Republic of Zambia
1990 Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture
Enumerator's Instructions Manual
[Table of Content is omitted here.]
1. The main objective of conducting a Population Census is to enumerate all the people in the country in order to provide the Government, Private Organisations, individuals, etc. with the number of persons in each district, township, locality, village, etc., according to age, sex and various other characteristics. For every aspect of planning, knowledge of the size, structure and distribution of a population of a country is essential. This information is required for various aspects of social and economic planning.
Planning for education requires knowledge of the number of children of school going age, who are likely now and in the coming years to require education at various levels. The Government cannot know where to build the necessary schools and train the required number of school teachers, unless it knows where the need is greatest in terms of number of children of school-going age.
Housing is a problem, particularly in urban areas where many people are living under crowded conditions. If additional houses are to be built in order to alleviate overcrowding, the Government must know the number of people living under these conditions who will be requiring more houses.
c. Health Services
It is the wish of the Government to improve and expand health services of the country so as to control diseases and minimize the number of children dying during infancy and early childhood. If health services are to be adequately planned for, the Government needs to know the number of people affected.
3. Similarly, for economic services, information is needed on:
In Zambia, most people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. In order to develop agriculture it is essential to know the number of people involved in agricultural activities, their sex, age, educational level and where they are located.
Industry plays a vital role in any country's economy. For instance, mining is the major foreign exchange earner for this country. A large number of people are employed in mining and manufacturing industries. Hence the need to know their numbers, ages and skills.
4. For all these purposes, it is not enough just to know how many people there are at the time of the Census. We must know also how fast the population is increasing and how many people there will be in five years' time, ten years' time, etc. This is why we wish to obtain information, not only on people living now, but also on the number of children being born and the number of people dying.
5. The Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture is an important national undertaking. As an enumerator your work is of great significance in the chain of events. At the same time, your responsibility is heavy. Without your conscientious attention to detail and a sense of devotion, it will not be possible to conduct the Census successfully. It is most essential that such an important exercise as the-Census is conducted in the best possible manner.
6. The data you will collect from respondents will be processed by a computer. As an original data collector, the quality of information to be derived from this data is very much dependent on what you collect from the respondents. After the data has been collected and found to be erroneous at the processing stage, it is not only an expensive venture to go back and make corrections from the source but could be impossible, since the original respondent may no longer be at the location you visited. It is therefore important to note that your position is a very important one.
7. The Census is being carried out under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 425 of the Laws of Zambia. All people residing in Zambia, except foreign diplomats accredited to Zambia (i.e., only those attached to Embassies and High Commissions), at the time of the Census are required by this act to provide the necessary information. However, willing co-operation of the people is most important if the Census is to be a success. You must show great courtesy so that you can get the co-operation of the people. Sometimes you may come across some persons who may be reluctant to be enumerated. When every effort to persuade them to provide the necessary information has failed, and they persist in refusing to answer questions, then the matter should be reported to your supervisor. Do not take the law into your own hands by threatening people with possible prosecution.
8. You and all other census officials are required to take an Oath of Secrecy, in the presence of a Magistrate or a Commissioner for Oaths. If it is found that anyone has shown the Census documents, or in any other way has disclosed the information contained in them to any person other than a census official, that person will be liable to prosecution in terms of the Census and Statistics Act, Chapter 425 of the Laws of Zambia. In the course of your work do not leave the Census questionnaires issued to you in any place where an unauthorised person may have access to them.
9. The country is divided into 57 districts. Each district is divided into Census Supervisory Areas (CSA's) and each CSA into Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs). Each SEA is so defined that the number of people in the area will approximately range from 300 to 500 in rural areas and from 600 to 800 in urban areas. On this basis there will be about 16,000 Standard Enumeration Areas. Thus, there will be about 16,000 enumerators employed to carry out the Census.
10. The enumerators will be supervised by supervisors. In all, there will be about 4,000 supervisors. The census administration in a district will be looked after by the District Executive Secretary as the District Census Officer (supported by three senior supervisors from Central Statistical Office), who will be supervised by a Regional Census Officer.
