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Republic of Zambia

Enumerator's Instructions Manual
2000 Census of Population and Housing

[Table of Content is omitted.]

Chapter 1

Background

1.1 What is a census?

A Census of Population and Housing is defined by the United Nations as the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specified time or times, to all persons in a designated area or the whole country. It is the primary source of information about the population of a country. It is undertaken at regular intervals, usually after ten years. The population Census is distinguished from other kinds of field surveys by its traditional background, legal sanctions, coverage, and by the whole scale of the operation and the resources normally devoted to it.

1.2 Why hold a population census?

The main objective of conducting a Population Census is to enumerate all the people in the country in order to provide the Government, private organizations, individuals, and other stakeholders with the number of persons in each district, township, locality, village, etc., according to age, sex, and other characteristics. For every aspect of planning, it is essential to know the size, structure and distribution of the population of a country. This information is required for various aspects of social and economic planning.

In case of social services, information is needed on:

a. Education: Planning for education requires knowledge of the number of children of school-going age, who are likely now and in the coming years to require education at various levels. The Government cannot know where to build the necessary schools and train the required number of school teachers, unless it knows where the need is greatest in terms of number of children of school-going age.
b. Housing: Housing is a problem, particularly in urban areas where many people are living under crowded conditions. If additional houses are to be built in order to alleviate overcrowding, the Government must know the number of people living under these conditions who will require more houses.

c. Health Services: It is the wish of the Government to improve and expand health services of the country so as to control diseases and minimize the number of children dying during infancy and early childhood. If health services are to be adequately planned for, the Government needs to know the number of people affected.

Similarly, for economic services, information is needed on:
d. Agriculture: In Zambia, most of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood.
In order to develop agriculture, it is essential to know the number of people involved in agricultural activities, their sex, age, education level and where they are located.

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e. Industry: Industry plays a vital role in any country's economy. For instance, mining is the major foreign exchange earner for this country. A large number of people are employed in mining and manufacturing industries. Hence the need to know their numbers, ages and skills.
For all these purposes, it is not enough just to know how many people there are at the time of the Census. We must know also how fast the population is increasing and how many people there will be in five years' time, ten years' time, etc. This is why we wish to obtain information, not only on people living now, but also on number of children being born and the number of people dying.

[Omitted Sections 1.3- Importance of Your Work as an Enumerator, 1.4 Legal Powers 1.5 Confidentiality of Census Information, 1.6 Census Organization, 1.7 Materials]

Chapter 2

Concepts and definitions

2.1 Enumeration area

You as an enumerator will be assigned an enumeration area in which you will do the enumeration work for the Census. Your supervisor will assign this area to you and will also provide you with a map or a sketch showing boundaries of your enumeration area and explain major features of this area in order for you to properly identify the boundaries. For you to cover your area in an orderly manner, you must follow the instructions given by your Supervisor carefully.

Since the co-operation of the people is an essential factor in the success of the Census, your Supervisor will sometimes introduce you to the local, traditional and political leaders and other influential persons in the area to solicit their co-operation.

2.2 Household

For the purposes of the Census, a household is defined as "a group of persons who normally live and eat together". These people may or may not be related by blood, but make common provision for food or other essentials for living and they have only one person whom they all regard as head of the household. Such people are called members of the household if they normally live and eat together even if they do not sleep under one roof. There could also be situations where people live under one roof but have separate cooking and eating arrangements. Such persons should be considered as separate households. There can also be a one member household where a person makes provision for his/her own food or other essentials for living. Such a person is the head of his/her household.

A household normally occupies the whole of a Housing Unit or part of it, or more than one Housing Unit. A household is in most cases (if not in all cases) identified with a housing unit.

2.3 Usual household member

A usual household member is one who has been living with the household for at least six (6) months. She/he may or may not be related to the other household members by blood, marriage, or may be a house-helper or farm-labourer. A usual household member normally lives together with other household members in one house or closely related premises and takes his/her meals from the same kitchen.
The following people regard the housing unit as their home or usual place of residence and should be counted as usual household members:

a. Persons whose usual place of residence is the place where the household lives and are present at time of the enumerator's visit.
b. Other categories of usual members of the household include persons whose usual place of residence is the place where the household lives but are absent at the time of the enumerator's visit, e.g.:
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1. Persons temporarily away on vacation, business or pleasure trip or any other purpose within the country who are expected to be back within six months or abroad without the rest of the household and expected to come back;
2. Students who usually go to their respective households during weekends and during holidays;
3. Persons working elsewhere who usually go home to their respective households at least once a week;
4. Patients confined in hospitals for any duration; and
5. Convicts and detainees.
c. Lodgers of the household who are working, looking for work or studying, and who do not go home at least once a week;
d. Employees of household - includes servants who eat and sleep with the household and who do not go home at least once a week;
e. Persons (other than those in a, b or c) whose usual place of residence is elsewhere, but who have been away from their usual residence for more than six months;
f. Persons found in the household who have no usual place of residence elsewhere;
g. Persons found in the household who are not certain of being enumerated elsewhere;
h. Citizens of foreign countries who have resided or expected to reside in the country for more than one year from date of arrival;
i. Newly born babies and newly wedded persons.

2.4 Head of household

This will be the person all members of the household regard as the head. He/She is the one who normally makes day-to-day decisions governing the running of the household. In cases of the one member households, the member will be the head of the household.

Remember a person does not become the head of a household simply because he/she is the main respondent.

2.5 Building

A building is any independent structure comprising one or more rooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof. Each building will be given a separate Census Building Number irrespective of whether anyone is living there or not at the time of enumeration. Abandoned and incomplete buildings in which no one is living at the time of the Census should not be given a Census Building Number. Observe that an abandoned building differs from a vacant building in that an abandoned building is not habitable and may never be used again (condemned). A vacant building is one which is temporarily unoccupied.

There exist a number of variations of this definition. For example, a structure consisting of a roof with supports only, i.e. without walls, will be considered as a building if it is being used for living purposes.

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For census purposes one or more structures used for living by the same household on the same premises will be treated as one building. For example

a. A house together with detached/independent structures for bathroom, latrine and /or kitchen form one building.
b. Several huts for the same household constitute one building.
Please note that for cases (a) and (b) first make sure that all the structures are used by the same household.
c. A servants quarter in a yard forms a separate building if the persons occupying it are not part of the household in the main housing unit..
d. A bungalow (main house) and its detached garage form one building.
e. A block of flats forms one building.
f. Where there are several structures in an institution, each of these structures will he given a separate Census Building Number. For example: School Premises: Each of the teachers' houses, each classroom block, each dormitory block will be given a separate Census Building Number.

2.6 Housing Unit

A Housing Unit is an independent place of abode intended for habitation by one household. This should have direct access to the outside such that. the occupants can come in or, go out without passing through anybody else's premises, that. is, a housing unit should have at least one door which directly leads outside in the open or into a public .corridor or hallway. Structures which are not intended for habitation such as garages and barns, classroom etc,. but are occupied as by one or more households at the time of the Census will also be treated as The following are the types of Housing Units, thus:

a. Traditional Housing Unit: A traditional housing unit is indigenous to a particular irrespective of building materials.

b. Mixed Housing Unit: Mixed housing: units are of a mixed type i.e.with a unique combination of building materials. .An example could be that of a conventional housing, with concrete block walls with an extension of rooms of pole and dagga walls or a cabin.

c. A Conventional House Flats (Housing Unit): A conventional housing unit is a room or a set of rooms and accessories in a permanent building. It can also be structurally separated part of the permanent building by the way it has been [illegible] apartments, etc. A Conventional Housing unit may be just one structure, several structures or part of a big structure. If it is part of a structure, then other parts may also be housing units, like in a block of flats, or be other than housing units, like shop, an office, etc., or mixture of such units. In some cases, a place may be originally designed as a barn, warehouse, etc., and thus not intended for human habitation. Later on it may be converted into a housing unit by structural alterations, re-design, etc., and thus may now be fit and intended for habitation. In such cases, these will now be classified as conventional housing units.

d. Mobile Housing Unit: This is any type of living quarter that has been produced to be transported e.g. a tent. A mobile housing unit may also refer to a moving unit such as a ship, a boat, or a caravan occupied as living quarters at the time of the census.

e. Part of Commercial building: This is a living quarter which is part of a commercial building, e.g. shop owners living on top of the shop.

f. An Improvised/Makeshift Housing Unit: An improvised housing unit is an independent, makeshift-shelter or structure built of mostly waste or salvaged materials and without a predetermined design or plan for the purpose of habitation by one household, which is being used as living quarters though it may not comply with generally accepted standards for habitation. Such a unit will be generally found in suburban shanty areas. Not all structures in shanty areas may be considered as improvised as many of these may have been built in a planned manner from regular building materials.

g. Collective Living Quarters: Collective living quarters include structurally separate and independent places of abode intended for habitation by large groups of individuals or several households with no common bond, public objective or interest. Such quarters usually contain common facilities such as kitchen, bathrooms, lounge or dormitories, which are shared by occupants. Examples are hotels, motels, inns, lodges, rooming houses, etc., which provide lodging on a fee basis.

h. Institutions: Institutions are sets of premises in a permanent structure or structures designed to house groups of persons (usually large) who are bound by either a common public objective or a common personal interest. In this type of livingquarters persons of the same sex frequently share dormitories. Examples are.Hospitals, military barracks, boarding schools, convents, seminaries, prisons, etc.

i. Unintended Living Quarters: Unintended living quarters are structurally separate and independent places of abodes. They may have been built. constructed. Converted or arranged for human habitation provided they are not at the time of the census used wholly for other purposes. They may also be in use for habitation at the time of the census although not intended for habitation.

j. Other: [illegible]

[Omitted examples]

2.7 Building Materials

a. Cement: Is the building material usually greenish to gray in colour and sometimes light brown. It hardens in moist condition.

b. Concrete: Is a mixture of crushed stones, river sand and cement, with the right amount of water. It can be moulded into any shape. It is weak under tensile stress and strong under compression.

