of things. For instance:-

  • The respondent does not understand the question and answers "I don`t know" to avoid saying he/she does not understand.
  • The respondent is thinking the question over and says " I don`t know " to fill the silence and to give himself/herself time to think.
  • The respondent may be trying to evade the issue, or he/she may feel that the question is too personal and does not want to hurt the feelings of the Enumerator by saying so in a direct manner.
  • The respondent may really not know.

Try to decide which one of the above is the case. Do not immediately settle for an "I don't know" reply. If you remain silent, but expectant, the respondent will usually think of something to say. Silence and waiting are frequently your best probe for an "I don't know" answer. You will also find that other useful probes are: "Well, what do you think?" or "I just want your own ideas on that".

Always probe at least once to obtain a response to a question before accepting it as a final answer, but be careful not to antagonize the respondent or force an answer if he/she again says that "I don't know".

You should stop probing only when you have a clear, complete answer. However, if at any time the respondent becomes irritated or annoyed, stop probing the question. We do not want the respondent to refuse to complete the rest of the interview.

3.2.7 Controlling the interview

While it is important to maintain a pleasant and courteous manner in order to obtain the respondent's co-operation, you must also be able to control the interview so that it may be completed in a timely and orderly manner. For example, when answering questions, the respondent may offer a lengthy explanation of problems or complaints. In this situation, you must be able to bring the discussion to a close as soon as possible so that the interview may continue. Politely, tell the respondent that you understand what he/she is saying but would like to complete the interview. If necessary, you may try to postpone any outside discussion by saying "Okay, let's finish the interview first then talk about that later".

In some cases, the respondent may start to provide information about some topic which is covered at a later stage during the same interview. Again, you must control the interview by telling the respondent that you must ask other questions first and that he/she should wait until later to provide information on that particular topic.

3.2.8 Recording responses

Asking the questions correctly and obtaining clear answers is only part of your job. Equally important is recording the answers given by the respondents. You should use the correct HB pencil that will be given to you by your supervisor to make entries in the questionnaire.

a) Legibility: All the entries you make on the questionnaire must be legible and confined to the space provided. If your Supervisor cannot read an entry, the questionnaire will be returned to you for correction. All responses which require written words should be clearly written in CAPITAL letters rather than script. In most cases you will be required to shade boxes for appropriate responses. The shading should be done clearly within the space provided; otherwise mistakes will be made at different stages of processing.

b) Filling the Optical Mark Reading (OMR) and Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) Questionnaire: There are basically three types of responses required in the questionnaire:
1. Writing Words: In some cases, you are required to write in the questionnaire. This may be the name of the head of the household, the village or locality name, the district, etc. To avoid the difficulty of reading scripts, you should write all words in CAPITAL letters.

2. Recording Numbers: Special care must be taken when entering numerical responses such as "a 0 and a 6", "a 1 and a 7' and "a 5 and an 8". These may be misinterpreted. All numerical numbers should be written one number per box in order to help differentiate each digit from the other, except for P39, P40 and P41 where you have to write two digits in one box.

Example: [Image omitted]

3. Shading: You will also be required to shade responses in the spaces provided. Special care must be taken when shading the appropriate places so that only the relevant space is shaded. Every evening enumerator should check that the shading in the questionnaires is dark and visible.

3.2.9 Filling in the OMR/ICR Questionnaire

Before filling in the Form/Questionnaire, you are strongly advised to study the general pattern of the census questionnaire and understand the instructions.

Care must be taken when filling in the Form/Questionnaire to avoid shading boxes wrongly. To avoid wrong entry of responses, everyone should understand how the responses given by the respondents are to be recorded in the questionnaire.

The following instructions will help you to correctly fill in the form/questionnaire:

  • Use a well-sharpened HB pencil only, provided to you by you supervisor to shade the responses.
  • Do not use ink, for anything written in ink will not be read by the computer.

The following features will appear in the questionnaire:

  • The question or the information title.
  • In certain cases, blank boxes or spaces to write the response.
  • Series of numbers or small box in front of a response. This is the provision for shading the appropriate response.

Note the following:

  • A column must not have more than one character shading e.g. where codes are used, shade one character per column. In cases of multiple responses you may shade more than one box for a question.
  • Shade the box completely and visibly. The shading should be confined within the small box provided for shading.
  • Use provided HB pencil only.
  • Do not tick, cross or circle the space provided for shading.
  • Erase completely any wrong shading.

3.2.10 Ending the Interview

After all the questions have been asked, thank the respondent and mention that their co-operation has been most helpful in providing information for the Census. Also inform the respondent that you may possibly return to collect more information if need be.

3.2.11 Summary Instructions

Get to know these summary instructions of the "DO's" and "DON'Ts" thoroughly.

The DO's:

  • Read this manual repeatedly to refresh your memory.
  • Carry this manual with you all the time and refer to it whenever there is any doubt or difficulty.
  • Become familiar with all the schedules you must use, i.e the questionnaire, the manual, map and summary count sheets.
  • Be polite to all people.
  • Make sure you first identify a household through probing. The household is identified within a housing unit.
  • You must introduce yourself and explain to the respondent the reason for your visit before starting the interview.
  • In case of translation, ask questions in a clear and simple manner and in exactly the same way to each respondent and in the same order they are presented in the questionnaire.
  • Record the answers only as given by the respondent himself/herself, but in case of doubt, probe further.
  • Write your full name on every Questionnaire as soon as you have completed them.
  • You must attend to all 'call-backs' (re-visits) as early as possible and you must be punctual in keeping all appointments made. At the end of every interview thank the household for their co-operation.
  • Paste a sticker on the door of the housing unit after completing the interview.
  • Consult your Supervisor on any doubts or problems that may arise.
  • Always handle the questionnaires carefully.

The DON'Ts

  • Do not phrase questions in a manner likely to suggest answers.
  • Do not tend to put words in the mouth of the respondent.
  • Do not leave any questions unanswered unless skip instructions specify so. For example in P-32 where those who were not working are not asked questions P-33, P-34 and P-35 since they are not expected to have any employment status, occupation, and industry.
  • Do not over-write in case of a mistake. It is better to erase a wrong entry and then enter the correct one.
  • Do not allow any person to speak for the respondent, unless the respondent seeks assistance.
  • Do not allow any unauthorized person to accompany you or help you in filling the questionnaire.
  • Do not show the filled-in questionnaires to any unauthorized person. Remember this is an offence against confidentiality of information. This could lead to your prosecution.
  • You must not combine Census work with any canvassing for personal gain or topics not relevant to the Census e.g., political, church or any other organizations.
  • Do not make calculations or write anything (other than the response in the space provided) on the questionnaire.

Make sure that all the questions have been asked and the answers are recorded before leaving the household. Unnecessary blanks will not be tolerated.

You should always keep in your mind that failure to comply with any of the instructions could jeopardize the Census. This could in turn lead to the termination of the contract between you and your employer (i.e the Government), and even your possible prosecution in some cases.

When you identify a household and it is in the midst of neighbors, you should try to isolate it from the neighbors by telling them (the neighbors) that you will be visiting them in their own homes afterwards. This is both to ensure confidentiality of the information given by the household and to avoid respondents knowing the questions in advance.

3.3 Who should give the information

Although the head of each household (or the main respondent), will in most cases be able to give you most of the particulars about every member of their household, you should try to get the information about every adult person from himself/herself as much as possible. Do not ask a husband to give information about his wife, or a wife to answer for her husband if they are both present. Adults should answer for themselves, if they are present. It is especially important that wherever possible the information on fertility, e.g. "Children Ever Born", etc., should be obtained directly from the females themselves. In the case of married females, you have to be tactful to ensure that it is the woman and not her husband who answers these questions about herself because husbands tend to be dominant if the interview is carried out with both people.

If you are told that certain people spent the previous night with the household but are not present when you make your visit, where possible you should try to find out where they are with a view of cross-checking the information given about them. The particulars of such persons are to be collected as much as possible from the head of the household or the main respondent.

3.4 Who should be enumerated

Starting with the head of the household (whether present or absent), enumerate each and every person, whether visitor or resident (usual member), who spent the night prior to the enumerator's visit with the household you are enumerating. You should get all the relevant information on each of these people. After listing down the names of all the people who spent the night with the household, you should then ask for the names of the people who normally stay with the household but who did not spend the night with the household. Get the relevant information on each of these absent usual household members from the head of the household/main respondent.

You will generally not be able to complete the enumeration of all the people in your area in one day, and it may take as much as a week or even more, especially in rural areas. Make sure every time you visit a household you start by identifying the people who spent the night prior to the census date with the household. Occasionally, you may come across someone who says that he/she had already been enumerated elsewhere. In such a case, you still have to enumerate him/her again provided he/she spent the night prior to your visit with the household you are covering.

Children born after sunrise on the day of enumeration should be included among those who spent the night, before the enumerator's visit, with the household. However, persons who arrive after sunrise should not be included among those who spent the night with the household. Persons working night shifts but having normal places of residence, like Security Guards and Nurses, those attending overnight funerals, those out for discos and other social functions during the night, should be enumerated during the day at their normal places of residence and should be deemed to have spent the previous night at their residence. If such a person is not present at the time you visit the household, make a call-back. Make sure such people are not reported as "Usual Members Absent"(2) on the household listing. When you come across a household where there is a funeral, allocate a Census Building Number and Housing Unit Number (CBN and HUN) and note in your note book to visit the household later.

Note:

  • Census field personnel (i.e Master Trainers, Supervisors and Enumerators) will be enumerated wherever they spent the night before the enumerator's visit. These will be captured the same way as institutional populations.
  • If a person says he or she has been counted elsewhere, he or she should be enumerated.
  • Information from all sections of the questionnaire will be collected from all Usual Members Present and visitors, as applicable. Information of Usual members absent will be collected from P-1 to P-5 only.

3.5 What to do if people are not at home

Sometimes in the course of the enumeration, you may go to a Housing unit and find that there is nobody who can answer the questions which need to be answered. In such circumstances, do not paste a sticker on the door of the housing unit, but allocate the Census Number and note in your Note Book to re-visit the housing unit later when the people are expected to be at home. You should tell the neighbours that you will be coming back to that house and ask them to inform the occupants about the time of your next visit. In such cases, a visit early in the morning or late in the evening could be more fruitful. You may have to make at least three visits during the period of the Census if necessary and visits should be made at different times.

There are three types of non-response you may come across, these are:-

1. Non-contact, i.e. when you fail to find the respondent even after repeated visits;
2. Refusal i.e. when the respondent just refuses to give you information; and
3.Partial non-response i.e. when you just get little or partial information about the household, say from neighbors.