11. Two to five enumerators will be working with each supervisor. Your supervisor will issue questionnaires and other materials to you, and will be responsible for organising your day-to-day census activities. He will also explain to you the boundaries of your enumeration area and give you instructions as to the order in which you should enumerate the people living in different parts of your area. During the enumeration itself, you must keep in constant touch with your supervisor to enable him to make adjustments to your programme of work, if necessary. You should also report any difficult cases, such as persons who persist in refusing to answer the questions, to your supervisor. He will then either handle the matter himself, or give you advice as to how to proceed. Your supervisor will also be visiting you at intervals during the enumeration to see how you are getting on with the work. He will check through your questionnaires and if he finds any mistakes he will require you to correct them, even by revisiting the households concerned, if necessary.
[Omitted: 12. Material given out to enumerators]
1. As an enumerator, it is your responsibility to keep strictly confidential anything you learn or observe during an interview. Never disclose the facts about anybody you interview to someone else. Respondents should be told that the information they provide will be used for statistical purposes only and that their names will not be associated with their answers when the information is analysed.
2. In order to carry out your work successfully you should follow the following guidelines:-
3. There are four important steps which must be taken before you start your work:
ii. Reviewing the questions in the census questionnaires: Before you begin interviewing, practise using the questionnaire to build up your confidence. A successful interview requires an enumerator who fully understands the Census questionnaires and can use them easily and correctly. Fumbling through the questionnaire (losing your place, shuffling papers, etc.) can disturb the person to be interviewed.
iii. Organising census materials: Be sure you know what materials you need and that you have them with you before going into the field to interview. Check that you have the relevant questionnaire ready at hand before you start asking questions in order to avoid looking confused as you shuffle things around looking for it in the presence of the respondent.
iv. Appearance and Behaviour: The first thing the respondent notices about the enumerator is appearance. It is important that you present a good impression by being neat, polite and courteous.
4. A comfortable relationship between the enumerator and the respondent is the foundation for good interviewing. The respondent's impression of you will largely determine the atmosphere for the whole interview. If you seem uninterested, bored or hostile the respondent will most probably act in a similar way. You should remember that people tend to react favourably if they think the interviewer is someone with whom they will enjoy talking. This means that you need to impress the respondent by being a friendly and understanding person. Through your good behaviour you can create an atmosphere in which the respondent can talk freely.
5. The purpose of the interview is to collect accurate data by using the questionnaire and following standard interviewing practices. To achieve this you need to understand the Census questionnaires including how to ask the questions, how to follow instructions in the questionnaire and how to identify the various types of questions.
a. Remaining neutral
7. You can put respondents at ease with a relaxed approach and gain their confidence. The respondents' answers to the questions should be obtained with as little influence as possible by you.
8. The questions are all carefully worded to be neutral. They do not suggest that any one answer is preferable to another. When a respondent gives an ambiguous answer, never assume what the respondent means by saying something like "Oh, I see, I suppose you mean, is that right?" If you do this, very often the respondent will agree with your interpretation, even though it may not be correct.
b. Asking questions in the order presented
c. Asking questions as worded
11. In some cases, the respondent may simply not be able to understand a question. If it is apparent that a respondent does not understand a question after you have repeated it using the original language, you can rephrase it in simpler or colloquial language. However, you must be careful not to alter the intention of the question when doing this.
12. Sometimes, respondents will ask you to define words in a question or explain some part of a question. When this occurs, refer to the relevant chapter in the manual. All the important words and terms are defined in Chapter III and then Chapter by Chapter. You will also be guided by the table of contents.
d. Avoid showing the questions to the respondent
14. In addition to the questions you must ask, the questionnaire contains instructions for you. The instructions are there to help you use the questionnaire correctly and must be followed closely.
When a question is not asked because of a skip instruction, you do not have to enter anything in the space provided.