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c. Iron Sheets: Usually galvanised iron sheets or can be corrugated. These are the lightest roofing materials and can be obtained in length from 1.2 metres to 3.6 metres. Large lengths can be obtained on special order. They can also be used for walls when flat.

d. Grass Thatch: Traditional roofing material which works well at angles of 35° and more with thatch thickness of 12 centimetre to 15 centimetre. The thatch thickness increases with the decline in angle.

e. Tile: Roof Tiles- small rectangular roofing materials made from fine concrete quarry and slates. Floor Tiles can be PVC or baked clay. If they are baked clay, they are called quarry tiles. They have a rough glazed finish on the face and are about 6 millimeters thick or more.

f. Slates: Thin heavy flat stones formed from layers of mud under extreme heat and pressure after a length of time.

g. Burnt Brick: Brick moulded from seasoned clay and burnt to a temperature of 1,300 degrees Celsius.

h. Mud Brick: Kimberly brick or Adope brick are the technical terms. Brick made of mud and sun dried.

i. Concrete Blocks: Building units made out of a mixture of concrete can be fine concrete or coarse concrete.

j. Wood: Processed plank - material from tree trunks used in construction as timber.

k. Hardboard: Heavy thin boards usually 4 millimeters to 8 millimeters in width.

l. Mud Floor: Is usually from treated or seasoned clay mixed with cow dung. It makes a hard shiny floor. It is mostly found in traditional houses.

m. Wooden Floor: Usually floor above ground level and not popular here in Zambia due to our climate.

n. Marble: Used in high cost building. It can be in the form of tiles or slabs. It makes a high durable shine. Marble are cut from stone (marble stone) in flat sheet and polished to give a shiny finish.

o. Terrazo: Floors made out of concrete with a selected course aggregate of 13 millimeter or slightly less. The top is grinned flat with a machine and then polished. The floor finish is usually black or white.

2.8 Water Sources

a. Protected Well: The wall of this well is usually lined with a brick wall or concrete block wall up to the ground level. The finish on top is of a reinforced concrete slab with an opening large enough to let a bucket go through. The opening is always covered.

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b. Unprotected Well: The well is not lined with a brick wall or concrete wall. The top has no concrete slab though it has a sizeable opening to let a bucket go through. The opening is usually uncovered.

c. Protected Boreholes: These are boreholes drilled to a depth not less than 30 meters. The sides are cased by iron casing pipes while the last bottom pipe is perforated. The top is concreted together with the suction pipe.

d. Unprotected Boreholes: They are similar in design to protected boreholes except that the top as well as the suction pipe are left uncovered and large enough to let a jar or small bucket go through.

e. Rain Water Tank: Usually used by individual tenants, to collect rain water from the roofs. These vary in sizes as there is no standard size. It is always advisable to have it covered after the collection.

f. Piped Water: Is usually supplied to households through pipes. The pipes are connected from the source to the individual's housing unit or a public place for a group of people.

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Chapter 3

Census procedures

[Omitted 3.1 Sticker]

[Omitted 3.2 Ethics and rules of conducting interviews]

[Omitted 3.2.2 Establishing a Good Relationship]

[Omitted 3.2.3 Using the Questionnaire]

[Omitted 3.2.4 Asking the Questions]

[Omitted 3.2.5 Instructions in the Questionnaire]

[Omitted 3.2.6 Probing]

[Omitted 3.2.7 Controlling the Interview]

[Omitted 3.2.8 Recording Responses]

[Omitted 3.2.9 Ending the Interview]

[Omitted 3.2.10 Summary Instructions]

3.3 Who should give the information

Although the head of each household (or the main respondent), will in most cases be able to give you most of the particulars about every member of his/her household, you should try to get th information about every adult person from himself/herself as far as possible. Do not ask a man to give information about his wife, or a wife to answer for her husband if they are both present. Adults should answer for themselves. if they are present. It is especially important that wherever possible the information on fertility, e.g. "Children Ever Born", etc. should be obtained directly from the females themselves. In the case of married females, you have to be tactful to ensure that it is the woman and not her husband who answers these questions about herself because husbands tend to be dominant if the interview is carried out with both.
If you are told that certain people spent the previous night with the household but are not present when you make your visit, where possible you should try to find out where they are with a view of cross-checking the information given about them. The particulars of such persons are to be collected as far as possible from the head of the household or the main respondent.

3.4 Who should be enumerated

Starting with the head of the household (whether present or absent), enumerate each and every person, whether visitor or resident who spent the night before the census date with the household you are enumerating. You should get all the relevant information on each of these people. After listing down the names of all the people who spent the night with the household, you should then ask for the names of the people who normally stay with the household but who did not spend the night with the household. Get the relevant information on each of these absent usual household members from the head of the household/main respondent.
You will generally not be able to complete the enumeration of all the people in your area in one day, and it may take as much as a week or even more, especially in rural areas. Make sure every time you visit a household you start by identifying the people who spent the night prior to the census date with the household. Occasionally, you may come across someone who says that he/she had already been enumerated elsewhere. In such a case, you still have to enumerate him/her again provided he/she spent the night prior to your visit with the household you are covering.

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Children born after sunrise on the day of enumeration or persons who arrive after sunrise should not be included among those who spent the night with the household.

Persons working night shifts but having normal places of residence like security guards and nurses. Those attending overnight funerals, those out for discos and other social functions during the night should be enumerated during the day at their normal places of residence and should be deemed to have spent the previous night at their residence. If such a person is not present at the time you visit the household make a call-back. Make sure such people are not reported as "Usual Members Absent"(3) on the household listing (Form A).

When you come across a household attending a funeral, allocate a Census Building Number and Housing Unit Number (CBN and HUN) and note in your note book to visit the household later. (Note that an enumerator will only be enumerated wherever he/she spent the previous night before census date). Name, sex, age and membership status should be asked on Form A.

3.5 What to do if people are not at home

Sometimes in the course of the enumeration, you may go to a Housing unit and find that there is nobody who can answer the questions which need to be answered. In such circumstances, do not paste a sticker on the door of the housing unit, but allocate the Census Number and note in your Note Book to re-visit the housing unit later when the people are expected to be at home. You should tell the neighbours that you will be coming back to that house and ask them to inform the occupants about the time of your next visit. In such cases, a visit early in the morning or late in the evening could be more fruitful. You may have to make up to three visits during the period of the Census if necessary.
There are three types of non-response you may come across, these are:-

a. Non-contact, i.e. when you fail to find the respondent even after repeated visits;

b. Refusal i.e. when the respondent just refuses to give you information; and

c. Partial non-response i.e. when you just get little or partial information about the household, say from neighbours.

In such cases, you are supposed to consult your Supervisor. Only after confirming the household a non-response case, should you shade the second box provided under interview status.

3.6 Institutional/collective living quarters

When you come across an Institution/Collective Living Quarters, for example a Prison or a rest house, you should first identify people regarded as the occupants. These should not include workers like Warders and their households in the case of a Prison, or hostel employees who just stay within the hostel premises for convenience, etc. These workers and their households should be treated as any other normal household. The main respondent for an Institution/Collective Living Quarter should be the person in charge, for example the Hotel Manager in the case of a Hotel, the Sister-in-Charge in Hospital Wards, or a more knowledgeable person. Management will also give information on the housing characteristics from H-1 to H-4 (Form A). You should not ask these people questions on household characteristics since these are household questions.

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Each structure belonging to an institution will be treated as a building and will each be assigned a separate CBN. In the case of large populations found in one building eg. hospitals or hotels. each ward or floor/section will have the the same CBN but different HUN.
Detailed instructions on how to complete the questionnaire are given in Chapters 4 and 5.

3.7 Handling and filling in the questionnaire

This section is aimed at bringing to your attention aspects that must be noted when handling and filling in the OMR Forms/Questionnaires. It is important that you become familiar with the issues regarding handling and correct filling in of responses.

Information processing in the world today involves handling huge volumes of data. This has prompted the world to improve on its data capturing methods in order to handle large volumes of data within a short period of time. The area of data capturing has seen the introduction of Optical Readers to quickly read data into the computer.

In the Census 2000, the Central Statistical Office (CSO) will use Optical Mark Readers (OMR) to capture data for the first time. It is important to sensitize all concerned parties on the use and
handling of these machine-readable Forms/Questionnaires. Unlike ordinary Forms/Questionnaires which have been used before for data collection, the OMR Forms/ Questionnaires need to be handled very carefully to reduce on the errors. It is anticipated that if these Forms are handled in the right manner, it would reduce on time spent on scanning/capturing the data which would ultimately result in data being processed within the desired time-frame.

3.7.1 Handling

In order to successfully achieve this new system, care must be taken when handling the OMR Forms/Questionnaires. The following measures must be taken into account in order for the OMR to be able to read all the information required correctly:

a. Do not Write Anything Else on the Form/Questionnaire: Any unnecessary mark no matter how small' may prevent the Form from being read and result in wrong data being captured.

b. Forms/Questionnaires should not be Folded: Do not fold the Forms/Questionnaires.
Always carry and keep them in the bags and folders provided.
c. Forms/Questionnaires should not be Crumpled or Creased: The
Forms/Questionnaires must be kept where they cannot be crumpled, smudged or folded at the edges. Creases or folds may prevent them from passing through the Optical Mark Reader.
d. Forms/Questionnaires should not be Stapled: Forms/Questionnaires should not be stapled together for any reason. Stapling of Forms/Questionnaires causes tearing by marking on the form.
e. Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Stored with Other Items: Avoid storing OMR forms/questionnaires with other items. The bags provided are meant to carry OMR forms/questionnaires only. Any other items should be carried separately.

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f. Avoid Giving Unauthorized Persons to Handle the Forms/Questionnaires: Ensure that only persons filling in the Forms/Questionnaires should be allowed to handle them at that time. Once they have finished filling in the Form/Questionnaire, all completed Forms/Questionnaires should be kept securely and separate from the blank ones.

g. The Forms/Questionnaires Should not be Handled with Wet or Oily Hands: Ensure that you have dry clean hands when handling Forms/Questionnaires. Ensure that any form of oils, dirt or sweat are wiped off hands before you handle the OMR forms.

h. The Forms/Questionnaires Must be Stored in a Clean Dry Place: Once the Forms/Questionnaires are soaked or damp it makes reading very difficult and at times the Forms/Questionnaires may not be read at all. You must ensure that the Forms/Questionnaires are kept dry and clean. They should not be exposed to water or any form of liquid.

3.7.2 Filling in the OMR Questionnaire

Before filling in the Form/Questionnaire, you are strongly advised to study the general pattern of the census questionnaire and understand the instructions:
Care must be taken when filling in the Form/Questionnaire to avoid shading boxes wrongly. To avoid wrong entry of responses, everyone should understand how the responses given by the respondents are to be recorded in the questionnaire.
The following instructions will help you to correctly fill in the form/questionnaire:

a. Use a well-sharpened HB pencil only to shade the responses.

b. Do not use ink, for anything written in ink will not be read by the computer.

The following features will appear in the questionnaire:

a. The question or the information title.

b. In certain cases, blank boxes or space to write the response.

c. Series of numbers or small box in front of a response. This is the provision for shading the appropriate response.

Note the following:

a. A column must not have more than one character shading e.g. where codes are used. shade one character per column. In cases of multiple responses you may shade more than one box fora question.

b. Shade the box completely and visibly. The shading should be confined within the small box provided for shading.

c. Use HB pencil only.

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d. Do not tick V. cross x or circle the space provided for shading.

e. Erase completely any wrong shading

3.8 Scanning

Forms will be scanned by enumeration area. Forms which are not correctly shaded or correctly handled will be rejected. After scanning, an error report will be generated for each enumeration area. The report is used to correct rejections and then the Forms are re-scanned. The error report shows which enumeration areas had the most rejections and causes of the rejections. The Enumerator with most mistakes will therefore be traced.