In such cases, you are supposed to consult your Supervisor. Only after confirming the household as a non-response case, should you shade the second box provided under interview status.

3.6 Institutional/Collective living quarters

When you come across an Institutional/Collective Living Quarters, for example a Prison or a rest house, you should first identify people regarded as the occupants. These should not include workers like Warders and their households in the case of a Prison, or hostel employees who just stay within the hostel premises for convenience, etc. These workers and their households should be treated as any other normal household. The main respondent for an Institution/Collective Living Quarter should be the person in charge, for example the Hotel Manager in the case of a Hotel, the Sister-in-Charge in Hospital Wards, or a more knowledgeable person. Management will also give information on the housing characteristics from H-1 to H-5 You should not ask these people questions on household characteristics since these are household questions.

Each structure belonging to an institution will be treated as a building and will each be assigned a separate CBN. In the case of large populations found in one building eg, hospitals or hotels, each ward or floor/section will have the same CBN but different HUN.

Detailed instructions on how to complete the questionnaire are given in Chapter 4.

3.7 Questionnaire handling and filling in

This section is aimed at bringing to your attention aspects that must be noted when handling and filling in the OMR/ICR Forms/Questionnaires. It is important that you become familiar with the issues regarding handling and correct filling in of responses. Information processing in the world today involves handling huge volumes of data. This has prompted the world to improve on its data capturing methods in order to handle large volumes of data within a short period of time. The area of data capturing has seen the introduction of Optical Readers to quickly read data into the computer.

In the Census 2010, the Central Statistical Office (CSO) will for the first time use combination of Optical Mark Readers (OMR) and Intelligent Character Reader (ICR) to capture data for the first time. It is important to sensitize all concerned parties on the use and handling of these machine-readable Forms/Questionnaires. The OMR/ICR Forms/ Questionnaires need to be handled very carefully to reduce on the errors. It is anticipated that if these Forms are handled in the right manner, it would reduce on time spent on scanning/capturing the data, which would ultimately result in data being processed within the desired time-frame.

3.7.1 Handling

In order to successfully achieve this new system, care must be taken when handling the OMR /ICR Forms/Questionnaires. The following measures must be taken into account in order for the OMR/ICR to be able to read all the information required correctly:

  • Do not Write Anything Else on the Form/Questionnaire: Any unnecessary mark no matter how small' may prevent the Form from being read and result in wrong data being captured. You are only allowed to shade or write where appropriate.
  • Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Folded wrongly: Always fold them along the perforated line, carry and keep them in the bags and folders provided.
  • Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Crumpled or Creased: The Forms/Questionnaires must be kept where they cannot be crumpled, smudged or folded at the edges. Creases or folds may prevent them from passing through the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) and Intelllegent Character Recognition (ICR).
  • Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Stapled/Clipped: Forms/Questionnaires should not be stapled together for any reason. Stapling/clipping of Forms/Questionnaires causes tearing and deformation preventing them to be scanned.
  • Avoid Giving Unauthorized Persons to Handle the Forms/Questionnaires: Ensure that only persons filling in the Forms/Questionnaires should be allowed to handle them at that time. Once they have finished filling in the Form/Questionnaire, all completed Forms/Questionnaires should be kept securely and separate from the blank ones.
  • The Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Handled with Wet or Oily Hands: Ensure that you have dry clean hands when handling Forms/Questionnaires. Ensure that any forms of oils, dirt or sweat are wiped off hands before you handle the OMR/ICR forms.
  • The Forms/Questionnaires Must be Stored in a Clean Dry Place: Once the Forms/Questionnaires are soaked or damp it makes reading very difficult and at times the Forms/Questionnaires may not be read at all. You must ensure that the Forms/Questionnaires are kept dry and clean. They should not be exposed to water or any form of liquid.

3.8 Scanning

Forms will be scanned according to enumeration area. Forms which are not correctly shaded or correctly handled will be rejected. After scanning, an error report will be generated for each enumeration area. The report is used to correct rejections and then the Forms are re-scanned. The error report shows which enumeration areas had the most rejections and causes of the rejections.

3.9 Packaging of completed census forms by sea

At the end of enumeration, the forms will be packed according to SEAs and sequentially by CBN and handed over to the Supervisor. The Supervisor should check the work thoroughly.

3.10 What to do if you run out of questionnaires

Your Supervisor will give you questionnaires for your enumeration areas. Every evening, collect sufficient questionnaires for a day's work so as not to run out of questionnaires in the middle of the day. Liaise with your Supervisor approximately how many questionnaires you require per day. However, should you run out of questionnaires, quickly inform your Supervisor who should immediately supply you with more.

Please note that some households may need more than one questionnaire.

3.11 Population summary count sheet

The purpose of a population summary count sheet is to give an overview of the population as well as the number of all buildings in an enumeration area. You will be required to list all the households you visit on this sheet. You will fill the population count sheet at the end of each household interview. Before you start listing, you should first write the Identification Particulars of the enumeration area, being Province, District, Constituency, Ward, Region, CSA and SEA.

You should then start by allocating households serial numbers; Census Building Number (CBN), which you will enter in the first column under 'CBN.' This number runs serially in your enumeration area and has three digits. So the first building you visit will be given 001, the next one 002, etc up to the very last building in your enumeration area. Each housing unit will be given a number within the building. This number will be in two digits. The first housing unit within a particular building should given 01, the second one 02 and so on depending on the number of housing units there are in a particular building. Each household will be given a number within a housing unit. The number will be in one digit. The first household within a housing unit should be 1, the second 2 and so on depending on the number of households there are in a particular housing unit. There is also provision made to write the name of the household head in case of a residential building. If the building is non-residential, indicate whether it is a church, school, etc. Where you come across a vacant building, enter CBN, 00 in HUN and 0 in HHN and then indicate 'VACANT' in the description category. When a household is non-contact enter CBN, 01 in HUN and 1 in HHN then indicate "NON CONTACT" in the description category. 'You should write the total number of usual members present and visitors. The population count sheet will look like the one shown on page 26.

In the next column, enter the total number of usual members present and visitors disaggregated by sex (Females and Males). In the last column enter the total number of household members that are aged 18 years and above.

[Table omitted]

Chapter 4

General characteristics

4.1 Preliminary steps

When you come to a structure, determine whether someone is using it as a residence. You must do this even if it looks as if the structure is not meant for habitation or residential purposes because people will be found to be living in offices, garages, petrol stations, barns, railway signal control stations, railway and bus stations, lorry parks, under stalls in market places, under bridges, storage sheds, shops and many odd places. Security Guards and caretakers, who live within the premises where they work, will be enumerated there. You will enumerate every person in your enumeration area at the housing unit where he/she spent the night before the enumerator's visit. As for people who work during the night but have usual places of residence, their case has already been explained to you in Section 3.4.

When you get to a housing unit, introduce yourself to whoever meets you, that you are a Census Officer and that you would like to meet the head of the household. If he/she is not at home, find out if there is any knowledgeable adult person present. This person will be the main respondent for the household. Introduce yourself and explain the purpose of your visit. Information about persons below 12 years of age can be obtained from the main respondent but questions about each individual adult should, as far as possible, be directed to each such individual if they are present. If they are not present make an appointment for a later date.

Find out how people in the housing unit/building are grouped for living purposes. Each of these groups of people or single persons as the case may be, will be defined in terms of a household (see Section 2.2). Each of these households will be enumerated on one separate questionnaire except when it is necessary to continue on additional questionnaires when the number of persons in a household or institution is more than eight (8). Before starting to enumerate, enter the identification particulars on the front page of the questionnaire.

Note that identification particulars on all the questionnaires within a SEA where an enumerator is working will be the same from Province to SEA. Therefore, an enumerator can fill in these particulars in advance before going in the field.

4.2 Questionnaire identification

4.2.1 Province name

Write the code of the province in which you are operating in the space provided. You will then shade the appropriate code for the province. The province codes are given in Appendix 1.

4.2.2 District name

Write the code of the district in which you are operating, in the space provided, and then shade the appropriate code for the district. The district codes are given in Appendix 1.

4.2.3 Constituency

Write the code of the constituency in the space provided, and then shade the appropriate code for the constituency. The constituency codes are given in Appendix 2. The map you shall use will indicate the constituency you are working in.

4.2.4 Ward

A ward is a lowest political delineation of an area. There may be more than one locality in one ward. The map you are using contains ward boundaries. Write down the code of the ward in which the housing unit is located and shade appropriately. The map you shall use will indicate the ward you are working in. The codes for the wards will be found on the field maps

4.2.5 Region

Shade appropriately in the provided boxes for rural or urban depending on the area in which you are operating. You will transfer this information from the map you are using onto the questionnaire.

4.2.6 Census Supervisory Area (CSA)

Your supervisor will give you the number of the CSA in which your work area is located. This number is also given on the maps you are using. Write the number in the boxes provided and shade appropriately in the spaces provided.

4.2.7 Standard Enumeration Area (SEA)

This is the area allocated to you for enumeration. Your Supervisor will give you the SEA number. This number is also given on the map you are using. Write the SEA number in the space provided and shade appropriately.

4.2.8 Census Building Number (CBN)

Within your enumeration area you will give a unique serial number to each building as you continue to enumerate. This number should run serially in each Enumerator's area. The number will be in three digits starting with 001, followed by 002, 003 and so on. No two buildings in your enumeration area should have the same 'Census Building Number'. This number will be different from other types of numbers the building may already have, such as house number, plot number, stand number, flat number, etc. The idea is to make sure that all the buildings and thus housing units in your area have been covered. This will help you, your Supervisor, and anybody else responsible to check your work progress and completeness of coverage. Write the CBN in the space provided and shade appropriately.

4.2.9 Housing Unit Number (HUN)

Each housing unit will be given a number within the building. This number will be in two digits. The first housing unit within any particular building should be given number 01, the second one 02, and so on. Structures not intended for habitation but actually being used as living quarters at the time of the Census are to be allocated appropriate housing unit numbers.

Examples:

a)Census Building Number 032 has three housing units (houses). These will be numbered 01, 02 and 03.
b)Census Building Number 033 has only one housing unit. This will be numbered 01.
c)Census Building Number 034 has two housing units. These will be numbered 01 and 02.
d)In case of a building where there is no housing unit (or it is non-residential), record 00 for HUN and shade the 4th box (nonresidential) under INTERVIEW STATUS.
e)If the interview status is "non-contact", record HUN. For example, record 01 where the Census Building has only one housing unit. Remember to give it a Census Building Number. Shade the housing unit number under the HUN Column. Shade the 2nd box (Non Contact) under interview status.