A good example from the questionnaire is P - 16, where persons who never attended any institution of learning are not asked question P-17. In otherwords, such people do not have to be asked about what level of education they completed, which happens to be the next question you would have asked them.
b. Question specific instructions: Such instructions are always printed in brackets and they are good reminders where you may be stuck. An example is in P - 12 where you are instructed to enter tribe for Zambians and major racial group for non-Zambians and another in P - 25 where you are reminded that age is to be recorded in completed years.
c. Screening instructions: These instructions specify which persons should be asked the questions below the instructions: They appear at the top of each page. For example questions on education will be asked of persons five years and above only.
15. This is the technique you will have to employ in order to obtain a complete and relevant answer from the respondent. An answer is always probed if it is incomplete, unsatisfactory or not meaningful. There are a number of reasons why respondents sometimes do not answer questions adequately.
16. In everyday social conversation, people normally speak in vague and loose terms. Therefore it is understandable that respondents may at first answer questions in a way which is not clear or specific. It is essential, however, to encourage respondents to express themselves more precisely and in more specific terms. Respondents may not understand the meaning of a question. They will provide an answer of a kind without answering the question. It is easy to be misled by a respondent who is talkative and gives a full and detailed response - a response, however. That is quite irrelevant and beside the point. In most cases, respondents give an irrelevant answer because they have missed an important word or phrase in the question.
Probing, therefore, [illegible] major functions
ii. To make the respondent's answer precise so that irrelevant and unnecessary information can be eliminated.
17. Probing must be done without antagonizing the respondent. Respondents must not be made to feel that you are probing because their answer is incorrect or unacceptable.
18. The kind of probe to use must be adapted to the particular respondent and the particular answer given. There are some general types of probes that are frequently useful but the most important point is to avoid getting into the habit of using the same probe. Instead, you must seek to understand what the intention of each question is, so that you will always know in what way a particular answer falls short of being satisfactory. The probe then should be devised to meet this gap. This will require ingenuity and persistence.
19. It is very important to use neutral probes, that is, you must not imply to the respondent that you expect a particular answer or that you are dissatisfied with an answer. The reason for probing is to motivate the respondent to answer more fully or more precisely without introducing bias. Bias is the distortion of responses caused by the interviewer's favouring of one answer over another.
[Example is omitted here.]
20. Some respondents have difficulty in putting their thoughts into words; others may give unclear or incomplete answers; still others may be reluctant to give you certain information. In dealing with such cases, use procedures which encourage and clarify answers. The following kinds of probes may help you obtain more accurate responses.
When the respondent does not seem to understand the question, or when he misinterprets it, or when he seems unable to make up his mind, or when he strays from the subject, the most useful technique is to ' repeat the question just as it was asked the first time.
b. An expectant pause
The simplest way to convey to a respondent that you know he has began to answer the question, but that you feel he has more to say, is to be silent. A pause - often accompanied by an expectant look or a nod of the head - gives the respondent time to gather his thoughts.
c. Repeating the respondent's reply
Simply repeating what the respondent has said as soon as he has stopped is often an excellent probe.
d. Neutral questions or comments
Neutral questions or comments are frequently used to obtain unbiased, clearer and complete responses. The following are examples of the most commonly used probes:
-Any other reason?
-How do you mean?
-Could you tell me more about your thinking on that? - Would you tell me what you think?
-What do you mean?
-Why do you feel that way?
-Which would be closer to the way you feel?
These probes indicate that the interviewer is interested and they make a direct request for more information.
21. Occasionally, a respondent will give an "I don't know" answer. This can mean any number of things. For instance:-
ii. The respondent is thinking the question over and says "I don't know" to fill the silence and to give himself time to think.
iii. The respondent may be trying to evade the issue, or he may feel that the question is too personal and does not want to hurt the feelings of the enumerator by saying so in a direct manner.
iv. The respondent may really not know.