During field work, part of your allowances will be withheld and given upon successful completion of your work. This means that if the error rate for your sea is high, you shall not receive your withheld allowance.

3.9 Guidelines on distribution of census forms

The census questionnaire is in two parts: Form A and Form B. The two census forms have been packed in separate boxes clearly labelled form A and form B.
For ease of control of the forms used for an enumeration area, every area has been assigned forms within a specified range of bar code numbers.
You are advised to adhere to the following:

a. A province shall he assigned unique ranges of Form A and Form B.

[Omitted Example]

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b. An enumeration area shall be assigned unique ranges of form A and form B within the district.

[Omitted Example]

c. Forms shall be given out sequentially until exhausted. For instance an area with a total
of 3 enumeration areas and a total of 600 and 3,600 form A and form B respectively, will be treated as follows:
i. Enumeration area 1 will be assigned the first 200 Form As and the first 1,200
Form Bs.

ii. Enumeration area 2 will be assigned the second 200 Form As and the next 1.200
Form Bs.

iii. Enumeration area 3 will be assigned the last 200 Form As and the next 1.200
Form Bs.

Serial/numbers should never be out of sequence. Each enumerator shall till in the census forms sequentially in order of increasing serial numbers. For example, the enumerator will use the first Form A in the pad for HHN 01, the second Form A for the second household and so on until all households are enumerated.

Similarly, the enumerator will use the first Form B in the pad for the first member of a household, the second for the second member and so on until all members are exhausted in the household. Then he/she will move on to the next household.

3.10 Packaging of completed census forms by sea

After completing the enumeration of a household, the Census Form A and corresponding Bs will be stored together starting with Form A. This will be repeated for all completed households. At the end of enumeration, the forms will be sorted by household and handed over to the Supervisor. The Supervisor will then check the work and separate the Form As from the Form Bs.

All Form As for an enumeration area will be arranged on top of all the Form Bs of the enumeration area. They should be separated within an enumeration area.

3.11 What to do if you run out of questionnaires

Your Supervisors will give you questionnaires for your enumeration areas. Every evening collect sufficient questionnaires for a day's work so as not to run out of Forms in the middle of the day. Liaise with your Supervisor approximately how many forms you require per day.

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I however, should you run out of questionnaires, quickly inform your Supervisors who should immediately supply you with more.

3.12 Listing sheet

The purpose of a listing sheet is to list down all residential and non-residential buildings in an enumeration area. It gives an overview of the population as well as the number of all buildings in an enumeration area. You will be required to list all the households you visit on this sheet. You will fill the listing sheet at the end of each household interview. Before you start listing, you should first write the Identification Particulars of the enumeration area, being Province, District, Constituency, Ward, Region, CSA and SEA.

You should then start by allocating households serial numbers; Census Building Number (CBN), which you will enter in the first column under 'CBN'. This number runs serially in your enumeration area and has three digits. So the first building you visit will be given 001, the next one 002, etc up to the very last building in your enumeration area. Next you should transcribe the Form A ID bar code number of each household. If a continuous sheet has been used, transcribe the Form A IDs from both Form As of that particular household. There is also provision made to write the name of the household head in case of a residential building. If the building is non-residential, indicate whether it is a church, school, etc. Where you come across vacant households, indicate "vacant" in the description category. Thereafter, the locality name should be written. Finally, the household members should be disaggregated. You should write the total number of usual members present and visitors. This information should be broken down by "Females" and "Males". The listing sheet will look like the one shown on page 26.

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[Omitted image of the listing sheet]

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Chapter 4

Form A - General Characteristics

4.1 Preliminary Steps

When you come to a structure, determine whether someone is using it as a residence. You must do this even if it looks as if the structure is not meant for habitational or residential purposes because people will be found to be living in offices, garages, petrol stations, barns, railway signal control stations, railway and bus stations, lorry parks, under stalls in market places, under bridges, storage sheds, shops and many odd places. Security Guards and caretakers who live within the premises where they work will be enumerated there. You will enumerate every person in your enumeration area at the housing unit where he/she spent the night before the census date. As for people who work during the night but have usual places of residence, their case has already been explained to you in Section 3.4.

When you get to a housing unit, introduce yourself to whoever meets you that you are a Census Officer and that you would like to meet the head of the household. If he/she is not at home find out if there is any knowledgeable adult person present. This person will be the main respondent for the household. Introduce yourself and explain the purpose of your visit. Information about persons below 12 years of age can be obtained from the main respondent but questions about each individual adult should, as far as possible, be directed to each such individual if they are present.

Find out how people in the housing unit/building are grouped for living purposes. Each of these groups of people or single persons as the case may be, will be defined in terms of a household (see Section 2.2). Each of these households will be enumerated on one separate questionnaire except when it is necessary to continue on additional questionnaires when the number of persons in a household or institution is more than fifteen (to be discussed in Section 4.9). Before starting to enumerate, enter the identification particulars on the front page of the questionnaire.

4.2 Questionnaire Identification

Write the name and code of the province in which you are operating in the space provided. You will then shade the appropriate code for the province. The province codes are given in Appendix 1.

4.2.1 District Name

Write the name and code of the district in which you are operating, in the space provided, then shade the appropriate code for the district. The district codes are given in Appendix 1.

4.2.2 Constituency

Write the code of the constituency in the space provided, then shade the appropriate code for the constituency. The constituency codes are given in Appendix 2. The map you shall use will also tell you the constituency you are working in.

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4.2.3 Ward

A ward is a political delineation of an area. There may be more than one locality in one ward. The map you are using contains ward boundaries. Write down the code of the ward in which the housing unit is located and shade appropriately. Refer to Appendix 3 for the list of codes.

4.2.4 Rural/Urban
Shade appropriately in the provided boxes for rural or urban, depending on the area in which you are operating. You will transfer this information from the map you are using onto the Form.

4.2.5 Census Supervisory Area (CSA)

Your supervisor will give you the number of the CSA in which your work area is located. This number is also given on the maps you are using. Write the number in the boxes provided and shade appropriately in the spaces provided.

4.2.6 Standard Enumeration Area (SEA)

This is the area allocated to you for enumeration. Your Supervisor will give you the SEA number. This number is also given on the map you are using. Write the SEA number in the space provided and shade appropriately.

4.2.7 Census Building Number (CBN)

Within your enumeration area you will give a unique serial number to each building as you continue to enumerate. This number will run serially in each Enumerator's area. The number will be in three digits starting with 001, followed by 002, 003 and so on. No two buildings in your enumeration area will have the same 'Census Building Number'. This number will be different from other types of numbers the building may already have, such as house number, plot number, stand number, flat number, etc. The idea is to make sure that all the buildings, and thus housing units in your area have been covered. This will help you, your Supervisor, and anybody else who will be interested in checking on your progress and completeness of coverage. Write the CBN in the space provided and shade appropriately.

4.2.8 Housing Unit Number (HUN)

Each housing unit will be given a number within the building. This number will be in two digits. The first housing unit within any particular building should be given number 01, the second one 02, and so on. Structures not intended for habitation but actually being used as living quarters at the time of the Census are to be allocated appropriate housing unit numbers.

[Omitted Examples]

4.2.9 Household Number (HHN)
Each household within a housing unit will be given a one-digit serial number - 1,2,3, etc. If the housing unit is vacant write '0' and then shade the appropriate space. This will indicate that no one was living there at the time of enumeration. You will then get the housing particulars for the housing unit. If the Housing Unit is occupied, but you do not contact any household member at that particular housing unit, leave the column for HHN blank. For a non residential building, record zero for HiIN and shade accordingly.

4.3 Area Identification

4.3.1 Village/Locality

In the case of urban areas, enter here the name of the area, compound or township in which this house is located, e.g. Kansenshi, Chelston, Chipata Compound, Chilenje South, etc. In the case of rural areas, write the name of the village/locality.

4.3.2 Residential Address

Residential Address is the information that describes the place in such a manner that a person may be able to reach it by this reference. This will include the name or number of street and the location of this particular building on this street. It will also include house/flat number that the house already has, plot or stand number, or the name of the building if it is commonly known by that name. For example Flat No. 2, Fife Court, Plot 712, Mwalule Road, Longacres. In rural areas, name of a village/locality will suffice.

4.3.3 Chief's Area

This information is for the area you are operating in. You should confirm with the respondent the name of the Chief for the area. You could come across people who pay allegiance to different chiefs in your area. What you are supposed to indicate is the Chief of the area. The name should be one of the names given in Appendix 5 of the list of the Chiefs for the district. If you are enumerating an urban area, do not record anything in the spaces provided and therefore, do not shade any code. If you come across an area where there is no chief, treat this area like an urban case.

If the name given for a chief is different or does not appear on the list, probe to find out if there has been any change in the names. If there has not been any change inform your supervisor about it. Shade the appropriate code from Appendix 5.

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Census maps do not show the boundaries of chiefs areas, therefore for the Central Statistical Office to correctly allocate people according to "Chiefs' Areas", you should be very careful when getting this information.

4.4 Residential status

This includes Collective Living Quarters. The Institutions/Collective Living Quarters are as follows:-

a. Hotel/Motel.
b. Hostel/Rek House.
c. Hospital.
d. Learning Institution.
e. Prison/Police Cells.
f. Other.
g. Not Applicable.

Shade the appropriate space under institutional collective quarter. In case of a normal housing unit, shade the space for Not Applicable.

4.5 Interview status

Check the appropriate category as indicated below and shade the appropriate code.

a. Interview Completed (Occupied): You will pick this category if the housing units are occupied and you have enumerated the households. Shade the space provided.

b. Non-Contact (Occupied): You will pick this category after making sure that the house is occupied, but that you cannot find anybody at home throughout your three visits during the Census period. Shade the space provided.

c. Not-Interviewed (Vacant): You will pick this category after making sure that the house is vacant throughout your three visits during the Census period. Shade the space provided.

d. Non-Residential: In case of a building which is not a housing unit, pick this category and shade the space provided.

4.6 Summary count

The summary count includes the defacto population i.e. usual members present and visitors. Enter the total number of people listed in the household listing as, "Usual Members Present and Visitors". The total has to be further broken down into "Male" and "Female" and entered under these categories. You should therefore ignore "Usual Members Absent". These must not be entered under the Summary Count. If a continuation sheet is used, the summary count should include 'usual members present and visitors' listed on both sheets.

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4.7 Assignment record

Write your full name in the space provided. Then enter the date on which you complete the interview. You should do this for each questionnaire you complete.

4.8 Household listing

In the household listing, record all household members starting with the head of the household. The household listing has enough space for 15 persons. If a household has more than 15 persons, use a continuation sheet (to be discussed in Item 4.9). This information will not be collected for people in institutions.

4.8.1 Serial Number

Each household member will be given a serial number. In the serial number column, shade the number against the full name for every person entered.