4.2.10 Household Number (HHN)

Each household within a housing unit will be given a one-digit serial number - 1, 2, 3, etc. If the housing unit is vacant write '0' and then shade the appropriate space. This will indicate that no one was living there at the time of enumeration. You will then get the housing particulars for the housing unit. If the housing unit is occupied but you do not contact any household member at that particular housing unit, you should assign the household number to that housing unit. Shade the 2nd box (Non Contact) under interview status. For a non-residential building, record zero for HHN and shade accordingly.

4.3 Area Identification

4.3.1 Village/Locality

In the case of urban areas, enter the name of the area in the space provided, the name of the area, compound or township in which this house is located, e.g. Kansenshi, Chelston, Chipata Compound, Chilenje South, etc. In the case of rural areas, write the name of the village/locality.

4.3.2 Residential address

Residential Address is the information that describes the place in such a manner that a person may be able to reach it by this reference. This will include the name or number of street and the location of this particular building on this street. It will also include house/flat number that the house already has, plot or stand number or the name of the building if it is commonly known by that name. For example, Flat No. 2, Fife Court, Plot 712, Mwalule Road, Longacres. In rural areas, name of a village/locality will suffice.

4.3.3 Chief's area

This information is for the area you are operating in. You should confirm with the respondent the name of the Chief for the area. You could come across people who pay allegiance to different chiefs in your area. What you are supposed to indicate is the code for the chief of the area and shade appropriately. The name should be one of the names given in Appendix 4 of the list of the Chiefs for the district. If you are enumerating an urban area, do not record anything in the spaces provided and therefore, do not shade any code. If you come across an area where there is no chief, treat this area like an urban case.

If the name given for a chief is different or does not appear on the list, probe to find out if there has been any change in the names. If there has not been any change inform your supervisor about it. Shade the appropriate code from Appendix 4.

Census maps do not show the boundaries of chiefs' areas, therefore for the Central Statistical Office to correctly allocate people according to "Chiefs' Areas", you should be VERY CAREFUL when getting this information.

4.4. Interview status

Check the appropriate category as indicated below and shade the appropriate code.

(1) Completed (Occupied): You will pick this category if the housing unit(s) is/are occupied and you have enumerated the households. Shade code 1 appropriately.

(2) Non-Contact (Occupied): You will pick this category after making sure that the house is occupied, but that you cannot find anybody at home throughout your visits (at least 3 visits) during the Census period. Shade code 2 appropriately.

(3) Not Interviewed (Vacant): You will pick this category after making sure that the house is vacant throughout your visits (at least 3 visits) during the Census period. Shade code 3 appropriately.

(4) Non Residential: In case of a building which is not a housing unit, pick this category and shade code 4 appropriately.

(5) Refused: This is where members of the Household refuse to be interviewed. You should try to persuade the household to give information, if they still refuse, report to your supervisor.

(6) Other: If you encounter a situation which is not stated above, classify it as other.

4.5 Household summary count

The summary count includes the de facto population i.e. usual members present and visitors. Enter the total number of people listed in the household listing as, "Usual Members Present, "Usual Members Absent" and Visitors". The total has to be further broken down into "Male" and "Female" and entered under these categories. If a continuation sheet is used, the summary count should include 'usual members present, usual members absent and visitors' listed on both sheets. Household summary count should be filled in after completing the interview.

4.6 Institutional
Institutional population is collected from collective quarters like hotels, motels, lodges, hostels, guesthouses, inns, hospitals, learning institutions, prisons, police cells, refugee camps etc. Shade the appropriate code and collect the population of that institution from the responsible people. Then write the summary count by male and female in the spaces provided. Then after this, skip to SECTION H: housing characteristics and ask questions H-1 to H-5. All institutions in question H-5 will be classified under "non-residential" and then end the interview.

4.7 Assignment record

Write your full name in the space provided and then enter the date on which you complete the interview. You should do this for each questionnaire you complete.

4.8 Household listing

The household listing (P-1) records all household members starting with the head of the household. The household listing has enough space for 8 persons. If a household has more than 8 persons, use a continuation questionnaire. This information will not be collected for people in institutions and collective quarters.

4.8.1 Person number

This shows what number the individual is on the household listing; e.g. since the household head will always be listed first on the household listing, their person number will be 1. Therefore, 1 will be shaded as the person number for the head of household. For the person who is second on the household listing, 2 will be shaded etc. This number has to be consisted for each household member in all sections of the questionnaire.

If a continuation questionnaire is used, the individual who is listed first on the continuation questionnaire will also have 1 shaded for his/her person number. In case a continuation questionnaire has been used, transfer all the identification particulars from the 1st questionnaire used on to the continuation questionnaire. In the continuation questionnaire, do not ask questions on housing and household characteristics. The rest of the questions should be asked appropriately. Shade the box on the questionnaire (mark here if more than one questionnaire) and indicate how many questionnaires have been used e.g if 2 questionnaires have been used, the first questionnaire will be 01 of 02 and the 2nd questionnaire will be 02 of 02.

4.8.2 Full names

P-1: Names of usual residents (usual members) and visitors

In this column, write the full names (i.e. first name and surname) of the persons you are enumerating. Start with the name of the head of the household whether or not he/she spent the previous night with the household. Continue with the names of all usual members of the household, followed by usual members of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household. Lastly, ask the main respondent who may or may not be the head of the household, for the names of all the visitors who spent the previous night with the household.

In order to be systematic, you should follow some kind of order. So write the name of the spouse of the head of the household after that of the head, followed by the names of their unmarried children, married children and their families and, lastly, those of other relatives and the non-relatives, in that order. Make sure that only those living in the household are listed. In case the head of household has more than one wife living as one household, enter first the name of the first wife then her children, and then the next wife and her children and so on. Keep in mind the definition of the household given earlier.

If you find that, there is not enough space to write the full names (first and surname) of the person enter the name by which the person is most commonly known. For babies who have not yet been given a name, write "baby" followed by the baby's surname, e.g Baby Mwanza.

4.8.3 MembershipsStatus

P-2: There are three categories to this status;

1. Usual member of the household who spent the previous night with the household (Usual Member Present);
2. Usual member of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household (Usual Member Absent); and
3. Visitors who spent the night with the household.

Remember, the names of the persons are supposed to be written following the same order as that followed by the categories in the membership status, that is, category 1 first usual members present, then category 2 usual members absent, and lastly category 3, the visitors, except for the head of household who has to be entered first irrespective of whether or not he/she spent the previous night with the household.

4.8.4 Relationship to head

P-3: What is [the respondent's] relationship to the head of household?

Record how the person listed is related to the head of the household. Shade the appropriate code provided. If the respondent is not the head of the household, make sure that you record the relationship of each person to the household head, not the relationship to the respondent. It is important for you as an enumerator to probe further to get the correct relationship of the household members to the head of the household, e.g most people regard their father's brothers as their fathers instead of uncles. Since uncle is not on the list of responses in P-3 shade code 12 (other relatives).

4.8.5 Sex

P-4: Is [the respondent] male or female?

Shade the appropriate code for the sex of the household member. Always confirm the sex of a person before recording since there are many names that may be given to either a male or a female.

4.8.6 Age

P-5: How old was [the respondent] at his/her last birthday?

Age is a very important personal characteristic that we are concerned with in this census. Two boxes are provided for entering the age. For all persons who are one year old or older, the age will be recorded in completed years and '00' will be recorded for babies less than a year. The age will be entered in two digits, 01, 02, 09, 10, 11….94. For those 95 years and older, 9 and 5 will be recorded. I don't know answer should not be allowed.

In some cases, the question on age will create problems such as people not knowing their age. Ask such people for their official documents such as the National Registration Card e.t.c. In certain cases you will have to estimate their ages. Ask such people how long they have been living in the area, about what time in their life they went there, what they did then, for how long, how old they were when they left their parents` home, etc. In this manner, you can build their life history. It is also possible to determine their age by referring to some historical events that they may remember, e.g., how old they were when the Lusaka-Mongu Road was built by the Chinese, or when the name of Feira Boma was changed to Luangwa, or when a certain Chief died, or when Katima Mulilo Pontoon disaster occurred, or when Mufulira Mine disaster occurred or when Zambia became independent, etc. Such historical events are meant to help a respondent remember how old they may have been when these events were occurring. Do not rely completely on a single event. You should also check this with a later event.

Examples of historical events

1.World War II – 1935 – 1945
2.Federation Of Rhodesia And Nyasaland – 1953-1963
3.Independence - 1964
4.Choma Declaration (One Party State) – 1972
5.Mwamba Luchembe attempted coup - 1990
6.Unip Lost Power To Mmd (Kaunda Lost Power To Chiluba) – 1991
7.Mwanawasa Became President - 2001

If you have already ascertained the age of some other members of the household or of a neighbor, this may be of considerable help in determining the ages of other members of the household. For example, if you have estimated that the eldest child of the head of the household is 12 years old, you may be able to determine the ages of the other children by finding out how many years elapsed between the births of the different children.

Examples on the age of respondent

  • A respondent says he/she was born on 20th June, 1954 and the date on the day you are visiting the household is 25th October 2010, this would mean that this respondent turned 56 on his/her last birthday which fell on the 20th of June 2010 (i.e 2010 - 1954 = 56). So you are supposed to enter 5 and 6 in the spaces provided since we only report age in completed years.
  • A respondent gives his/her date of birth as 12th December, 1962 and the date on the day you visit the household is 7th of October 2010. This means that this respondent will turn 48 on 12th of December 2010, (i.e., 2010 - 1962 = 48) but since we are reporting age in completed years, we just report age on the last birthday, which of course is 48 - 1 = 47 completed years, since he is yet to turn 48. So you enter 4 and 7 for age.

Note that question on age (P-5) will be the last one to be asked of all persons who are usual members of a household, but did not spend the night before the enumerator's visit with the household (Usual Members Absent ).

4.9 Migration for all persons

One of the characteristics of a human being is the tendency to move. There are many and varied reasons why people move. We shall only consider movements which result in crossing administrative boundaries as "Migration", that is, only if a person has moved from one district to another.

P-6: Where was [the respondent] born? (Birth place)

In this question, "Place" refers to district for cases within Zambia, or country for cases outside Zambia whether the person is Zambian or not. For persons born in Zambia, write the district of birth and then code appropriately. The district codes are provided in Appendix 1. Some people may not know the name of the district in which they were born, but they generally know the name of the Chief`s area. In such cases you should write Chief's area and then later on refer to the list of Chiefs by districts in Appendix 4, and find out which district the Chief belongs to. In case the person was born outside Zambia, write the name of the country in which he/she was born in the space provided and enter the country code in the boxes provided. The country codes are given in Appendix 5. Do not write the name of the district of a foreign country.