22. Try to decide which one of the above is the case. Do not immediately settle for an "I don't know" reply. If you sit quietly, but expectantly - the respondent will usually think of something to say. Silence and waiting are frequently your best probe for an "I don't know" answer. You will also find that other useful probes are: "Well, what do you think?" or "I just want your own ideas on that".
23. Always probe at least once to obtain a response to a question before accepting it as a final answer, but be careful not to antagonize the respondent or force an answer if they again say that "I don't know".
24. You should atop probing only when you have a clear, complete answer. However, if at any time the respondent becomes irritated or annoyed, stop probing the question. We do not want the respondent to refuse to complete the rest of the interview.
25. While it is important to maintain a pleasant and courteous manner in order to obtain the respondent's co-operation, you must also be able to control the interview so that it may be completed in a timely and orderly manner. For example, when answering questions, the respondent may offer a lengthy explanation of problems or complaints. In this situation, you must be able to bring the discussion to a close as soon as possible so that the interview may continue. Politely, tell the respondent that you understand what he is saying but that you would like to complete the interview. If necessary, you may try to postpone any outside discussion by saying "Okay, let's finish this interview first then talk about that later".
26. In some cases, the respondent may start to provide information about some topic which is covered at a later stage during the same interview. Again, you must control the interview by telling the respondent that you must ask other questions first and that he should wait until later to provide information on that particular topic.
27. Asking the questions correctly and obtaining clear answers is only part of your job. Equally important is recording the answers given by the respondent.
ii. Recording Responses in the Proper Place: There are basically three types of responses required in the questionnaires:
b. Recording numbers: Special care must be taken when entering numerical responses because they will be used in calculations and some will be key-punched directly from the questionnaire for computer processing. Special care should be taken with some numbers such as a "1" and a "7", a "4" and a "7" or a "5" and an "8" which can be misinterpreted.
Marking an -X" in a box
There are some questions where you are required to mark an 'X' to record the response given by the respondent. An 'X' should be carefully placed in the box beside the given response. Below is an example of an 'X' that is not properly placed and one that is:
X [ ] - Incorrect [X] - Correct
Examples of such response categories are in the Agriculture questionnaire.
28. If you have any problems of any kind in obtaining the information which is required, make a note explaining it in the "Comments" space. An important phrase to remember is "When in doubt, write it out".
29. It is important that you leave the respondent with the idea that you are grateful for his or her co-operation. After all the questions have been asked, thank the respondent and mention that his or her co-operation has been most helpful in providing information for the Census. Also inform the respondent that you may possibly be returning to collect more information.
30. Get to know these summary instructions of the do's and don'ts thoroughly.
ii. Carry this manual with you all the time and refer to it whenever there is any doubt or difficulty.
iii. Become familiar with all the schedules you must use.
iv. Be polite to all people.
v. You must introduce yourself and explain to the respondent the reason for your visit before starting the interview.
vi. Ask questions in a clear and simple manner and in exactly the same way to each respondent and in the same order they are presented in the questionnaire.
vii. Record the answers only as given by the respondent himself/herself, but in case of doubt, probe further.
viii. In a situation where probing does not yield results, write a comment explaining the absence of an entry in the Comments space.
ix. Write all information accurately, neatly and legibly, and keep the schedules clean and free of damage.
x. Only go to the Mortality section after filling in information on all members of the household.
xi. Sign every questionnaire and Listing Sheet as soon as you have completed them.
xii. Paste a sticker on the door of the housing unit after completing the interview, including agriculture supplement.
xiii. You must attend to all 'call-backs' (re-visits) as early as possible and must be punctual in keeping all appointments made. At the end of every interview thank the household for their co-operation.
xiv. Consult your supervisor on any doubts or problems that may arise.