4.8.2 Full Names

In this column, write the full names (i.e. first name and surname) of the persons you are enumerating. Start with the name of the head of the household whether or not he/she spent the previous night with the household. Continue with the names of all members of the household, followed by all visitors who spent the previous night with the household. Lastly, ask the main respondent, who may or may not be the head of the household, for the names of all the usual members of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household.
In order to be systematic, you should follow some kind of order. So write the name of the spouse of the head of the household after that of the head, followed by the names of their unmarried children, married children and their families and, lastly, those of other relatives and the non-relatives, in that order. In case the head of household has more than one wife living as one household, enter first the name of the first wife then her children, and then the next wife and her children and so on.
If you find that there is not enough space to write the full names (first and surname) of the person, enter only the name by which that person is commonly known. For babies who have not yet been given a name, write 'baby' followed by the surname, eg Baby Mwanza.

4.8.3 Sex

Shade the appropriate space for the sex of the household members. 4.8.4 Age
In the household listing, age is in broad age groups categorised as less than 16,18 and 18+. These refer to age groups 0-15, 16-17 and 18 years and above. Shade the appropriate space for the age of the household members.

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4.8.5 Membership Status

There are three categories to this status:

1. Usual member of the household who spent the previous night with the household;

2. Visitor who spent the night with the household; and

3. Usual member of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household.

Remember, the names of the persons are supposed to be written following the same order as that followed by the categories in membership status, that is, category 1 first, then category 2, the visitors, and lastly category 3, the usual members temporarily absent, except for the head of household who has to be entered first irrespective of whether or not he/she spent the previous night with the household.

4.8.6 Household Head - Form B I.D.

This is used as a link from Form A to Form B (s) for the purpose of identifying the household members linked to a particular Form A.
Fill in the bar code number carefully from Form B (General characteristics Questionnaire) for the head of the household and shade the number accordingly.
[Omitted Examples]

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4.9 Supplementary/continuation sheet

This is used for identifying continuation sheets for the household. Households with more than
15 members will require additional sheet(s) to list the rest of the household members.
Ideally, one questionnaire will be used for each household even if there is only one person in that household. However, there will be cases where more than one questionnaire will be used for one household.

Each main questionnaire has space for entering information for fifteen (15) persons. You will use as many lines as the number of persons in that household. The remaining lines will be left blank. However, if a household has more than fifteen (15) persons, then you will need additional space. In such a case, use one questionnaire for the first fifteen (15) persons and continuation sheets for more persons. In case there are many persons, you will continue using continuation sheets until the whole household or institution has been enumerated. In order to show that you have used continuation sheets (questionnaire (s)) for the household or institution, you should shade the appropriate boxes on the bottom right of the main questionnaire as demonstrated below. For example, if you use a total of 3 continuation sheets, shade the first box on the first continuation sheet, the second box on the second sheet and the third box on the third continuation sheet as shown below:

You will then transcribe all the identification particulars from the first questionnaire onto all the continuation sheets for the household.

4.10 Housing characteristics

In this Section we are interested in collecting information on housing units.
A building may have several housing units and therefore particulars of each housing unit will be collected separately from the other even though these may be similar.

If a building is earmarked for demolition, but is standing intact and is occupied at the time of your visit, then you are to consider this as a standing building and you must collect housing particulars on each housing unit within this building.

If someone is living in a part of an incomplete building, i.e. building under construction, consider the occupied part of the building as a housing unit and collect the necessary information about it.
Remember that if there is more than one housing unit in building, collect information from each housing unit. For this exercise, a complete house is one which has a roof, walls and a floor.

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In some parts of Zambia it is customary to abandon a standing house/hut if a death occurred in that house/hut. Since for all practical purposes this particular house will never be used, it is as good as already demolished. Do not collect information about this house/hut and treat it as if it was not there. In case only one hut out of a group of huts forming one housing unit has been abandoned hut other huts are being used for living, then ignore the abandoned hut but collect the information about the remaining huts.

H1: Type of Housing Unit
In this question we are interested in knowing the different types of housing units such as traditional structures, mixed structures, mobile, conventional and improvised structures etc. Shade the appropriate code.

H2: Type of Roofing Material
You can easily identify the type of roof the housing unit has. In case it is not very obvious or if in doubt ask the respondent. Shade the appropriate code.

H3: What are the walls of this housing unit made of?
Generally the walls are plastered both inside and outside. If you are not able to tell, ask the respondent. Shade the appropriate code.

H4: What Is The Floor Of This Housing Unit Made Of?
Just like in H - 3 above, the respondent may be of assistance in this question. However, if it is quite obvious to you, Shade the appropriate code.

H5: Occupancy
Find out how many households are living in the housing unit and shade appropriately.

Single Household: A Single Household means that only one household is occupying one housing unit.

One Household in Several Housing Units: This is when the one household is occupying more than one housing unit.

Shared Household: This refers to a situation where you find more than one household occupying one housing unit, which is actually intended to house just one household. Shade the appropriate code indicating the number of households sharing the housing unit.

Note that if: Either Single household or one household in several housing units is given as a response to H-5, Go to H-7. Shared is given as a response to 1 H-5, Go to H-6.

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Either vacant, noncontact or non-residential is given as a response to H-5, end the interview.

H6 Number of Households Sharing
Find out how many households share a particular unit (if it is shared) and shade appropriately –

H7: How many living rooms and bedrooms does this housing unit have?
A room is defined as a space in a housing unit enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering at least a height of two meters, of a size large enough to fit a bed for an adult. A hut meeting these two qualifications will also be treated as a room. Normally, bedrooms and living rooms will be included in this definition. Passage ways, verandahs, lobbies, kitchens, bathrooms and toilet rooms are not counted as rooms even if they meet the criteria. A garage and a store meeting these requirements should be treated as rooms only if these are actually being used for living purposes at the time of enumeration. Find out the number of living rooms and bedrooms in the housing unit and shade the appropriate figures provided. If you come across a bedsitter, treat it as a bedroom as opposed to a living room.
Study and drawing rooms, living or family rooms, play rooms, etc. are to be considered as living rooms or bed rooms depending on the use and if they meet the above criteria.

H8: Does this housing unit have a kitchen?
A kitchen is a space which conforms in all respects to a 'room' and is equipped for the preparation of meals and is intended primarily for that purpose. In cases where more than one household share a kitchen attach the kitchen to only one of them. Shade appropriately.

H9: What is the main source of water supply for this housing unit?
Find out the main source of water for drinking and cooking for the household and shade the appropriate code.

4.11 Household characteristics

HH1: What is the main source of energy used for lighting by this household?

Ask for the main source of energy used by the household for lighting. Since availability of energy for lighting is what is to be determined, even if a housing unit has the necessary wiring but is not connected to the electric supply system, the household will not be considered to be using electricity. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided.

HH2: What is the main source of energy used for cooking by this household?

It is the main source of energy used for cooking we are interested in. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided.

HH3: What is the main source of energy used for heating by this household?

It is the main source of energy used for heating we are interested in. Note that "heating" in this case does not refer to heating/warming food or water but to heat a room. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided.

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HH4: How is the household refuse disposed?

Find out how the household disposes its refuse and shade the appropriate response.

HH5: Does your household have?

Find out whether the household has any of the listed items and shade appropriately.

HH6: What is the main type of toilet used by members of this household?

Everybody uses a toilet of some sort and we are interested in the type of toilet used by members of the household. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided. If the household has no toilet facility, or uses "other" toilet facility, do not ask HH-7. Instead, go to HH-9.

HH7: Is this toilet inside or outside this housing unit?

Find out whether the toilet is inside the housing unit or outside. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided depending on the response given.

HH8: Is this toilet exclusively used by members of this household?

Ask the respondent if this toilet is shared with members of other households. Shade the appropriate code in the box provided depending on the response given.

HH9: Is this housing unit owned by any member of this household?

Ask the respondent if this housing unit is owned by any member or members of the household. If the response is "Yes", ask the respondent question HH-10, if the response is "No", skip question

HH10 and go to HH11.

HH10: How was this housing unit acquired?

If the response to HH - 9 is "Yes", then ask how this housing unit was acquired. Then shade the appropriate code in the box provided depending on the response given. For any response to this question, skip to A 1.

HH11: Is this housing unit provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member of this household?

If the response to HH-9 is "No", that is, if the housing unit is not owned by any member of the household, then find out if the housing unit is provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member(s) of the household. If the housing unit is provided by the employer, it may or may not involve payment of rent as sometimes employers charge full rent, sometimes a nominal rent and sometimes no rent at all. If the employer deducts any amount of money from the salary of any member of the household for rent, then the housing unit is not provided free.
When an employer provides a housing unit then it is not necessary to find out whether or not the employer is also the owner of that house/hot sing unit. For example, the housing unit may be owned by a private landlord but rented by a company which has provided this housing unit to its employee. As far as this household is concerned, the housing unit has been provided free by the employer.

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If the housing unit is provided free by the employer then skip question HH - 12 and go to HH -13 since HH - 12 would not be relevant to such a household. If the response is "Yes", by friend or relative skip to A 1. If the response is "No", then you ask the next question. In either case, shade the appropriate code in the box provided.

HH12: Is this housing unit rented from the employer of any member of this household?

Find out if the housing unit is rented from the employer of any of the household members. If the response is "Yes" shade the first box. If the response is "No" shade the second box and go to HH14.

HH13: Is the Employer

Ask the respondent who the employer is and shade the appropriate code. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is "An Individual". Go to Al for all the responses to this question.

HH14: Is this Housing Unit Rented From....?

This question is asked of households who responded "No" in HH - 12, that is those who replied that the housing unit .s not rented from the employer of any member of the household. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is "An Individual". After getting the response, shade the appropriate code.

4.12 Agriculture

In this section we would like to know whether the household is engaged in any agricultural activity i.e. crop growing, livestock or poultry raising, or fish farming.

Agricultural Household is a household in which at least one member is carrying out some agricultural activity on the holding belonging to the household, and/or horticultural farming agricultural Activity is the growing of any crop and/or raising of livestock and/or raising of poultry and/or fish farming.

Holding refers to land wholly or partly operated for agricultural purposes such as growing crops and/or raising livestock and/or raising poultry for production under a single technical management.

Livestock include cattle, pigs, goats, sheep and donkeys.

Poultry includes chickens, ducks, geese, pigeons, guinea fowls, rabbits and turkeys.

Zambia's agricultural season extends from 1st October of one year to 30th September of the following year.

A1: Find out from the respondent whether the household was engaged in any of the listed agricultural activities since 1st October 1999
(Remember horticultural farming should be regarded to be crop growing and should follow under other crops)

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A2 Find out from the respondent whether they grew any of the listed crops on their holding during the 1999/2000 agricultural season.