P-7: Rural/Urban/Outside Zambia

Find out whether the part of the district in which the person was born was a rural or urban area at the time of his/her birth. Trust the response given by the respondent. Shade the appropriate code. In case of a foreign country, shade code 3 for "Outside Zambia".

Citizenship

P – 8: Is [the respondent] Zambian?

In this question find out if the person is Zambian. If Zambian, shade code 1 and skip to P-11.

P-9; If non Zambian?

If non Zambian shade code 2, write the name the country of which the person is a citizen in the space provided and enter the country code in the appropriate boxes. A list of countries and their respective codes is given in Appendix 5.

P - 10: Purpose of stay (non-Zambians only)

What is the main purpose of your stay in Zambia?

People come to Zambia for various reasons. Among them, some are seeking refuge/asylum. A refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of origin due to civil conflict and cannot be given protection of his/her own government. An asylum seeker could be regarded the same as a refugee, but the difference is that an asylum seeker is a person who has made his/her intentions known to the government but has not yet been granted refugee status. Shade the appropriate code for the purpose of stay.

P - 11: What is [the respondent's] religion?

Shade the appropriate code for religion.

4.10 Ethnicity and language

P - 12: What is [the respondent's] ethnicity?

This question refers to the Tribal-Group the person belongs to. It is an easy question but can be misunderstood. If a person says his/her parents belong to two different tribes, ask which one he/she identifies himself/herself with. Write the tribe in the space provided and enter the code in the boxes appropriately. In the case of some Zambians (such as those of Asian origin) and Non-Zambians, write the major racial group to which the person belongs, i.e African, American, Asian or European, then write the code in the space provided. Codes for tribes and racial groups are in appendix 6.

P - 13: What is [the respondent's] predominant language of communication?

You are required to find out the predominant language the person uses most frequently for his/her day-to-day communication with his/her neighbors, at factory, in office, in market places, etc. Note that it is not necessary that a person may be able to read and/or write in this language. For babies who have not yet started talking, or for the hearing impaired and mute, write code 88 for Not Applicable. For the rest, write the language in the space provided and enter the code appropriately.

4.11 Migration

P - 14: Where was [the respondent] residing in October 2009?

In this question you are to ask the respondent his/her place (district) of residence in October 2009.

Write the name of the district in which this person was residing 12 months ago and then write the code in the boxes provided. This can either be the district where he/she is now residing or another district (see appendix 1). In case the person lived outside Zambia 12 months ago, write the name of the country and enter the appropriate country code (see appendix 5). For infants born after October 2009, enter 888 in the boxes. If a person is not sure of the district, then ask him/her the name of the Chief in whose area he/she was living (see Appendix 4). From this information you can find out the name of the district.

P- 15: How long has [the respondent] been living continuously in (name of the current place of residence)?

A person can live in the same district from birth without moving. Others may move from district to district, changing residence over time. For those who move, it is possible to keep coming back to the same district. What we are interested in is the length of their present unbroken or continuous residence in this district. Enter the number of completed years in the first two boxes and the number of months in the next two boxes. For those who have not completed a month yet, enter 00 in the boxes for years and 00 in the boxes for months. If the period that the household member has been living continuously in the current place of residence is the same as that of the head of the household, shade the small box provided and do not enter anything in the boxes for years and months.

Example:
Suppose you are in Chinsali District and you come across a person who was born in Serenje District and

lived there until 1991. This person then went to live in Chinsali District where he/she stayed up to 2000, after which he/she moved to Mansa District and then returned to live in Chinsali District in June 2004 where he/she is living up to now. His/her continuous period of residence in this district is from June, 2004 to October 2010 that is 6 years and 4 months. Enter Shade 06 and 04 in the respective boxes. You are not to consider the period of his/her previous residence in the district, eg, the period from 1991 to 2000.

4.12 Disability

You are about to start a rather sensitive topic. Prepare the respondent by telling him/her that you are now going to start asking questions on disability.

A person with a disability is defined as a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he or she can do because of the ongoing difficulties due to a long term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. Remember that people who have just become amputees should be included as disabled. Short term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illness are excluded.

P-16: Is [the respondent] disabled in any way?

Find out whether this person is disabled or not and shade appropriately. If the person is not disabled, skip to P19.

P-17: What is [the respondent's] disability?

Find out whether this person has difficult in the following and shade appropriately. Also note that a person may have more than one disability. Shade all disabilities reported (multiple responses are allowed).

4.12.1 Type of disability

1. Blind: Complete loss of sight in both eyes.
2. Partially Sighted: Loss of one eye or poor sight but does not mean complete blindness.
3. Deaf and Dumb: Complete loss of sense of hearing and speech. The lack or loss of the ability to hear and speak.
4. Deaf: Complete loss of sense of hearing. The lack or loss of the ability to hear.
5. Hard of hearing: Partial loss of sense of hearing but not complete loss of sense of hearing e.g. the person who uses hearing aids.
6. Dumb: Complete lack of ability to speak.
7. Mental illness: A condition of mental illness with a substantial, adverse and long-term effect on one's ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.
8. Intellectual: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
9. Speech impairment: This is a condition of people who fail to produce meaningful sound words.
10. Physically Disabled: Any person with a physical abnormality relating to the loss of bodily limbs or any deformity in the bodily stature, e.g., the epileptics and leper.
11. Mentally Retarded: Any individual that is either very slow to learn or has defficiency of mental intellect (slow in grasping things, difficulties in remembering things, very slow at responding).
12. Other: Any other disability not mentioned above.

4.12.2 Causes of disability

P-18: What is the cause of [the respondent's] disability?

Ask for the cause of disability/ies and shade accordingly (multiple responses are allowed).

Causes of disability are categorized as follows:

  • Congenital/prenatal - these are disabilities which one is born with.
  • Disease/illness e.g. polio, leprosy, cataract.
  • Injury/accidents e.g. road accidents, injuries from accidental falls, fire etc.
  • Spousal violence – e.g. husband/wife battering.
  • Other violence- e.g. violence perpetrated by a boyfriend or girlfriend,
  • Unknown – this response will be shaded in cases where the respondent does not know the cause of disability/ies.
  • Other, e.g., unsuccessful medical operation, witchcraft, wrongful application of traditional and conventional medicine.

P-19: Is [the respondent] an albino?

Ask for each member of the household if he/she is an albino and shade the appropriate code. To reduce the difficult of asking this question, ask the main respondent if there is any member of the household who is an albino. If the respondent says that there is someone who is an albino in the household ask which household member this is and shade appropriately. Remember to shade code 2 for all household members who are not albino.

4.13 Survivorship and residence of natural parents: only for persons less than 18 years old

For all children who are younger than 18 years old, we want to know whether their natural parent(s) is (are) alive and in the Household. This information will be used to measure the prevalence of orphanhood and child fostering and to identify vulnerable children in the population.

P-20 to P23: Is [the respondent's] biological mother alive?

First, ask whether the child's biological mother is alive. By "biological" we mean the natural mother, that is, the woman who gave birth to the child. In many cultures, people consider other people's children whom they are raising as their own, especially children of their husband or sisters, etc. So you should be certain that the respondent understands that you are asking about the child's biological mother.

If the mother is still alive shade code 1, and ask the question that follows. If the mother is 'not alive' or the respondent does not know, shade the appropriate code and skip to P22.

Follow the same procedure for P22 to P23 for the child's biological father. If the father is 'not alive' or the respondent does not know, shade the appropriate code and skip to P24.

P-24: Does [the respondent] have a birth certificate?

Ask whether the child has a birth certificate. Ask to see it. Shade the appropriate code.

4.14 Education: for all persons 5 years and older

P-25: Can [the respondent] read and write in any language?

Ask if the person can read and write in any language (local languages included) then shade appropriately.

P-26: Has [the respondent] ever attended school?

Ask if the person has ever attended school. If yes, shade the appropriate code. If no, shade the appropriate code and skip to P-29.

P-27: Is [the respondent] currently attending school?

Ask if the person is currently attending school (whether formal, by correspondence, e-learning, community school etc.) and shade the appropriate code.

P - 28: What highest level of education has [the respondent] completed?

Under highest educational level completed, enter the highest educational level completed by each person who has ever attended an educational institution (including correspondence, e-learning, community schools etc.). Indicate the appropriate codes in the boxes for the highest level completed whether a person is still attending full time or part-time or has attended previously and is not attending now. The codes are given in Appendix 7. For children attending nursery school and those currently in Grade 1, their academic qualification completed is 00. For persons who were educated outside Zambia, indicate the appropriate Zambian equivalent of the level reached.

Example 1:
If someone passed Standard 5, i.e. was in school system before 1956, enter the code 06. For someone with GCE '0' level, enter the code 12.

Example 2:
Suppose a person completed Form 5 GCE '0' level in 1980. In 1981, he/she went to study at the University of Zambia. After two years he/she was re-directed before completing the program. For this person enter 12 for the highest level of education completed. The two years spent at the University are not considered in this case.

The system of school standards, grades and forms has been changed four times since 1956. The following are roughly the relative levels. Enter the appropriate code as provided in appendix 7.

P–29: What is the highest professional or vocational qualification [the respondent] has completed?

All professional or vocational qualifications will be recorded under this column. Find out the highest professional or vocational qualification the respondent has completed. It is important to note that for persons with vocational qualification only codes 2 and 3 are applicable. These qualifications are:

  • None.
  • Certificate.
  • Diploma.
  • Bachelor's Degree.
  • Master's Degree.
  • PhD.

For persons whose highest professional qualification completed is a post-graduate diploma, classify them under code 4 (Bachelor's Degree).

P-30: What is the field of study for the highest professional or vocational qualification completed?

Write the field of study for the highest field completed and then enter the code in the boxes provided from the list of supplied educational programs in Appendix 8. For students currently attending school and those not attending school, enter 88 for none.

4.15 Economic activity: for persons 12 years and older

In this section, we want to find out whether a person is working or not and, if working, what type of work he or she is doing. For those who are not working, we would like to know whether or not a person is seeking work or interested in getting work or whether a person is engaged or involved in some other activity such that he or she is not available or interested in doing work of any economic kind. These questions are to be asked only of persons who are at least 12 years old on the day of enumeration.
The persons who are 12 years and older can be divided into two categories:

1. Those working, or not working but interested in work (Labor Force); and
2. Those neither interested nor available for work (not in Labor Force).

Those who are in the labor force can be further classified as below:

  • 1. Working or work assured but not yet started work.
  • 2. Not working:
  • Able to work and actively seeking work; and
  • Able to and interested in work though not actively seeking work.