31. It will also be helpful to observe the following don'ts:
ii. Do not tend to put words in the mouth of the respondent.
iii. Do not leave any column blank unless skip instructions specify so, for example in P 20 where those who were not working are not asked questions P-21, P-22 and P-23 since they are not expected to have any employment status, occupation, and industry.
iv. Do not over-write in case of a mistake. It is better to erase a wrong entry and then enter the correct one.
v. Do not tear out any page of the questionnaire. If it has become dirty, write cancelled in big letters across it and use a fresh one for fresh entries. This dirty questionnaire should be handed back to your supervisor later.
vi. Do not allow any person to speak for the respondent, unless the respondent seeks assistance.
vii. Do not allow any unauthorised person to accompany you or help you in filling the questionnaire.
viii. Do not show the filled-in questionnaires to any unauthorised person. Remember this is an offence against confidentiality of information. This could lead to your prosecution.
ix. Make sure you first identify a household through probing. The household is identified with a housing unit(s).
x. You must not combine Census work with any canvassing for personal gain or topics not relevant to the Census e.g., political, church or any such organisation, while you are on the job.
Make sure that all the questions have been asked and the answers are recorded before leaving the household. Unnecessary blanks will not be tolerated.
32. You should always keep in mind the fact that failure to comply with any of the instructions could lead to the jeopardising of the Census. This could in turn lead to the termination of the contract between you and your employer, the Government, and even your possible prosecution in some cases.
33. When you identify a household, you should try to isolate it from neighbours by telling them (the neighbours) that you will be visiting their own homes afterwards. This is both to ensure confidentiality of the information given by the household and to avoid respondents knowing the questions in advance.
34. Although the head of each household (or the main respondent), will in most cases be able to give you most of the particulars about every member of his household, you should try to get the information about every adult person from himself as far as possible. Do not ask a man to give information about his wife, or a wife to answer for her husband. Adults should answer for themselves, if they are present. It is especially important that wherever possible the information on fertility, e.g "Children Ever Born", etc., should be obtained directly from the females themselves. In the case of married females, you have to be tactful to ensure that it is the woman and not her husband who answers these questions about herself.
35. If you are told that certain people spent the previous night with the household but are not present when you make your visit, where possible you should try to find out where they are with a view of cross-checking the information given about them. The particulars of such persons are to be collected as far as possible from the head of the household or the main respondent.
Who should be enumerated?
36. Starting with the head of the household (present or absent), enumerate each and every person, whether visitor or resident, who spent the previous night with the household you are enumerating. You will get all the relevant information on each of these people. After listing down the names of all the people who spent the night with the household, you will then ask for the names of the people who normaly stay with the household but who did not spend the night with the household. Get the relevant information on each of these absent usual household members from the head of the household/ main respondent.
37. You will generally not be able to complete the enumeration of all the people in your area in one day, and it may take as much as a week or even more, especially in rural areas. Make sure every time you visit a household you start by identifying the people who spent the night prior to your visit with the household. Occassionally you may come across someone who says that he/she had been already enumerated elsewhere. In such a case you still have to enumerate him/her again provided he/she spent the night prior to your visit with the household you are covering.
38. Children born after sunrise on the day of erumeration or persons who arrive after sunrise should not be included among those who spent the night with the household.
39. Persons working night shifts but having normal places of residence, like security guards and nurses, those attending overnight funerals, those out for discos and other social functions during the night, should be enumerated during the day at their normal places of residence and should be deemed to have spent the previous night at their residence. If such a person is not present at the time you visit the household, make a call-back. Make sure such people are not reported as usual members absent in P - 3.
40. When you come across a household attending a funeral, allocate a house number and note in your note book to visit the household later. (Note that an enumerator can only enumerate him/herself wherever he/she spent the previous night).
What to do if people are not at home?
41. Sometimes in the course of the enumeration you may go to a housing unit and find that there is nobody who can answer the questions which need to be answered. In such circumstances, do not paste a sticker on the door of the housing unit, but allocate the census number and note in your note book to re-visit the housing unit later when the people are expected to be at home. You should tell the neighbours that you will be coming back to that house and ask them to inform the occupants about the time of your next visit. In such cases a visit early in the morning or late in the evening could be more fruitful. You may have to make up to three visits during the period of the census.