A3 Ask the respondent whether any member of the household raised any of the listed livestock/poultry on the holding since 1" October 1999.
(Remember raising here means keeping of animals on the holding regardless of ownership)

A4 Find out from the respondent whether the household was engaged in fish farming on the holding since 1" October 1999.
(Remember fish farming is the raising of fish in fish ponds)

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Chapter 5

Form B - Individual Characteristics

The questionnaire, (Form B) will be used to collect information for each person present the night before the census date (defacto population). As much as possible adults will answer the questions on Form B if they are present. In cases where they are not present and for children, the questions will be answered by the main respondent. For usual members absent, the main respondent will give you the information only up to P5 (age).

5.1 Demographic Characteristics

5.1.1 Full Name

Fill in the full name of the person you are collecting information for as indicated in the household schedule.

5.1.2 Serial Number

This shows what number the individual is on the household listing on Form A; eg since the household head will always be listed first on the household listing, his/her serial number will be 1. Therefore, I will be shaded for serial number. For the person who is second on the household listing. 2 will be shaded.
If a continuation sheet is used, the individual who is listed first on the continuation sheet will also have 1 shaded for his/her serial number.

P1: Form A- ID

This is used to identify which household the individual belongs to. Fill in the bar code from Form A on to the Form Bs of respective household members. This means that all members of one household on one Form A will have the same Form A ID, i.e., if a continuation sheet is used, all household members listed on the original Form A will have the same Form A ID (as on the original Form A) while those listed on the second Form A will also have the same Form A ID (as on the continuation sheet).
A bar code on Form A would look like this.

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5.1.3 Continuation sheet number
This is used to show individuals listed on a continuation sheet. If a continuation sheet is used, persons listed on the second Form A will have 2 shaded on their Form Bs under this column. Those who are listed on the third Form will have 3 shaded on their Form Bs and so on. This column will remain blank for persons listed on the first Form A. It will, therefore, differentiate the household head from the other persons with serial number 1 in that household, since this column will be blank for the household head while it will be shaded 2 or 3 up to 6 depending on which continuation sheet the other individuals are listed.

P2: Membership Status

There are three categories to this status:

1. Usual member of the household who spent the previous night with the household;

2. Visitor who spent the night with the household; and

3. Usual member of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household.

In this column, shade the appropriate space for each individual depending on his/her membership status.

P3: Relationship
Find out the relationship of the person to the head of the household and shade the appropriate space. Other relatives will cover relationship by blood, marriage, adoption, etc.

P4: Sex

Shade the appropriate space for sex. Take particular care to record the correct sex of young children. In some cases you will not be able to tell whether a baby is male or female. You should ascertain what the sex of the child is. Ask if you are not sure. The name or appearance may not reflect the sex of a child.

P5 Age

Age is a very important personal characteristic that we are concerned with in the Census. Two columns are provided for entering the age. For all those persons who are one year old or older, the age will be recorded in completed years and '00' will be recorded for babies less than a year.
The age will be entered in two digits, 01, 02, 09, 10, 11,.....'89. For those who are 90 years and
older. 9 and 0 will be shaded.

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[Omitted Examples]

Where there may be some doubt, ages of children can be reasonably estimated by looking at them and comparing them to other children of known ages in the household.
Some people will, however, not know their ages. In such cases you will have to estimate their ages. Ask such a person how long they have been living in the area, about what time in their life they came here, what they did then, for how long, how old they were when they left their parents' home, etc. In this manner, you can build their life history. It is also possible to determine their age by referring to some historical events that they may remember, e.g., how old they were when the Lusaka-Mongu Road was built by the Chinese, or when the name of Feira Boma was changed to Luangwa, or when a certain Chief died, or when Katima Mulilo Pontoon disaster occurred, or when Mufulira Mine disaster occurred or when Zambia became independent, etc. Such historical .vents are meant to help a respondent remember how old they may have been when they were occurring. Do not rely completely on a single event. You should also check this with a later event.

If you have already ascertained the age of some other members of the household or of a neighbour, this may be of considerable help in determining the ages of other members of the household. For example, if you have estimated that the eldest child of the head of the household is 12 years old, you may be able to determine the ages of the other children by finding out how many years elapsed between the births of the different children.

[Omitted Examples]

This question on age will be the last one to be asked of all persons who are usual members of a household, but absent at the time of enumeration (P5).

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5.2 Migration for all persons

One of the characteristics of a human being is the tendency to move. There are many and varied reasons why people move. We shall only consider movements which result in crossing administrative boundaries as "Migration", that is, only if a person has moved from one district to another.

P6: Where was born? (Birth Place)

In this question, "Place" refers to district for cases within Zambia, or country for cases outside Zambia whether the person is Zambian or not. For persons born in Zambia, write the district of birth and then shade the appropriate space. The district codes are provided in Appendix 1. Some people may not know the name of the district in which they where born, but they generally know the name of the Chief s area. In such cases you should write out Chiefs area and then later on refer to the list of Chiefs by districts in Appendix 5, and find out which district the Chief belongs to. In case the person was born outside Zambia, write the name of the country in which he/she was born. Then write the name of the country, its code and shade the appropriate country code in the space provided. The country codes are given in Appendix 6. Do not write the name of the district of a foreign country.

5.2.1 Rural/Urban

Find out whether the part of the district in which the person w born was a rural or urban area at the time of his/her birth. Shade the appropriate space. The list of urban areas and townships is given in Appendix 4. In case of a foreign country, shade the box for "Not Applicable".

P7: What is [the respondent's] country of citizenship?

Write the name of the country of which the person is a citizen in the space provided. Then enter the country code in the appropriate boxes. A list of countries and their respective codes is given in Appendix 6.

P8: Purpose of stay (non - Zambians only): What is your purpose of stay in Zambia?

People come to Zambia for various reasons. Among them are seeking refuge/asylum. A refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of origin due to civil conflict and cannot be given protection of his/her own government. An asylum seeker could be regarded the same as a refugee, but the difference is that an asylum seeker is a person who has made his/her intentions known to the government but has not yet been granted refugee status. Shade the appropriate space for the purpose of stay.

P9: What is your Religion?

Shade the appropriate space for religion.

P10: How Long Has Been Continuously Living in this District? (District of Enumeration)

A person can live in the same district from bi' th without moving. Others may move from district to district, changing residence over time. Fot those who move, it is possible to keep coming back to the same district. What we are interested in is the length of their present unbroken or continuous residence in this district. Enter the number of completed years in the first two boxes

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and the number of months in the next two. For those who have not completed a month yet, enter 00 in the boxes for months and 00 in the boxes for years.

[Omitted Examples]

P11: Where was [the respondent] staying in August last Year?

In this question you are to ask the respondent his/her place (district) of residence 12 months ago and whether that place was an urban or a rural area. This is not over the duration of the last 12 months; rather it is about this time 12 months back, i.e in August last year.
Write the name of the district in which this person was residing 12 months ago and then shade the appropriate code in the boxes provided. This can either be the district where he/she is now residing or another district. In case the person lived outside Zambia 12 months ago, write the name of the country where he/she was residing at that time and then enter the appropriate country code. For infants born less than 12 months ago, shade 888 in the boxes. If a person is not sure of the district, then ask him/her the name of the Chief in whose area he/she was living. From this information you can find out the name of the district (see Appendix 5).
Find out if the place where the person was living 12 months ago was a rural or an urban area. Shade the appropriate space for rural and urban areas. The list of urban areas and townships is given in Appendix 4. For infants born less than 12 months ago and for those who were living outside Zambia at that time, shade the space for Not Applicable (N/A).

5.3 Ethnicity and Language

P12: Ethnicity

This question refers to the Tribal-Group the person belongs to. It is an easy question but can be misunderstood. If a person says his/her parents belong to two different tribes, ask which one he/she identifies himself/herself with. In the case of some Zambians (such as those of Asian origin) and Non-Zambians, write the major racial group to which the person belongs, i.e African, American, Asian or European, then shade the appropriate space.

P13: What is [the respondent's] predominant language of communication?

You are required to find out the predominant language the person uses most frequently for his/her day-to-day communication with his/her neighbours, at factory, in office, in market places, etc. Note that it is not necessary that a person may be able to read and/or write in this language. For babies who have not yet started talking, or for the deaf and dumb, write code 88 for Not Applicable and shade appropriately.

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P14: What is [the respondent's] Second Language of Communication?

You are now required to find out the second language the person uses. As in P13, note that it is not necessary that a person may be able to read and/or write in this language.
Some people have only one language of communication. In that case, put a dash' (-) in the box provided, write 88 in the boxes that follow and then shade 88 in the shading spaces.

5.4 Disability

You are about to start a rather sensitive topic. Prepare the respondent by telling him/her that you are now going to start asking questions on disability.
A person with a disability is defined as a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he or she can do because of the ongoing difficulties due to a long term physical condition, mental condition or health problem. Short term disabilities due to temporary conditions such as broken legs and illness are excluded. Only disabilities lasting for more than six months should be included.

P15 Are You Disabled in any Way?
Find out whether this person is disabled and shade appropriately. If the respondent is not disabled, skip to P18.

P16 What is Your Disability?
Find out what disability the person has and shade appropriately. Also note that a person may have more than one disability. Shade all disabilities reported.

5.4.1 Types of Disability

a. Blind: Complete loss of sight.

b. Partially Sighted: Loss of one eye or poor sight but does not mean complete blindness.

c. Deaf: Complete loss of sense of hearing.

d. Hard of Hearing: Partial loss of sense of hearing, and not complete loss of sense of hearing.

e. Mentally Ill: Psychological disorder related to the individual's mental state or state of mind.

f. Ex-mental: Any person that has suffered from mental disorder before but is now rehabilitated/or medically treated/or is undergoing rehabilitation.
g. Mentally Retarded: Any individual that is either very slow to learn or has deficiency of mental intellect (slow in grasping things, difficulties in remembering things, very slow at responding).

h. Physically Handicapped: Any person with a physical abnormality relating to the loss of bodily limbs or any deformity in the bodily stature, eg, the epileptics and lepers.

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5.4.2 Causes of Disability

P-17 What is the cause of this disability?
Ask for the cause of the reported disability/ies and shade accordingly. Causes of disability are categorised as follows:

a. Congential/prenatal - these are disabilities which one is born with.
b. Disease/illness e.g. polio. leprosy. cataract.
c. Injury accidents/trauma e.g. road accidents. injuries from accidental falls, fire etc.
d. Other. eg. unsuccessful medical operation. witchcraft, wrongful application of traditional and conventional medicine.
e. Unknown

5.5 Education: for all persons 5 years and older

P18 Can [the respondent] read and write in any language?

Ask if the person can read and write in any language (local languages included) then shade appropriately.

P19: Does [the respondent] go to any institution of learning?