Those economically inactive (not in the labor force) will include the following categories of persons:

  • Mainly looking after own household duties (housewives/homemakers), not persons who help with household chores or looking after children.
  • Full-time students;
  • Not able to work (disabled, too old, invalids);
  • Pensioners (only those solely living on pensions);
  • Persons living only on rental incomes, past savings, interest, inheritance gambling income, etc.; and
  • Others, who are neither interested nor available for work, such as beggars, vagrants, prisoners, etc.

4.15.1 Working for pay or profit

We define a person as working if he or she performed some work for pay or profit. Payment may be either in cash, in the form of goods or services or in any combination of these.

Examples:

  • A person employed by someone on fixed monthly income or weekly or daily wages.
  • A person who is paid by an employer on the basis of piece work.
  • A person running his/her own business such as a marketer, a hawker, a cobbler, a tinsmith, a bottle-store operator, a grocery/store owner, etc.
  • Two (or more) partners running a business.
  • A farmer who tills his/her own farm, with or without the help of other persons.
  • A farm laborer who is paid partly in cash and partly in terms of farm produce.
  • A person who works in a hotel and gets his wages partly in cash and partly in terms of board and lodging.
  • Some students manage to find a job during school holidays and might be working during the reference period. These should be classified as working.

Persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind but were:

  • Prevented from working by temporary illness, bad weather, industrial dispute such as a strike or a lockout, on suspension and;
  • Persons, who had got a new job but had not yet reported for work, are to be classified as working.

A person will be classified as working if he/she did any work for pay, profit, or family gain any time during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day. By 'preceding week' we mean seven days immediately before the day of enumeration.

For people in agricultural and allied operations the following activities will constitute work during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day:

  • Agriculture: Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables, and raising of poultry and livestock.
  • Fishing and hunting.
  • Forestry: Collecting or cutting wood, charcoal burning, gathering of honey and beeswax from trees, gathering of mushrooms, caterpillars, and collecting wild fruits, etc for sale or own consumption.

Persons (housewives/homemakers) doing only household duties of looking after their own families are not to be regarded as working. Therefore, do not include housewives/homemakers who do not have paid employment or who do not work regularly in a family business or on a family farm as working. However, if a housewife/homemaker is having paid employment or works on a family farm or a family business, he/she is then to be regarded as working. Similarly, a housewife/homemaker who looks after another family and is paid for his/her work in cash or kind is to be regarded as working.

4.15.2 Seasonality

There are instances when we find people engaged in seasonal work. Seasonal work refers to a seasonal activity such as agriculture, sugar cane harvesting, collecting caterpillars, picking mushrooms and collecting wild fruits e.t.c.

P - 31: What did [the respondent] do in the last 7 days?

By this we mean, if a person was employed or worked for at least 1 hour for pay, profit or family gain, or had a job, worked on a farm or business. For a person who had two or more jobs in the last 7 days collect information about the job that he/she is currently doing.

Under this question you have to determine the economic activity category to which the person belongs. The reference period in this question is the last 7 days and all persons who will fall under categories 1, 2, 3, up to 8 will be treated as the currently economically active population (Labor Force), while those falling under categories 9, 10 and 11 will be treated as being outside the labor force. Shade appropriately.

Note that precedence is given to employment over unemployment and to unemployment over economic inactivity. A person who is both working and seeking work is classified as employed, and a student who is attending school and also seeking work is classified as unemployed.

One effect of the priority rule is that employment always takes precedence over other activities, regardless of the amount of time devoted to it during the reference period, which in extreme cases may be only one hour.

4.15.3 Worked - paid non seasonal

This refers to persons who, during the reference period, performed some work for a wage or salary, in cash or in kind. The work referred to in this category is not seasonal but done throughout the year.

4.15.4 Worked - unpaid non-seasonal

This refers to persons who, during the reference period, performed non seasonal work, without a wage or salary either in cash or in kind.

4.15.5 Worked - paid seasonal

This refers to persons who performed seasonal work for a wage or salary during the reference period.

4.15.6 Worked - unpaid seasonal

This refers to persons who performed seasonal work without a wage or salary.

4.15.7 On leave

This refers to persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or in kind but were on paid or unpaid vacation or study leave.

4.15.8 Unpaid work on household holding or business

This refers to persons who worked without pay during the reference period on a household holding or business.

4.15.9 Unemployed and seeking work

This refers to persons who took steps to seek paid employment or self-employment during the reference period. This will include people who:

  • Registered at an employment exchange;
  • Went to possible employers to ask for a job;
  • Wrote a letter or applied for a job;
  • Asked friends, relatives, neighbors, etc. to help them find a job; and
  • Made any effort to start business e.g. opening a market stall or clearing piece of land say for an agricultural activity.

4.15.10 Not seeking work but available for work

This refers to persons who were not working but would like to have a job. These persons are not sure that there is any job available, or who imagine that they are over qualified, or who just say "Where can I get employment?"

4.15.11 Full time housewife/homemaker

This refers to persons who are engaged in household duties in their own home; and not persons who help with household chores or looking after children.

4.15.12 Full-time students

This refers to persons of either sex not classified as usually economically active who attended any regular educational institution, public or private, for systematic instruction at any level of education during the reference period. Also note that those who are on holiday at enumeration time but attend an educational institution regularly are to be recorded as full time students.

4.15.13 Not available for work for other reasons

This refers to people who were not seeking work and were not housewives or homemakers during the reference period. This includes those who are sick, disabled, retired and also those who may not want to work, beggars, prisoners, vagrants, gamblers, etc.

P- 32: What did [the respondent] do in the last 12 months?

Under this question the reference period is the last 12 months, thus, persons who will fall under these categories (i.e. worked paid non seasonal, worked unpaid non seasonal, worked paid seasonal, worked unpaid seasonal, on leave, unpaid work on a household holding or business and unemployed and seeking work) will be regarded as the "Usually Economically Active Population". The difference between P-31 and P-32 is the reference period.

Since this reference period of 12 months will be vital in capturing persons in agricultural and allied operations, the following examples are important in pin-pointing such persons:-

  • Did you undertake any regular agricultural work on your own or your family's farm since October 2009?
  • Did you work as a farm-hand since October 2009?
  • Were you engaged for pay, profit or family gain mainly in fishing, hunting, charcoal burning, wood cutting, gathering mushroom or caterpillars, collecting wild fruits, etc. since October 2009?

All those who answer categories 1 to 6 will be considered as working and therefore, you should shade appropriately in the questionnaire.

All respondents who answer categories 7 to 11, that is, those who were not working, are not supposed to have any Employment Status, Occupation or Industry. Therefore, you are supposed to skip to P - 36 (Marital Status).

Example:

Consider a person who, during the course of a year, was employed for 3 months, unemployed for 4 months and not economically active during the remaining 5 months.

Using the majority criterion, this person would first be classified as usually active, as the extent of economic activity over the year (7 months) exceeded the extent of inactivity.

Secondly, the person would then be classified as unemployed, as the extent of unemployment exceeded that of employment. This is despite the fact that among the three activity statuses "employed", "unemployed" and "not economically active", the person was not economically active for the largest number of months.

The example shows that the usual activity status of a person is not necessarily identical with his or her main activity status assessed directly. The example also shows that, for an accurate measurement of the usually active population and its components, data on the duration of employment and unemployment over the year are needed. This is because the main activity status of individuals is to be determined on the basis of the amount of time that these individuals were employed or unemployed during the reference period, measured in terms of months of employment or unemployment.

P – 33: What was [the respondent's] employment status in the last 12 months?

This question is to be asked only of those persons who were considered working in P-32. Shade the appropriate code provided.

By Employment Status we mean that a person is self-employed, employs others, is employed by someone or works on the family farm in the family business without actually being paid. All these terms are further explained below.

The Employment Status will be determined by the status of the person during the reference period. If a person worked on more than one job during the reference period, then the Employment Status of that person will be determined according to the job on which he/she spent more time. For example, if a person was employed in a garage as a mechanic for 7 months (as an employee), but drove his/her own car as a taxi driver (self-employed) for 5 months, then he/she will be classified as an employee. If he/she was an employee in the garage for 6 months and drove the taxi for 6 months i.e. the time spent in different jobs being the same, then you will determine his status on the basis of the job from which he/she received more income.

4.15.14 Employer

An Employer is a person working on his/her own economic account or with one or few partners. He/she holds a self-employment job and in his/her capacity has engaged on a continuous basis, one or more persons to work for him/her as employees for pay, either in cash or in kind. For such a person, shade the first box for Employment Status.

Examples:

  • A farmer who employs a tractor driver, a farm hand, etc.
  • A carpenter who runs his own workshop and employs others as carpenters, helpers, etc.
  • A garage owner who employs mechanics in his workshop.
  • A shop owner who employs shop assistants, salesmen, stock attendants, truck drivers, cashiers, etc.
  • A butchery owner who employs others as butchers, cleaners, etc.
  • A factory owner who employs factory workers, a foreman, a manager, mechanics, an accountant, etc.
  • A taxi owner who employs drivers to run his taxis.
  • A cinema owner who employs other people to run the cinema, as gate-keepers, projectionist, cleaners, etc.
  • A restaurant owner who employs cooks, bar attendants, pick-up van driver, cashier, etc.

A person who is assisted by family members who are not paid any wages or salaries is not an employer as his/her family members are unpaid family workers. Such a person should be classified as self-employed. On the other hand, if a person pays wages or salaries to the family member(s) who run(s) their business, then he/she is an employer and the family member(s) will be classified as an employee(s).

Only those employing others to help run their business or farm will be classified as employers. Those employing domestic servants or security guards, etc., for looking after their household properties are not to be classified as employers unless they also employ someone for the sake of their business operations. Do not classify salaried managers of large companies which they do not own as employers. Similarly, personnel officers and other senior officials of companies, parasternal organizations and Government departments are themselves employees who get salaries. Since they do not own the companies, etc., they are not to be classified as employers.

4.15.15 Employee -wage and salary earner

Shade the second box for persons who worked for others for a wage or salary which may be paid to them in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. Salesmen/salesladies who worked for commission are also to be classified as employees.

Examples of employees:

  • A shop assistant;
  • A bartender (not the bar owner);
  • A carpenter working for a contractor;
  • A miner (not the mine owner);
  • A manager of a firm;
  • A mechanic working for pay in a garage;
  • All Government workers and employees of parasternal and private organizations from an Office Orderly right up to the Secretary to the Cabinet, Managing Directors, etc, are employees;
  • Ministers and other Members of Parliament having public funds as their main source of income will be considered as employees. Similarly, Chairpersons of Service Commissions, Board Chairpersons and Chairpersons of Parasternal Organizations will be treated as employees.