42. There are three types of non-response you may come across, these are:
ii. Refusal i.e. when the respondent just refuses to give you information, and;
iii. Partial non-response i.e. when you just get little or partial information about the household, say from neighbours
In such cases you are supposed to consult your supervisor. Only after confirming the household a non-response case should you enter code 2 in the box provided under INTERVIEW STATUS.
Types of Schedules
43. In the 1990 Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture one type of each of the following three schedules will be used for enumerating the population in both the rural and urban areas of the country:
ii. Main questionnaire (Population and Housing questionnaire) CPHA9001;
iii. Agriculture Supplement questionnaire CPHA9002;
44. The listing sheet will be used to cover one enumeration area. That is, you will list all the households in your area on this sheet. Instructions on how to complete this form follow in the next chapter.
In the case of the main questionnaire (CPHA9001), one such questionnaire will be used for each household even if there is only one person in that household. The Agriculture Supplement questionnaire will only be completed for households involved in agricultural activities. There can be cases where more than one main or agriculture supplement questionnaire will be used for one household or institution. Such cases are explained in the manual. All these three forms are to be used concurrently. That is, you will complete the Listing Sheet only after completing an interview with a household (including the Agriculture Supplement questionnaire, if any).
45. Each main questionnaire has space for entering information for twenty persons. You will use as many lines as the number of persons in that household. The remaining lines will be left blank. However, if a household has more than twenty persons then you will need additional apace. In such a case use one questionnaire for the first twenty persons and additional questionnaire (s) for more persons. In case there are many persons, you will continue using additional questionnaires until the whole household (or institution) has been enumerated. In order to show that you have used additional questionnaire (s) for the household or institution, you will indicate this in the boxes on top of the main questionnaire as demonstrated below. [Example is omitted here.]
46. When you come across an institution/collective living quarters, for example a prison or a rest house, you should first identify people regarded as the occupant7J. These should not include workers like warders and their households in the case of a prison, hostel employees who just stay within the hostel premises for convenience, etc. These workers and their households should be treated as any other normal household. The main respondent for an institution/collective living quarter should be the person in charge, for example the hotel manager in the case of a hotel, sister-in-charge in hospital wards, or a more knowledgeable person. For institutional population you will only cover questions in the P - Section and in the case of females aged 12 years or more, you will additionally cover the Fertility Section. You should not ask these people questions on mortality or household characteristics since these are household questions. Management will also give information on housing for the institution.
47. Detailed instructions on how to complete CPHA9001 follow in the next chapter. After completing the Housing Section of this questionnaire you will find some filter questions to identify households involved in agricultural activities. After identifying such households you will have to complete CPHA9002, the Agriculture Supplement questionnaire, for each such household. Instructions on how to complete the agriculture questionnaire are to be found in the Agriculture Supplement Section (Part II) of this instructions manual.
1. You as an enumerator will be assigned an enumeration area in which you will do the enumeration work for the Census. Your supervisor will assign this area to you and will also provide you with a map or a sketch showing boundaries of your enumeration area and explain major features of this area in order for you to properly identify the boundaries.
2. Your supervisor will take you around your enumeration area and instruct you with regard to the order in which you will carry out the enumeration. He will specify the order in which the villages should be visited in the rural areas or the streets to be covered in the urban areas. For you to cover your area in an orderly manner you must follow these instructions carefully.
3. Since the co-operation of the people is an essential factor in the success of the Census, your supervisor will introduce you to the local, traditional and Party leaders and other influential persons in the area to solicit their co-operation.
Identification Particulars on Main (Population and Housing) Questionnaire CPHA9001.
Province: (Item 1)
4. Write the name of the province you are operating in in the space provided. You will then enter the province code in box 1. This will be given to you by your supervisor as it appears in Appendix 1.
District: (Item 2)
5. Write the name of the district you are operating in in the space provided, then enter the code, given to you by your supervisor, as it appears in Appendix 1 in boxes 2 and 3.