Under this question you are to record the present status of school or college attendance of each person. Shade the appropriate space.
Since the census will he held during a period when many schools and colleges will be closed for holidays. for those still attending school the word 'attending' will be taken to mean that the person attended school during the last term and intends to do so in the next term also. Note that:-

a. Students attending vocational training including teacher training should be considered as persons attending full-time.
b. Apprentices in factories or workshops should not be shown as full - time students. Shade the fourth space provided.
c. Persons attending night school should he shown as part - time students.
d. People engaged in correspondence studies are not full time or part time students. Shade the third space for correspondence.

P20: Did the respondent previously go to any institution of learning?
This question is for persons who answered "No" under P-19. Since we have established that they are not attending any institution of learning at present, we are interested to know whether they did so previously.

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P21: What highest level of academic education has [the respondent] completed?

Under highest academic educational level completed, write the highest educational level completed by each person who has ever attended an educational institution (including correspondence schools). Shade the appropriate figures for the highest level completed whether a person is still attending full time or part-time or has attended previously and is not attending now. The codes are given below and in Appendix 8. For children attending nursery school and those currently in Grade 1, their academic qualification completed is 00. For persons who were educated outside Zambia, indicate the appropriate Zambian equivalent of the level reached.

[Omitted Examples]

[Omitted: Conversion of pre 1956 system of school standards, grades and forms]

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The level completed is the qualification or attendance (i.e. degree, diploma, certificate. etc.) that an individual has acquired, whether by full-time study, part-time study or private study whether conferred in the home country or abroad, and whether conferred by educational authorities, special examining bodies or professional bodies. The acquisition of an educational qualification, therefore, implies the successful completion of a course of study.

P22: What Highest Professional/Vocational Education Has Completed?

All professional or vocational education will be recorded under this column. Find out the highest professional or vocational education the respondent has completed and what level. The levels are:

a. Certificate.
b. Diploma.
c. Degree and above (Bachelors, Masters. Doctorate, etc.).
d. None.

Write the field of study and enter code from the list of supplied educational programmes in Appendix 9. Shade the appropriate level.
For students currently attending school and those not attending school write none, enter and shade Code '88'.

[Omitted Examples]

5.6 Economic activity: for persons 12 years and older

In this section, we want to find out whether a person is working or not and, if working, then what type of work he or she is doing. For those who are not working, we would like to know whether or not a person is seeking work or interested in getting work or whether a person is engaged or-involved in some other activity such that he or she is not available or interested in doing work

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of any economic kind. These questions are to be asked only of persons who are at least 12 years old on the day of enumeration. The persons who are 12 years and older can be divided into two categories:

a. Those working, or not working but interested in work (Labour Force); and
b. Those neither interested nor available for work (not in Labour Force).

Those who are in the labour force can be further classified as below:

a. Working or work assured but not yet started work.
b. Not working:
i. Able to work and actively seeking work; and
ii. Able to and interested in work though not actively seeking work.

Those who are not in labour force will include the following categories of persons:

a. Mainly looking after own household duties (housewives/homemakers), not persons who
help with household chores or looking after children;
b. Full-time students;
c. Not able to work (disabled, too old, invalids);
d. Pensioners (only those solely living on pensions);
e. Persons living only on rental incomes, past savings, interest, inheritance gambling income, etc.; and
f. Others, who are neither interested nor available for work, such as beggars, vagrants, prisoners, etc.

5.6.1 Working For Pay or Profit

We define a person as working if he or she performed some work for pay or profit. Payment may be either in cash, in the form of goods or services or in any combination of these.
Examples:

a. A person employed by someone on fixed monthly income or weekly or daily wages.
b. A person who is paid by an employer on the basis of piece work.
c. A person running his/her own business such as a marketeer, a hawker, a cobbler, a tinsmith, a bottle-store operator, a grocery/store owner, etc.
d. Two (or more) partners running a business.
e. A farmer who tills his/her own farm, with or without the help of other persons.
f. A farm labourer who is paid partly in cash and partly in terms of farm produce.
g. A person who works in a hotel and gets his wages partly in cash and partly in terms of board and lodging.
h. Some students manage to find a job during school holidays and might be working during the reference period. These should be classified as working.
Persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind but were:
i. Prevented from working by temporary illness, bad weather, industrial dispute such as a strike or a lock-out, on suspension and;

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j. All persons who had got a new job but had not yet reported for work, are to be classified as working.

A person will be classified as working if he/she did any work for pay, profit, or family gain any time during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day. By 'preceding week' we mean seven days immediately before the day of enumeration.
For people in agricultural and allied operations the following activities will constitute work during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day:

a. Agriculture: Growing of crops, fruits and vegetables, and raising of poultry and livestock.
b. Fishing and hunting.
c. Forestry: Collecting or cutting wood, charcoal burning, gathering of honey and beeswax
from trees, gathering of mushrooms, caterpillars, etc. and collecting wild fruits, etc for sale.

Persons (housewives/homemakers) doing only household duties of looking after their own families are not to be regarded as working. Therefore, do not include housewives/homemakets who do not have paid employment or who do not work regularly in a family business or on a family farm as working. However, if a housewife/homemaker is having paid employment or works on a family farm or a family business, he/she is then to be regarded as working. Similarly, a housewife/homemaker who looks after another family and is paid for his, her work in cash or kind is to be regarded as working.

5.6.2 Seasonality

There are instances when we find people engaged in seasonal work. Seasonal work refers to a seasonal activity such as tilling the land.

5.6.3 Worked - paid non seasonal

This refers to persons who, during the reference period, performed some work for a wage or salary, in cash or in kind. The work referred to in this category is not seasonal but done throughout the year.

5.6.4 Worked - unpaid non-seasonal

This refers to persons who, during the reference period, performed non seasonal work, without a wage or salary.

5.6.5 Worked - paid seasonal

This refers to persons who performed seasonal work for a wage or salary during the reference period.

5.6.6 Worked - unpaid seasonal

This refers to persons who performed seasonal work without a wage or salary.

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5.6.7 On Leave

This refers to persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind but were on paid or unpaid vacation or study leave.

5.6.8 Unpaid Work On Household Holding Or Business.

This refers to persons who worked without pay during the reference period on a household holding or business.

5.6.9 Unemployed and Seeking Work

This refers to persons who took steps to seek paid employment or self-employment during the reference period. This will include people who:

a. Registered at an employment exchange;
b. Went to possible employers to ask for a job;
c. Wrote a letter or applied for a job;
d. Asked friends, relatives, neighbours, etc. to help them find a job; and
e. Made any effort to start business e.g. opening a market stall or clearing a piece of land say for an agricultural activity.

5.6.10 Not Seeking Work But Available For Work

This refers to persons who were not working but would like to have a job. These persons are not sure that there is any job available, or who imagine that they are over qualified, or who just say "Where can I get employment?"

5.6.11 Full Time Housewife/Homemaker

This refers to persons who are engaged in household duties in their own home; and not persons who help with household chores or looking after children.

5.6.12 Full-Time Students

This refers to persons of either sex not classified as usually economically active who attended any regular educational institution, public or private. for systematic instruction at any level of education during the reference period. Also note that those who are on holiday at enumeration time but attend an educational institution regularly are to be recorded as full time students.

5.6.13 Not Available For Work For Other Reasons

This refers to people who were not seeking work and were not housewives or homemakers during the reference period. This includes those who are sick, disabled, retired and also those who may not want to work, beggars, prisoners, vagrants, gamblers, etc.

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P23: What Was Mainly Doing In The Last 7 Days?

Under this question you have to determine the economic activity category to which the person belongs. The reference period in this question is the last 7 days and all persons who will fall under categories 1, 2, 3, up to 8 will be treated as the currently economically active population (Labour Force), while those falling under categories 9, 10 and 11 will be treated as being outside the labour force.

P24: What Has Mainly Been Doing in the last 12 months?

Under this question the reference period is the last 12 months, thus, persons who will fall under these categories (i.e. worked paid non seasonal, worked unpaid non seasonal, worked paid seasonal, worked unpaid seasonal, on leave, unpaid work on a household holding or business and unemployed and seeking work) will be regarded as the "Usually Economically Active Population". The difference between P-23 and P-24 is the reference period.
Since this reference period of 12 months will be vital in capturing persons in agricultural and allied operations, the following examples are important in pinpointing such persons:-

a. Did you undertake any regular agricultural work on your own or your family's farm during this agricultural season?
b. Did you work as a farm-hand during this agricultural season?
c. Were you engaged for pay, profit or family gain mainly in fishing, hunting, charcoal burning, wood cutting, gathering mushroom or caterpillars, collecting wild fruits, etc. since 1999?

All those who answer 'Yes' to any of these questions will be considered as working and therefore, you should shade appropriately in the questionnaire.

All respondents who answer 'No" to any of these questions, that is, those who were not working. are not supposed to have any Employment Status, Occupation or Industry. Therefore, you are supposed to skip to P - 28 (Marital Status).

P25 Employment Status in the last 12 months

This question is to be asked only of those persons who were considered working in P-24. Shade the provided appropriate space.
By Employment Status we mean that a person is self-employed, employs others. is employed by someone or works on the family farm in the family business without actually being paid. All these terms are further explained below.
The Employment Status will be determined by the status of the person during the reference period. If a person worked on more than one job during the reference period, then the Employment Status of that person will be determined according to the job on which he/she spent more time. For example. if a person was employed in a garage as a mechanic for 7 months (as an employee), but drove his/her own car as a taxi driver (self-employed) for 5 months then he/she will be classified as an employee. If he/she was an employee in the garage for 6 months and drove the taxi for 6 months i.e. the time spent in different jobs being the same then you will determine his status on the basis of the job from which he/she received more income.

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5.6.16 Employer

An Employer is a person working on his/her own economic account or with one or few partners. He/she holds a self-employment job and in his/her capacity has engaged on a continuous basis. One or more persons to work for him/her as employees for pay, either in cash or in kind. For such a person, shade the first box for Employment Status (P-25).
Examples:

a. A farmer who employs a tractor driver, a farm hand, etc.
b. A carpenter who runs his own workshop and employs others as carpenters. helpers. etc.
c. A garage owner who employs mechanics in his workshop.
d. A shop owner who employs shop assistants, salesmen, stock attendants. truck drivers, cashiers, etc.
e. A butchery owner who employs others as butchers, cleaners, etc.
f. A factory owner who employs factory workers, a foreman, a manager, mechanics, an accountant, etc.
g. A taxi owner who employs drivers to run his taxis.
h. A cinema owner who employs other people to run the cinema, as gate-keepers, projectionist, cleaners, etc.
i. A restaurant owner who employs cooks, bar attendants, pick-up van driver, cashier, etc.
A person who is assisted by family members who are not paid any wages or salaries is not an employer as his/her family members are unpaid family workers. Such a person should be classified as self-employed. On the other hand, if a person pays wages or salaries to the family member(s) who runs their business, then he/she is an employer and the family member(s) will be classified as an employee(s).