4.15.16 Self-employed

Persons who are not working for others for a wage or salary but run their own businesses, factories, workshops, farms, and also do not employ others in their establishment are classified as self-employed. Ordinarily, such persons will have their own place of business and determine their own hours of work and work program. These persons may do other people's work by fixing an hourly rate or on the basis of the job itself. These could be partners such as Lawyers or Accountants who do not employ other staff.

The fact that members of a person's household may assist him/her in his/her work without receiving any remuneration does not alter his/her employment status as 'self-employed' because he/she is not employing them. However, if he/she pays wages or a salary to any member of his/her household, in that case he/she is employing that member and this relationship (employer/employee) will then be recorded.

Examples of self-employed persons:
A subsistence farmer who does not employ outside labor on his/her farm except unpaid family workers.

  • The owners of a small family store run by him/herself.
  • A marketer or a street vendor.
  • A car mechanic running a small repair business on his/her own.
  • The owner of a small tea-shop or kiosk which he/she runs him/herself or with the help of his/her (unpaid) family members.
  • A cobbler or a carpenter running a repairing business without the help of others.
  • A tailor doing his/her business with no outside helper.
  • A contractor doing odd job repairs on his/her own.

4.15.17 Unpaid family worker

Shade the fourth box for persons who normally assist in the family business or farm, but do not receive any pay or profit for the work so performed.

4.16 Occupation

P-34: What kind of work did [the respondent] do in his/her main job or business during the last 12 months?

Occupation refers to the type of work done during the reference period by the person employed irrespective of the industry or the status of employment in which the person should be classified. For each worker, write the occupation during the reference period, and then enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. The detailed list of occupations with their codes is given in Appendix 9. If a person was involved in two or more occupations at the same time, enter the occupation in which he/she spent the larger part of the working time.

Occupation should be given in clear terms to show what kind of work one did.

Avoid entering a term that implies greater skill or responsibility than is really involved in the job. Do not enter "Engineer" for someone who is actually a Draughtsman, or "Accountant" for a Book-Keeper, or "Brick-Maker" for someone who only mixes mortar and hauls bricks. The occupation codes in appendix 9 are in four digits. But the questionnaire has three boxes to accommodate three digits. Enter the major classification code which is in three digits. For example, the occupation code for a carpenter is 7124 but because only three boxes have been provided 712 will be recorded in the boxes which is the major classification (Building Frame and Related Trade Workers) where the carpenter falls.

4.17 Industry

P-35: What kind of business/service was mainly carried out by [the respondent's] employer/establishment/business in the last 12 months?

Industry refers to the activity of the establishment in which an employed person worked during the reference period.

For each worker, write the name of the industry in which he/she worked during the reference period and enter the code appropriately (see Appendix 10). If he/she was employed in more than one industry, then enter the industry which relates to the occupation already recorded. If he/she had the same occupation in different industries, then write the current industry in which he/she is working.

A person with a certain skill can work in any industry where the skills are required. In such a situation, industry classification will depend on the industry in which he/she is actually employed.

Examples:

A Carpenter may work in:

A furniture workshop;
A construction company that builds houses, or;
Zambia Railways.

His/her corresponding industry classification is:

Furniture manufacturing;
Construction of buildings, or;
Railway transport.

The corresponding three-digit industry code is:

310;
410, or;
491.

Many enterprises have several functions and in such a case, the industry should relate to the functions of the establishment where the respondent is closely associated.

Example:

Bata Shoe Company functions as either manufacturing or selling shoes. If the function was manufacturing shoes, the industry would be manufacture of footwear and the ISIC Code would be 152. But, if the function was selling shoes in a shoe store, the industry would be Retail sale of other goods in specialized stores and the ISIC code would be 477.

Write the category of Industry which a person is mostly associated with during the reference period.

Some difficulty may be experienced in identifying the industry of persons who move frequently from job to job or do odd jobs. Remember that what is wanted is the Industry of the current job, even if that job started only a day or two ago.

There is no Industry called "Service". For example, if someone is working as a Teacher/Lecturer he/she is in Education Industry. Such a person provides a service, but the Industry is not a service. A retired Soldier employed as a Security Guard at Zambia Breweries is not in Security Services but working in a "Brewing Industry". But someone employed by Security Company e.g. Armcor Security, assigned to guard Zambia Breweries, is in "Security Services" (See Appendix 10 for a list of industries).

4.18 Marital information: for those aged 12 years and older

This is a new section; inform the respondent that you are going to ask him/her about their marital status.

P – 36: What is [the respondent's] marital status?

This question will be asked to all persons 12 years and older. Please, shade the appropriate response.

4.18.1 Never married

Never married category refers to those who have never been in any marital union (marriage). If this is the response skip to P-38

4.18.2 Married

Marriage is any permanent living arrangement between a man and woman to live together as husband and wife. This includes church marriages, other religiously approved unions, civil registration at a Boma or other civil ceremony that has been performed, and the man and woman are living as husband/wife at present. These are to be recorded as married.

4.18.3 Divorced

A man/woman permanently separated from the spouse and has no other spouse now will be included under this category.

4.18.4 Separated

A man or a woman who is temporarily out of a marital union, but not legally (Civil or Customary) divorced from his/her partner, and has no other wife/husband now.

4.18.5 Widowed

A man or woman whose partner died and has no wife/husband at present.

4.18.6 Cohabiting (Living together)

Cohabiting or living together category refers to a man and a woman living together as a married couple without any legal, customary or religious consent of the union. The dissolution of this union, therefore, does not require witnesses from the afore-mentioned authorities.

P-37: How old was [the respondent] when he/she first got married or started cohabiting?

Find out the age at which he/she got married or started cohabiting. Enter the age in the boxes provided.

4.19 Fertility: for females 12 years and older

You are about to start a new topic so you have to prepare the respondent by informing her that you are now going to ask her questions about children and child bearing. Remember these are questions to be asked to females 12 years and older and not for husbands to answer for their wives. Questions on fertility are to be asked only to those females who are 12 years and older and they involve only their own children. If the female is a usual member present or a visitor, fertility questions have to be asked to them personally. If they are not around, a call back has to be made until they are found and information is collected. If the enumerator cannot find the female respondent even after making at least three visits, the enumerator should inform the supervisor.

P-38: Have you ever had a live birth? (Including babies who died after birth)

This is a child who, after being delivered showed signs of life, like crying, movement by involuntary reflexes, etc. If a child never showed any of these actions when it was born, then it was not a live birth. Married females tend to leave out children from earlier marriages. These are also supposed to be included for all the questions. Shade 1 for yes and 2 for no. If the answer is no, skip to Question P-46.

P-39: Of the children born to you alive, how many are living with you now?

If the number of male and female children ever born alive to this female respondent are still living at home with the respondent i.e. staying in the same house with the respondent, enter the number of male and female children accordingly.

If a woman is visiting, question P-39 should be asked with respect to her usual place of residence. That is about children she normally stays with. Enter the number of children as reported by sex e.g. if 1 male child is living with her, enter 1 in the box for male. If the answer is none, enter 0 in the box but if the number of male or female children is ten or more enter the two digits in one box according to sex. Never leave a box blank.

P-40: Of the children born to you alive, how many are living elsewhere?

This question is asking for the number of male and female children ever born alive to this female are staying with some other households e.g. other relatives, married off, in institutions etc.

Enter the number of children as reported by sex e.g. if 1 male child is living elsewhere, enter 1 in the box for male. If the answer is none, enter 0 in the box but if the number of male or female children is ten or more enter the two digits in one box according to sex. Never leave a box blank.

P-41: Of the children born to you alive, how many are dead?

This question is asking for the number of male and female children ever born alive to this female but have since died (regardless of whether the death took place just after birth or much later in life).

Enter the number of children as reported by sex e.g. if 1 male child is dead, enter 1 in the box for male. If the answer is none, enter 0 in the box but if the number of male or female children is ten or more enter the two digits in one box according to sex. Never leave a box blank.

P-42: Did you have any live birth in the last 12 months?

This question is only asked to females 12-49 years of age. Do not ask this question to females 50 years and older. Shade appropriately. The question is similar to P-38 except that this time we are trying to find out if the female had a live birth in the "last 12 months".

P–43: Of the children born to you alive in the last 12 months, how many are living with you now?

The number of male and female children born alive to this female in the last 12 months since October 2009 and still at home with the respondent (i.e staying in the same household with the respondent). Enter the number of children as reported by sex e.g. if 1 male child is living with her enter 1 in the box provided. If the answer is none, enter 0 in the box. Never leave a box blank.

If a woman is visiting, question P-43 should be asked with respect to her usual place of residence. That is about children she normally stays with.

P-44: Of the children born to you alive, how many are living elsewhere?

The number of male and female children born alive in the last 12 months since October 2009 but staying with some other households" e.g. other relatives, in institutions etc. Enter the number of children as reported by sex e.g. if 1 female child is living elsewhere enter 1 in the box provided. If the answer is none, enter 0. Never leave a box blank.

P–45: Of the children born to you alive in the last 12 months, how many are dead?

The number of male and female children born alive to this female in the last 12 months since October but have since died (regardless of whether the death took place just after or much later in life). Enter the number of children as reported by sex.

4.20 National registration and electoral questions: for all persons aged 16 years and older

Questions in this section are to be asked to all persons 16 years and older. This is a new topic and you have to inform the respondent that you are now going to ask him/her about national registration.

P-46: Do you have a Green Zambian National Registration Card?

Find out whether the respondent has a Green Zambian National Registration Card. Shade appropriately according to the response given.

Note that in Zambia three types of cards are issued by the government (green, pink, and blue). The question refers to only the green national registration card.

P-47: Are you a Registered Voter?

Find out whether the respondent is a registered voter. Note that the voter's card referred to here is the valid voter's card. Shade appropriately according to the response given.

4.21 Housing characteristics

This is a new topic and you have to inform the respondent that you are now going to ask him/her about their housing unit.

A building may have several housing units and therefore particulars of each housing unit will be collected separately from the other even though these may be similar.

If a building is earmarked for demolition, but is standing intact and is occupied at the time of your visit, then you are to consider this as a standing building and you must collect housing particulars on each housing unit within this building.

If someone is living in a part of an incomplete building, i.e. building under construction, consider the occupied part of the building as a housing unit and collect the necessary information about it.

Remember that if there is more than one housing unit in a building, collect information from each housing unit. For this exercise, a complete housing unit is one which has a roof, walls and a floor.