Only those employing others to help run their business or farm will be classified as employers. Those employing domestic servants or security guards, etc., for looking after their household properties are not to be classified as employers unless they also employ someone for the sake of their business operations. Do not classify salaried managers of large companies which they do not own as employers. Similarly, personnel officers and other senior officials of companies, parastatal organisations and Government departments are themselves employees who get salaries. Since they do not own the companies, etc., they are not to be classified as employers.

5.6.17 Employee -Wage and Salary Earner

Shade the second box for persons who worked for others for a wage or salary which may be paid to them in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in\kind. Salesmen/salesladies who worked for commission are also to be classified as employees.

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Examples of Employees:

a. A shop assistant;
b. A bartender (not the bar owner);
c. A carpenter working for a contractor;
d. A miner;
e. A manager of a firm;
f. A mechanic working for pay in a garage;
g. All Government workers and employees of parastatal and private organisations from an Office Orderly right up to the Secretary to the Cabinet, Managing Directors, etc, are employees;
h. Ministers and other Members of Parliament having public funds as their main source of income will be considered as employees. Similarly, Chairperson of Service Commissions, and Chairperson of Parastatal Organisations will be treated as employees.

5.6.18 Self-Employed

Persons who are not working for others for a wage or salary but run their own businesses, factories, workshops, farms, and also do not employ others in their establishment are classified as self-employed. Ordinarily, such persons will have their own place of business and determine their own hours of work and work programme. These persons may do other people's work by fixing an hourly rate or on the basis of the job itself. These could be partners.
The fact that members of a person's household may assist him/her in his/her work without receiving any remuneration does not alter his/her employment status as 'self-employed' because he/she is not employing them. However, if he/she pays wages or a salary to any member of his/her household, in that case he/she is employing that member and this relationship (employer/employee) will then be recorded.
Examples of Self-employed Persons:

a. A subsistence farmer who does not employ outside labour on his/her farm except unpaid family workers.
b. The owner of a small family store run by him/herself.
c. A marketeer or a street vendor.
d. A car mechanic running a small repair business on his/her own.
e. The owner of a small tea-shop or kiosk which he/she runs him/herself or with the help of his/her (unpaid) family members.
f. A cobbler or a carpenter running a repairing business without the help of others.
g. A tailor doing his/her business with no outside helper.
h. A contractor doing odd job repairs on his/her own.

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5.6.19 Unpaid Family Worker

Shade the fourth box for persons who normally assist in the family business or farm, but do not receive any pay or profit for the work so performed.

P26 Occupation

Occupation refers to the type of work done during the reference period by the person employed irrespective of the industry or the status of employment in which the person should be classified.
For each worker, write the occupation during the reference period, then enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. The detailed list of occupations with their codes is given in Appendix 10. If a person was involved in two or more occupations at the same time, enter the occupation in which he/she spent the larger part of the working time.
Occupation should be given in clear terms to show what kind of work one did.

[Omitted Examples]

P27 Industry

Industry refers to the activity of the establishment in which an employed person worked during the reference period established for data on economic characteristics. For each worker, write the name of the industry in which he/she worked during the reference period. If he/she was employed in more than one industry, then enter the industry which relates to the occupation already recorded. If he/she had the same occupation in different industries, then write the current industry in which he/she working.

A person with a certain skill can work in any industry where the skills are required. In such a situation, industry classification will depend on the industry in which he/she is actually employed.

[Omitted Examples]

Many enterprises have several functions and in such a case, the industry should relate to the functions of the establishment where the respondent is closely associated.

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[Omitted Examples]

Write the category of Industry which a person is mostly associated with during the reference period.
Some difficulty may be experienced in identifying the industry of persons who move frequently from job to job or do odd jobs. Remember that what is wanted is the Industry of the current job, even if that job started only a day or two ago.
There is no Industry called "Service". For example, if someone is working as a Teacher/Lecturer he/she is in Education Industry. Such a person provides a service, but the Industry is not service. A retired Soldier employed as a Security Guard at Zambia Breweries is not in Security Services but working in a "Brewing Industry". But someone employed by Security Company e.g. Anderson Security, assigned to guard Zambia Breweries, is in "Security Services" (See Appendix 1 1 for a list of industries).

5.7 Marital Information

P28 What is your marital status?
This question will be asked of all persons 12 years and older. Please, shade the appropriate response.

5.7.1 Married

Marriage is any permanent living arrangement between a man and woman to live together. This includes church marriages, other religiously approved unions, civil registration at a Boma or other civil ceremony that has been performed, and the man and woman are living as husband/wife at present. These are to be recorded as married and the first box should be shaded.

5.7.2 Separated

A man or a woman who is separated, but not legally (Civil or Customary) divorced from his/her partner, and has no other wife/husband now. Shade the second box provided.

5.7.3 Divorced

A man/woman permanently separated from the spouse and has no other spouse now will be included under this category.

5.7.4 Widowed

A man or woman whose partner died and has no wife/husband at present.

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5.7.5 Never Married

Never married category refers to those who have never been in any marital union (marriage).

5.7.6 Living Together/Cohabiting

Living together or cohabiting category refers to a man and a woman living together as a married couple without any legal, customary or religious consent of the union. The dissolution of this union, therefore, does not require witnesses from the afore-mentioned authorities.

5.8 Fertility: for females 12 years and older

You are about to start a new topic so you have to prepare the respondent by informing her that you are now going to ask her questions about children and child bearing. Remember these are questions to be asked of female adults and not for husbands to answer for their wives, except where it is inevitable. Questions on fertility are to be asked only of those females who are 12 years and older and they involve only their own children.

P29: Live Births
This is a child who, after being delivered showed signs of life, like crying, movement by involuntary reflexes, etc. If a child never showed any of these actions when it was born, then it was not a live birth. Married females tend to leave out children from earlier marriages. These are also supposed to be included for all the questions. Shade first box for YES and the second for No. If the answer is NO, skip to Question P-33.

P30: Of The Children Born To You Alive How Many....?
The number of male and female children ever born alive to this female is to be recorded separately in three different categories. These are

a. Still living and still at home with the respondent (i.e staying in the same household with the respondent);
b. Still living but staying with some other households" e.g other relatives, married off, in institutions etc.; and
c. Those who have since died (regardless of whether the death took place just after or much later in life).

If a woman is visiting, then the question of "still living with you" should be asked with respect to her usual place of residence. That is about children she normally stays with. Enter the number of children as reported by sex in two digits e.g. if 1 male child is living with her shade 0 in the first column and I in the second column under male. If the answer is none, enter 00 and shade the 2 zeros in the two columns. Never leave a column blank.

P31: Did you have any Live Birth Since August, 1999?
This question is only asked to females 12-49 years of age. Do not ask this question to females 50 years and older since it will be embarrassing. Shade appropriately. The question is similar to P-29 except that this time we are trying to find out if the female had a live birth in the "last 12 months".

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P32 Of the Children Born to you alive?
The number of male and female children born alive to this female in the last 12 months is to he recorded separately in three different categories. These are:

a. Still living and still at home with the respondent (i.e staying in the same household with the respondent):
b. Still living but staying with some other households" e.g other relatives, in institutions
etc.: and
c. Those who have since died (regardless of whether the death took place just after or much later in life).

If a woman is visiting, then the question of "still living with you" should he asked with respect to her usual place of residence. That is about children she normally stays with. Enter the number of children as reported by sex in two digits e.g. if 1 male child is living with her shade 0 in the first column and I in the second column under male. If the answer is none. enter 00 and shade the 2 zeros in the two columns. Never leave a column blank.

5.9 National Registration and Electoral Questions

Questions in this section are to be asked to all persons 16 years and older. This is a new topic and you have to inform the respondent that you are now going to ask him/her about the national registration.

P33: Do you have a Zambian National Registration Card?
Find out whether the respondent has a Zambian National Registration Card. Note that the Registration cards referred to here at,: both the green and pink cards issued by the Zambian Government. Shade appropriately according to the response given.

P34: Are you a Registered Voter?
Find out whether the respondent is a registered voter. Note that the Registration Cards referred to here are both the green and pink card. Shade appropriately according to the response given.

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Chapter 6

Map interpretation and updating

6.0 Description of a map

A map shows part or all the earth's surface. Generally, it is a representation of what would be seen from some point above the surface of the ground. It attempts to give that appearance of a flat (plane) view of a particular area. It is a simplified representation of the real world; therefore not everything that exists in the real world is shown on a single map. Certain things are selected and emphasised; others are ignored, eliminated, or not emphasised.
Natural and man-made features found on the surface of the earth are represented on the map by symbols. The choice of features to be represented by symbols and the size of the area to be mapped depends on the purpose for which the map is prepared. For census maps the features and symbols used are there to help the enumerator identify locations where people reside and the boundaries of their work area. These maps are highly generalised.

6.1 Need for maps in censuses

To carry out a successful census there is need to have adequate and up-to-date maps. The main objective of the census is to provide data that are accurate, timely and useful. Maps are tools which help make this threefold objective attainable. For census enumeration, good maps are needed at the following stages of the census project;

a. Planning Operations: maps are needed to set up enumerators' assignments, estimate travel time and cost and establishing field offices (camping sites).When choosing a camping site the supervisor should ensure that such a site is accessible in terms of transportation and communication.
b. Data Collection: maps of appropriate size and detail are needed to assure complete coverage of an area without omission and duplication, determining the best route of travel to and within the enumeration area, measure distances and to enable the field staff locate an enumerator.

What this means therefore, is that without maps, there is risk of duplication or omission of areas covered in the census, thus leading to inaccurate results and wrong decisions by policy makers.

6.2 Types of maps used during census enumeration
Personnel involved in the field operations will use two types of maps; district master copies and standard enumeration area maps.

6.2.1 District Master Copies

This map will be used by the Master Trainer, Provincial Census Officers and the District Census Officers. This is a district map at a scale of 1:250,000 and gives a "bird's eye view" of the district as a whole. It shows major features such as roads, rivers, general terrain and other boundaries. Boundaries of individual Wards and Constituencies are shown on the map. It will assist the concerned officers to plan their routes of travel during supervision in the district.
With this map, the Master Trainer has a visual representation of the relative location of each of the wards and CSAs in his/her district. The Master Trainer can use this map to plan his/her travel

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route to observe the Supervisor and review their work, identify places that may be hard to reach, and provide him/her with any material needs.

6.2.2 Standard Enumeration Area Map

An SEA is a sub-division within the CSA which constitutes your work area as an enumerator. Details such as villages, rivers, churches, houses, schools, railway lines, buildings, etc., are clearly shown on the map. The map will assist you to locate the enumeration area, identify your starting point and plan the best route of travel during canvassing. This is important in case your Supervisor would like to reach you in an emergency. Ideally, SEA boundaries should be clearly identifiable both on the map and on the ground and are shown as black dotted lines on the map. You should know your boundaries very well so that you do not cross into another SEA as doing so will result in duplications and omissions which will in turn affect the accuracy of the Census results.