In some parts of Zambia, it is customary to abandon a standing house/hut if a death occurred in that house/hut. Since for all practical purposes this particular house will never be used, it is as good as already demolished. Do not collect information about this house/hut and treat it as if it was not there. In case only one hut out of a group of huts forming one housing unit has been abandoned but other huts are being used for living, then ignore the abandoned hut but collect the information about the remaining huts.

H - 1: Type of housing unit

In this question we are interested in knowing the different types of housing units such as traditional structures, mixed structures, mobile, conventional and improvised structures etc. Shade the appropriate code.

  • Traditional Housing Unit: This is the type of housing mostly found in rural parts of Zambia.. It is usually made of mud material around the walls and the roof is usually thatched. Most traditional huts have a hat shaped roof. Even if it is located in urban areas it must be recorded as traditional hut. A traditional housing unit is indigenous to a particular village irrespective of building materials.
  • Improved Traditional Unit: This refers to the type of housing also common in rural areas that is considered "improved" by the materials used for either the walls or the roofing. Some of these huts may have red brick or burnt brick walling and in some cases asbestos or even iron sheets in the roof. They are somewhat like traditional huts but have some improvement that sets them apart from typical traditional huts.
  • Mixed Housing Unit: Mixed housing units are of a mixed type i.e. with a unique combination of building materials. An example could be that of a conventional housing unit with concrete block walls with an extension of rooms with pole and dagga walls or a "cabin".
  • A Conventional House/Flats (Housing Unit): A conventional housing unit is a room or a set of rooms and its accessories in a permanent building. It can also be a structurally separated part of the permanent building by the way it has been built, rebuilt or converted. A conventional house is intended for habitation by one household and is not, at the time of enumeration, used wholly for other purposes. Examples: bungalows, flats/ apartments, etc. A Conventional Housing unit may just be one structure, several structures or part of a big structure. If it is part of a structure, then other parts may also be housing units, like in a block of flats, or be other than housing units, like a shop, an office, etc., or mixture of such units. In some cases, a place may be originally designed as a barn, warehouse, etc., and thus not intended for human habitation. Later on it may be converted into a housing unit by structural alterations, re-design, etc., and thus may now be fit and intended for habitation. In such cases, these will now be classified as conventional housing units.
  • Mobile Housing Unit: This is any type of living quarter that has been produced to be transported e.g. a tent. A mobile housing unit may also refer to a moving unit such as a ship, a boat, a caravan, trailers, boats, tents, etc. occupied as living quarters at the time of the census.
  • Part of Commercial building: This is a living quarter which is part of a commercial building, e.g. shop owners living on top of the shop.
  • An Improvised/Makeshift Housing Unit: An improvised housing unit is an independent, makeshift-shelter or structure built of mostly waste or salvaged materials and without a predetermined design or plan for the purpose of habitation by one household, which is being used as living quarters though it may not comply with generally accepted standards for habitation. Such a unit will be generally found in suburban shanty areas. Not all structures in shanty areas may be considered as improvised as many of these may have been built in a planned manner from regular building materials.
  • Collective Living Quarters: Collective living quarters include structurally separate and independent places of abode intended for habitation by large groups of individuals or several households with no common bond, public objective or interest. Such quarters usually contain common facilities such as kitchen, bathrooms, lounge or dormitories, which are shared by occupants. Examples are hotels, motels, inns, lodges, rooming houses, etc., which provide lodging on a fee basis.
  • Institutions: Institutions are sets of premises in a permanent structure or structures designed to house groups of persons (usually large) who are bound by either a common public objective or a common personal interest. In this type of living quarters persons of the same sex frequently share dormitories. Examples are Hospitals, military barracks, boarding schools, convents, seminaries, prisons, etc.
  • Unintended Living Quarters: Unintended living quarters are structurally separate and independent places of abode. They may have been built, constructed, converted or arranged for human habitation provided they are not at the time of the census used wholly for other purposes. They may also be in use for habitation at the time of the census although not intended for habitation.
  • Other: Other is a residual category of living quarters and includes bridges, storage warehouses, market stalls, shop corridors, garages, ship containers etc.

H - 2: What is the main type of material used for the roof?

You can easily identify the type of roof the housing unit has. In case it is not very obvious or if in doubt, ask the respondent. Shade the appropriate code.

  • Thatch/Palm Leaf: Traditional roofing material which works well at angles of 35o and more with thatch thickness of 12 centimeters to 15 centimeters. The thatch thickness increases with the decline in angle
  • Palm/Bamboo: A bamboo is a plant which is a type of grass with a hard, woody, hollow stem.
  • Wood Planks: This is stout length of sawn timber, made in a wide variety of sizes and used for building materials.
  • Cardboard: Are prefabricated boxes primary used for packaging goods and materials.
  • Metal/Iron Sheets: Usually galvanized iron sheets or can be corrugated. These are the lightest roofing materials and can be obtained in length from 1.2 meters to 3.6 meters. Large lengths can be obtained on special order. They can also be used for walls when flat.
  • Wood: Processed plank - material from tree trunks used in construction as timber.
  • Asbestos: Is a mineral fiber that is used commonly in a variety of building construction material for insulation and as a fire retardant.
  • Ceramic Tiles/Harvey Tiles: Roof Tiles; small rectangular roofing materials made from fine concrete quarry and slates.
  • Cement: Cement is a fine soft, powdery type substance made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone, clay sand and/ or shale.
  • Roofing Shingles: Are a roof covering consisting of individual overlapping element that are typically flat rectangular shapes laid in rows from the bottom edge of the roof up, with each successive higher row overlapping the joints in the row below.
  • Other: Whatever is not mentioned above.

H - 3: What are the walls of this housing unit mainly made of?

Generally, the walls are plastered both inside and outside. If you are not able to tell, ask the respondent. Shade the appropriate code.

  • Burnt Bricks: Brick molded from seasoned clay and burnt to a temperature of 1,300o C.
  • Mud Bricks: Kimberly brick or Adobe brick are the technical terms. Brick made of mud and sun dried.
  • Compressed Mud: This is an appropriate mix of dirt, clay and aggregate into a compressed block.
  • Compressed cement Bricks
  • Concrete Blocks/Slab: Building units made out of a mixture of concrete can be fine concrete or coarse concrete.
  • Iron Sheets: Is a building material composed of sheets of hot dip galvanized mild steel to produce a linear pattern in them.
  • Asbestos/Hardboard/wood: Heavy thin boards usually 4 millimeters to 8 millimeters in width.
  • Other: Whatever is not mentioned above.

H - 4: What is the floor of this housing unit mainly made of?

Just like in H - 3 above, the respondent may be of assistance in this question. However, if it is quite obvious to you, Shade the appropriate code.

  • Concrete: Is a mixture of crushed stones, river sand and cement, with the right amount of water. It can be molded into any shape. It is weak under tensile stress and strong under compression.
  • Cement: Is the building material usually greenish to gray in color and sometimes light brown. It hardens in moist condition.
  • Brick: Brick molded from seasoned clay and burnt to a temperature of 1,300o C.
  • Tiles; can be PVC or baked clay. If they are baked clay, they are called quarry tiles. They have a rough glazed finish on the face and are about 6 millimeters thick or more.
  • Mud: Is usually from treated or seasoned clay mixed with cow dung. It makes a hard shiny floor. It is mostly found in traditional houses.
  • Wood (Not Wooden Tiles): Usually floor above ground level and not popular here in Zambia due to our climate.
  • Marble: Used in high cost building. It can be in the form of tiles or slabs. It makes a high durable shine. Marble are cut from stone (marble stone) in flat sheet and polished to give a shiny finish.
  • Terrazzo: Floors made out of concrete with a selected course aggregate of 13 millimeters or slightly less. The top is grinned flat with a machine and then polished. The floor finish is usually black or white.
  • Other: Whatever is not mentioned above.

H - 5: Type of occupancy

Find out how many households are living in the housing unit and shade appropriately. If the answers given are from 1 or 2 then skip to H-7 and if it is 4 -6, end the interview.

Single Household

A Single Household means that only one household is occupying one housing unit.

One Household in Several Housing Units

This is when one household is occupying more than one housing unit.

Shared

This refers to a situation where you find more than one household occupying one housing unit, which is actually intended to house just one household. Shade the appropriate code indicating the number of households sharing the housing unit.

Vacant

A vacant housing unit is one which is not occupied by a household during the time of enumeration.

Non-contact

This where the housing is occupied but you cannot find anyone at home throughout your visits during the census period.

Non-residential

This is a building which is not used for habitation.

Note that if:

  • Either Single household or one household in several housing units is given as a response to H-5, Go to H-7.
  • Shared is given as a response to H-5, Go to H-6.
  • Vacant, non-contact or non-residential is given as a response to H-5, end the interview.

H - 6: (If shared) what is the number of households?

Find out how many households share a particular housing unit (if it is shared) and record the number of households in the boxes provided e.g. if 2 households are sharing a housing unit record 02 in the boxes provided.

H - 7: What is the main source of water supply for household use and drinking?

Find out the main source of water supply for household use and main source of water for drinking and shade the appropriate code.

  • Piped water inside the housing unit: Is usually supplied to households through pipes. The pipes are connected from the source to the individual's housing unit.
  • Piped water outside the housing unit within stand/plot: Is usually supplied to households through pipes. The pipes are connected from the source to the individual's stand or plot.
  • Communal Tap: Is usually supplied through pipes. The pipes are connected from the source to a public place for a group of people.
  • Protected Well: The wall of this well is usually lined with a brick wall or concrete block wall up to the ground level. The finish on top is of a reinforced concrete slab with an opening large enough to let a bucket go through. The opening is always covered.
  • Protected Boreholes: These are boreholes drilled to a depth not less than 30 meters. The sides are cased by iron casing pipes while the last bottom pipe is perforated. The top is concreted together with the suction pipe.
  • Unprotected Well: The well is not lined with a brick wall or concrete wall. The top has no concrete slab though it has a sizeable opening to let a bucket go through. The opening is usually uncovered.
  • Unprotected Boreholes: They are similar in design to protected boreholes except that the top as well as the suction pipe are left uncovered and large enough to let a jar or small bucket go through.
  • River/dam/stream: This is where a household draws water directly from a a river/dam/stream for home use.
  • Rain Water Tank: Usually used by individual tenants, to collect rain water from the roofs. These vary in sizes as there is no standard size. It is always advisable to have it covered after the collection.
  • Other Tap: Any other tap not mentioned above.
  • Water Kiosk: This is a public water tap run by a water utility company. The public can go to this tap in order to buy water.
  • Water Vendor: This includes water that is bought from individuals or companies and sold to households who do not have water. In some cases wheelbarrows and or tankers are used as the mode of transport to sell to households.
  • Mineral/bottled water
  • Other

H - 8: How many living rooms and bedrooms does this housing unit have?