6.3 Map elements
Symbols, legend and scale are the three most important map elements that an enumerator needs to understand. Others are how to measure distance, orienting your map and the use of a north arrow.

6.3.1 Symbols and Legends

Symbols used on the map are used to indicate certain features on the ground such as structures and roads, characteristics of the land scape and administrative boundaries. These may be in form of figures, lines or colours. All symbols used on maps are explained in the legend or key. A legend or key is a list of conventional signs and symbols which are used to depict and locate man-made features (roads, buildings, etc.) and natural features (such as rivers, hills, etc.). Their use and choice depends on the purpose and scale of the map. Most linear features on the map are shown as lines eg rivers and boundaries while point features are usually represented as dots or in form of a symbol that resembles the feature eg a hut for a village.
Understanding map symbols is essential for identifying boundaries, planning travel and locating landmarks so as to keep within your work area. In a population census, it should be emphasised that as an enumerator you must visit every structure or place where people live in the SEA, whether or not the structure is shown on the map.

6.3.2 Use of Scale

The scale of a map is the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground. The scale enables the map user to translate distances between points on the map into corresponding distances on the ground. By using a scale, the census staff can determine distances required for field checking the maps and for conducting enumeration. A scale is often expressed as a ratio, i.e. 1:4 which means that "one unit of measurement on the map will represent four of the same units of measurement on the ground".

[Omitted Examples]

The most common scale you will be using during your enumeration is the Graphic Scale. This shows the relationship of the distance between two points on the map and the distance between the same two points on the ground by use of a bar or a line. The Graphic Scale is always indicated on your SEA map. This enables you to determine distances within your work area.

6.3.3 Measuring Distances

Field personnel are often required to measure distances so that you can estimate travel time, more importantly determine how far your area boundary extends. The paper strip method is a fairly simple technique to measure distances on the map. The graphic scale is subdivided into uniform measures of equal units and to use it the procedure is as follows:-

Let us suppose you want to measure the distance between villages A and B on your map. Take a straight edged piece of paper and lay it on the map so that the straight edge joins village A and B. On the paper strip, make a mark at village A and B. Place the paper just below the bar scale. The ground distance between village A and B can be read off from the scale.

In actual situations, roads and streets are not always straight. Therefore, to measure distance on curved roads the same procedure is followed and the distances between points on each leg (straight section) of the road are measured individually and then added to get the total distance. Read off the distance from the Graphic Scale. Start reading from the zero position and use the left side of the scale which is subdivided into smaller units for fractions of kilometres. Ordinarily, the enumerator can follow the direction and names of roads and streets and may not be concerned with distance. However, you will need to estimate distance when the SEA boundary lines are imaginary or when features have been added or have disappeared since the map was made. In all cases you must cover the land within the SEA lines as drawn on the SEA map.

6.3.4 Map Orientation

Upon arrival in the field you must orient yourself with respect to your map. Lay the map flat on the ground so that the whole map and legend is visible. Always begin orientation at a major street. road intersection or bridge that you can easily identify both on the ground and map. During orientation the map should be held in such a way that major features are lined up (or oriented) parallel with the ground features.

Always turn the maps in the direction in which you are travelling. You must turn the map each time you change directions so that features on the map are always lined up in their correct relationships to the actual features on the ground. This ensures that you do not miss important roads or boundaries.

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6.4.5 The North Arrow

In the field we locate the position of features in relation to each other in order to determine their direction. On the SEA map our reference system of direction and location is based on the North and South directions. These being the North and South poles. The North pole is also known as the Geographical North. On the SEA map you will find an arrow pointing in a certain direction. The direction to which this arrow points is the North. By locating the North on your map you know other cardinal points. South is opposite North, East to the right and West to the left.

6.5 Identifying a standard enumeration area

The most important feature of a SEA is the boundary. This will serve as a "fence" around your work area and will help you assure complete coverage. You should be able to recognise the boundaries and locate them accurately. In all cases the boundary is actually the middle of the street or road or any feature used as boundary; and as an enumerator you should not include houses or land on the side that is beyond the boundary.

However, most administrative boundaries are imaginary. Using the map scale and measuring distance technique the distance of the imaginary line from some recognised land marks should be used in such cases. If still in doubt about the boundary, the enumerator should check with a knowledgeable local official. Steps to locate an imaginary boundary are explained below:
Township boundaries at main routes are usually marked by signs that may read "WELCOME TO LUSAKA". If there are no signs marking imaginary boundaries, use the following procedure:

a. Determine the nearest landmark on the map which you can locate with certainty such as an intersection of two roads or a stream.
b. Using the graphic scale, determine the distance from the landmark to the boundary.
c. Use any available measuring device to determine actual ground location of the boundary from the landmark.

Your supervisor will show you the boundaries of your SEA before you start canvassing in your area. He/she will also assist you in choosing the best route of travel that will ensure convenience and minimize delay.
The following symbols have been used for administrative and CSA/SEA boundaries on the census maps.

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6.6 Canvassing techniques

Canvassing is a systematic search of an SEA one section at a time. It involves searching every block, street, road or lane for all places where people live or could live. A complete and systematic canvass of your area is essential to make certain that you locate every building and every housing unit in your work area. Designing your route of travel before you start work is very important. As an Enumerator, examine the area map carefully so that you develop a clear and efficient plan for canvassing. Your Supervisor will help plan your route. As far as possible, you should plan your travel to minimise "back tracking" (going back over the same road or streets). Always begin your canvass of your area at a starting point designated by your Supervisor. He/she will mark "X" or "Start" on your map at that point selected and will also indicate the direction of travel by directional arrows. However, he/she may not plan the entire route: it is up to you to plan a systematic route for the rest of the SEA from the starting point.
As an initial step divide the SEA into sections, if possible. In urban areas the SEA can be divided into blocks while in rural areas the section would follow roads, streams etc. If you are in an urban area, canvass a block or square at a time. Do not go back and forth cross streets. Begin each block at a convenient corner and proceed clockwise around the block until you reach your starting point. As you canvass in a clockwise direction, you should enumerate households on your right. Tick off each completed block on your map.

For rural areas you will have to canvas road by road. You should turn off from main roads to canvass every side of the road, path or lane, except when such is used as an SEA boundary, as you come to them as such roads/paths may lead you to places where people live. In rural areas there are many houses which cannot be seen from the road, and there may be no visible clues to indicate their location. Make it a practice to always ask about neighbours at each household, and find out exactly where they live (especially in rural areas). Ask the respondent to point out on your map the approximate locations of closest neighbours and other villages.
In rural SEAS, you may encounter obstacles to your planned route of travel. These obstacles may include natural features such as swamps, rivers, deep valleys or mountains. Most obstacles of this type are essentially permanent and may be shown on your census map. When planning your route of travel you should take into account such difficult areas and find the best way around them.

6.7 Map corrections
Maps of the SEA may be out-of-date, or may contain incorrect information about specific ground features. As an enumerator you are responsible for making corrections on your SEA map. Map correction is an important and basic part of your census job. The following are some of the cases that may need map updating:

a. Errors or Changes in Names: If you encounter an error in structure names, first verify that you have located the correct features on the map. If you have, then check with knowledgeable persons whether the feature (eg. street) has been renamed. If it has been renamed, cross out the name on the map and enter the new name accurately and legibly. The same applies to village names.
b. Features Existing on the Map but not Found on the Ground: You may find streets or landmarks on your maps that do not exist on the ground. Carefully cross them out using an "X". Do not cross them out completely.

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c. Road/River Names: Roads and rivers may have names that the local people use in preference to the gazetted ones. In order to assist subsequent enumerators, who will be returning to the same area, write the local road or river name on the map without deleting the name on the map that may be gazetted.

6.8 Care for maps
You, as an Enumerator are responsible for the care of :.'our map. You must return it to the Statistical Office along with the questionnaires and census forms. The map is an important part of the record of the census and will also be put to use at a later time.
Maps are best preserved if they are not folded but rolled. Should you fold the map it should he folded and refolded in exactly the same way each time so that it remains a neat package. Protect the map from bad weather. such as long exposure to direct sunlight and do all writing in pencil and not pen. 1 the map is torn repair it as soon as possible, so as not to worsen the problem. A strong transparent tape can be applied to the back of the map.

6.9 Geographical coding scheme
To process and tabulate Census results by geographic areas, a complete geographical identification scheme is necessary. The geographical scheme is so designed to enable us uniquely identify geographical areas at various levels for which the data are to be reported. Tying CSAs and SEAS to each of these areas in a systematic manner helps in deriving precise data aggregates of the areas without errors of omission or duplication. The coding scheme should therefore be exhaustive and comprehensive to include all area units adopted for both data collection and reporting. In this way, data are correctly assigned to the administrative areas to which they belong.

Geographically, Zambia has 9 provinces, and each province is divided into districts. The district is divided into Constituencies that are further divided into Wards. The enumeration areas are demarcated within the wards and grouped into CSAs. The codes I or 2 identify the enumeration area as either rural or urban. The coding system adopted by the CSO is based broadly on the order of the administrative hierarchy described above.
The geographic order is as illustrated below:
1st Order: Province Level
2nd Order: District Level
3rd Order: Constituency Level
4th Order: Ward Level
5th Order: Region - Rural/Urban Level
6th Order: CSA Level
7th Order: SEA Level

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Since there are less than 10 provinces in the country, the province has been assigned one digit and the district three digits within a province. Districts are alphabetically listed in each province and are serially numbered. The first digit identifies the province in which that district is. The constituency has three digits while the Ward has two digits and the CSA is assigned two digits. The SEA is assigned one digit because the maximum number of SEAs in a CSA does not exceed 9.
On the 1: 50,000 scale map the top left hand corner will have the Republic of Zambia as the main heading informing us that the map covers a part of the Republic of Zambia. CSO/2-207/031¬03/1-02 is the main geographical code and tells us the following information:

a. CSO Central Statistical Office.
b. 2-207 Province and District.
i. 2 - the second province in Zambia (in alphabetical order), i.e, Copperbelt.
ii. 207 - the 7th district in Copperbelt Province (in alphabetical order). i.e. Masaiti.
c. 031-03 Constituency and Ward number.
i. 031 Masaiti Constituency.
ii. 03 for Ward number 03 in the Constituency.
iii. 1 for the rural classification.
d. 02 for CSA number 02 in the Ward.

6.10 Summary
To effectively use the Census map both the Supervisor and Enumerator should have certain basic skills. These include not only the sense of direction (north, east. south, west) hut also ability to:

a. Read a map and follow map features.
b. Understand written instructions.
c. Perform basic arithmetic computations relative to estimating distances.
d. Write legibly.

You should also understand the geography hierarchy of the country as this is important for coding and census data reporting and aggregation. The map on the next page is a good example of testing one's ability to interprte a map. Attempt to interpret it by answering the questions that follow.

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Pre-training test of map reading skills

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[Omitted Appendices]