A room is defined as a space in a housing unit enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof, of a size large enough to fit a bed for an adult. A hut meeting these two qualifications will also be treated as a room. Normally, bedrooms and living rooms will be included in this definition. Passage ways, verandahs, lobbies, kitchens, bathrooms and toilet rooms are not counted as rooms even if they meet the criteria. A garage and a storeroom meeting these requirements should be treated as rooms only if these are actually being used for living purposes at the time of enumeration. Find out the number of living rooms and bedrooms in the housing unit and enter the number of living rooms and bedrooms the housing unit has in the boxes provided. If you come across a bedsitter, treat it as a bedroom as opposed to a living room.

Study and drawing rooms, living or family rooms, play rooms, etc. are to be considered as living rooms or bed rooms depending on the use and if they meet the above criteria.

H-9: How many persons usually sleep in the housing unit (s)?

Write down the number of persons who usually sleep in the housing unit/s in the boxes provided.

H - 10: Does this housing unit have a kitchen?

A kitchen is a space, which conforms in all respects to a 'room' and is equipped for the preparation of meals and is intended primarily for that purpose. In cases where more than one household share a kitchen, attach the kitchen to only one of them. Shade appropriately.

4.22 Household characteristics

HH - 1: What is the main source of energy used for lighting, cooking and heating?

Ask for the main source of energy used by the household for lighting, cooking and heating we are interested in. Since availability of energy for lighting is what is to be determined, even if a housing unit has the necessary wiring but is not connected to the electric supply system, the household will not be considered to be using electricity. Note that "heating" in this case does not refer to heating/warming food or water but to heat a room. Shade appropriately.

Gas: This is gas that is used as a fuel source such as natural gas, propane, butane or other flammable gases.

b) Biofuel: is any fuel that is derived from plants and plant derived materials e.g. Jathropa.

c) Solar: is energy from the heat or light from the sun which can be used to produce heat, light and electricity.

Note that the following should not be sources of energy for:
1. Lighting

Cow dung, charcoal

2. Cooking

Candle,

3. Heating

Candle,

HH - 2: Does your household have:

Find out whether the household has any of the listed items and shade appropriately. Each item should be read out to find out if the household has the item. Note that the item should be functioning/operational at the time of enumeration

HH - 3: How is the household waste disposed?

Find out how the household disposes its waste and shade the appropriate response.

HH - 4: What is the main type of toilet used by members of this household?

Everybody uses a toilet of some sort and we are interested in the type of toilet used by members of the household. Shade the appropriate code If the household has no toilet facility, skip to HH7.

HH - 5: Is this toilet inside or outside this housing unit?

Find out whether the toilet is inside the housing unit or outside. Shade the appropriate code depending on the response given.

HH - 6: Is this toilet exclusively used by members of this household?

Ask the respondent if this toilet is exclusively used by the members of this households i.e. used only by members of this household. Shade the appropriate code.

HH - 7: Is this Housing Unit owned by any member of this household?

Ask the respondent if this housing unit is owned by any member of this household. If the response is "Yes", ask the respondent question HH-8, if the response is "No", skip to question HH-9.

HH - 8: How was this housing unit acquired?

Ask how this housing unit was acquired.

Mortgage

Mortgage is a loan you take out to buy property. Most banks and the Zambia National Building Society offer mortgages.

Inherited

To inherit something is to get it from one's ancestors through legal succession it mean to take possession due to perceived right or dominating ability to do so.

Freely

This is when somebody receives from somebody for free, e.g from friend, an employer or a neighbor.

Then shade the appropriate code depending on the response given. For any response to this question, skip to A1.

HH - 9: Is this housing unit provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member of this household?

Find out if the housing unit is provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member of the household. If the housing unit is provided by the employer, it may or may not involve payment of rent as sometimes employers charge full rent, sometimes a nominal rent and sometimes no rent at all. If the employer deducts any amount of money from the salary of any member of the household for rent, then the housing unit is not provided free.

When an employer provides a housing unit then it is not necessary to find out whether or not the employer is also the owner of that house/housing unit. For example, the housing unit may be owned by a private landlord but rented by a company which has provided this housing unit to its employee. As far as this household is concerned, the housing unit has been provided free by the employer.

If the housing unit is provided free by the employer (Yes employer- code 1) then skip to HH-11. If the response is "Yes", by friend or relative, then skip to A-1. If the response is "No", then you ask the next question. In either case, shade the appropriate code.

HH - 10: Is this housing unit rented from the employer of any member of this Household?

Find out if the housing unit is rented from the employer of any member of the household. If the response is "Yes", shade code 1 and if the response is "No", shade code 2 and skip to HH- 12.

HH - 11: Is the employer?

Ask the respondent who the employer is and shade the appropriate code. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is "An Individual". Any response given in HH-11, skip to A-1.

HH - 12: Is this housing unit rented from?

This question is asked to households whose response is "No" in HH - 10, that is those who replied that the housing unit is not rented from the employer of any member of the household. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is "An Individual". After getting the response, shade the appropriate code.

4.23 Agriculture

In this section, we would like to know whether the household is engaged in any agricultural activity i.e. crop growing, livestock or poultry raising, fish farming or game ranching.

An Agricultural Household is a household in which at least one member is carrying out some agricultural activity on the holding belonging to the household, and/or horticultural farming.

Agricultural Activity is the growing of any crop and/or raising of livestock and/or raising of poultry and/or fish farming and/or game ranching.

Holding refers to land wholly or partly operated for agricultural purposes such as growing crops and/or raising livestock and/or raising poultry for production under a single technical management. Livestock include cattle, pigs, goats, sheep and donkeys. Poultry includes chickens, Ducks, Geese, Pigeons, Guineafowls, Rabbits and Turkeys.

Zambia's agricultural season extends from 1st October of one year to 30th September of the following year.

A-1: Has your household engaged directly in any of the following agricultural activities, that is; crop growing, livestock and poultry raising, fish farming and game ranching since 1st October, 2009?

Find out from the respondent whether the household was engaged in any of the agricultural activities since 1st October, 2009. If no, skip to M1.

(Remember horticultural farming should be regarded as crop growing and should fall under other crops).

Examples of agriculture households

1.If maize is grown in the backyard garden and consumed as fresh (green) maize, this household will be considered to be growing a vegetable and not maize.
2.If a Mr. Banda in Chibolya keeps goats within his homestead and lets them roam about during the day, he is considered to be raising goats. However, Mrs. Chilala who lives in Lusaka and owns cattle in Namwala and someone else is raising them on her behalf, she is not considered to be raising cattle, but the person who is raising cattle on her behalf is the one who will be captured as raising cattle.

A-2: On your holding, which of the following crops did you grow since 1st October, 2009?

Find out from the respondent whether they grew any of the listed crops on their holding during the 2009/2010 agricultural season.

Note that an orchard is a land designated or allocated for growing fruit trees only. If the trees are scattered around on some undefined area, they do not constitute an orchard. If a respondent says that the household grows any fruits such as mango, pawpaw, oranges, guavas, grapes etc, then indicate orchard.

A-3: On your holding, which of the following livestock/poultry have you raised since 1st October, 2009?

Ask the respondent whether any member of the household raised any of the listed livestock/poultry on the holding since 1st October, 2009 and shade the response appropriately.

Rabbits should be included under "other Poultry".

(Remember raising here means keeping of animals on the holding regardless of ownership)

A-4: Has your agricultural holding included fish farming since 1st October, 2009?

Find out from the respondent whether the household was engaged in fish farming on the holding since 1st October, 2009 and shade appropriately.

(Remember by fish farming we mean; raising of fish in fish ponds or in cages that are made in natural water bodies).

A-5: Has your agricultural holding included game ranching since 1st October, 2009?

Find out from the respondent whether the household was engaged in game ranching on the holding since 1st October, 2009 and shade appropriately.

Note that game ranching is the raising/raring of wild animals such as buffalo, antelope, zebra, crocodiles, kudu etc.

4.24 General and maternal deaths

You are about to start a rather sensitive topic. Prepare the respondent by telling him/her that you are now going to start asking questions about deaths in the household.

In this section we want to find out the number of deaths that occurred in the household since October 2009.

Note: Do not forget to ask about deaths of children.

M-1: Is there any member of the household who died since October 2009?

Find out if there were any deaths in the household since October 2009 and shade the appropriate code. The death referred to here is the death that occurred in this household and not the death of any other family member living elsewhere. Only deaths of persons who were usual members of the household should be recorded. If the response is "No", then end the interview.

M-2: What was the sex of the deceased?

Find out the sex of the deceased member of the household and shade the appropriate code.

M-3: What was the age of the deceased?

Find out the age at death of the deceased member of the household in completed years, record 00 if less than 1 year and enter in the boxes provided. The age will be entered in two digits, 01, 02, 09, 10, 11…94. For those aged 95 years and older, 9 and 5 will be recorded. This question should not be left blank.

M-4: What was the cause of death?

Find out the cause of death and shade appropriately.

4.25.1 Deaths of women aged 12-49

The questions that follow (Questions M5, M6 and M7) should focus on deaths of women aged 12 to 49 years in the household after establishing that there was a death in the household through questions M1, M2 and M3.

This set of questions is intended to find out deaths that occurred to women of the reproductive age group 12-49 years in the household.

M-5: Did the death occur while pregnant?

Find out if the deceased died while pregnant and shade the appropriate code. If the response is 'Yes', end interview if there was only one female aged 12 to 49 years who died in the household. If there were more than 1 female aged 12 to 49 years who died in the household, then ask if these deaths occurred while pregnant.

If the answer is "No" ask question M6.

M-6: Did the death occur during childbirth?

Find out if the deceased died during childbirth and shade the appropriate code. If the response is 'Yes', end interview if there was only one female aged 12 to 49 years who died in the household. If there were more than 1 females aged 12 to 49 years who died in the household, then ask if these deaths occurred during child birth. It does not matter whether the child was born alive and still living, was stillborn, or the child was born alive and died later.

If the answer is "No" ask question M7.

M-7: Did the death occur during the 6 weeks period following the end of pregnancy irrespective of the way the pregnancy ended?

This refers to a death that occurred within 6 weeks after the end of a pregnancy. It does not matter how the pregnancy ended, whether it was a live birth, stillbirth, or a child was born alive and died later. This death has to be recorded.

Find out if the death occurred during the six weeks period following the end of pregnancy irrespective of how the pregnancy ended and shade the appropriate code. Make sure that the information you collect in this question is on deaths that occurred within 6 weeks after the end of a pregnancy and not outside this period

[Appendix 1-9 omitted: Language, Prominence, Occupation codes]