CSA (Census Supervisory Area): (Item 3)
6. Your supervisor will give you the number of the CSA in which your work area is located. Enter the number in boxes 4 - 6.
Rural / Urban: (Item 4)
7. Write Urban or Rural in the space provided, depending on the area in which you are operating. You will just transfer this information from the map you are using. Enter code 1 for rural or 2 for urban in box 7.
SEA (Standard Enumeration Area): (Item 5)
8. This is the area allocated to you for enumeration. Your supervisor will give you your SEA number. Enter the number in box 8 . Enter the check digit given to you in box 9.
Census Building Number (CBN): (Item 6)
9. Within your enumeration area you will give a unique serial number to each building as you continue to enumerate. This number will run serially in each enumerator's area. The number will be in three digits starting with 001, followed by 002, 003 and so on. No two buildings in your enumeration area will have the same 'Census Building Number'. This number will be different from other types of numbers the building may already have, such as house number, plot number, stand number, flat number, etc. The idea is to make sure that all the buildings, and thus housing units, in your area have been covered. This will help you, your supervisor, and anybody else who will be interested in checking on your progress and completeness of coverage. Enter the number in boxes 10 - 12.
Housing Unit Number (HUN) (Item 7)
10. Each housing unit will be given a house number within the building. This number will be in two digits. The first housing unit within any particular building should be given number 01, the second one 02, and so on. Structures not intended for habitation (see para. 36) but actually being used as living quarters at the time of the Census are to be allocated appropriate house numbers.
ii. Census Building Number 033 has only one housing unit; this will be numbered 01.
iii. Census building number 034 has two housing units; these will be numbered 01, 02.
iv. In case of a building where there is no housing unit, check mark x ([X]) (box 4 under interview status) against non-residential.
Remember to give it a Census Building Number. Enter the house number in boxes 13 and 14 after writing it out in the space provided.
Household Number (HHN): (Item 8)
11. Each household within a housing unit will be given a one-digit serial number - 1,2,3, etc. If the housing unit is vacant then write `O'against the household number. This will indicate that no one was living there at the time of enumeration. Enter this number in box 15. You will then get the housing particulars for the housing unit.
Village/ Locality: (Item 9)
12. In the case of urban areas, enter here the name of the area, compound or township in which this house is located, e.g. Kansenshi, Chelston, Chipata Compound, Chilenje South, etc. In the case of rural areas write the name of the village/locality.
Residential Address: (Item 10)
13. Residential Address is the information that describes the place in such a manner that a person may be able to reach it by this reference. This will include the name or number of street and the location of this particular building on this street. It will also include house/flat number that the house already has, plot number or stand number, or the name of the building if it is commonly known by that name. For example Flat No. 2, Fife Court, Plot 712 Mwalule Road, Longacres. In rural areas, name of the village will suffice. No codes are necessary in this case.
Chief's Area: (Item 11)
14. This information is for the area you are operating in. You should confirm with the respondent the name of the chief for the area. You could come across people who pay allegiance to different chiefs in your area. What you are supposed to put down is the chief of the area. The name should be one of the names given in Appendix 2 of the list of chiefs for the district. If the name given is different or does not appear on the list, probe to find out if there has been any change in the names. If there has not been any, inform your supervisor about. it.
15. Census maps do not show the boundaries of chiefs' areas, therefore for the Central Statistical Office to correctly allocate people according to "Chiefs' Areas", you should be very careful when getting this information. Enter the appropriate code from Appendix 2 in boxes 16 - 18.
Ward: (Item 12)
16. A ward is a political delineation of an area. There may be more than one locality in one ward. The map you are using does not contain ward boundaries, the respondent will tell you the name of the ward in which his housing unit is located. In case he does not know, the 'party chairman- in the area will tell you. Your area might overlap wards, so you should not take it for granted that all the households you are covering should report the same ward. You should first ask before writing this in the space provided. Enter the appropriate codes as they appear in Appendix 9 in boxes 19 - 20.
Institutions/Collective Quarters: (Item 13)
17. Write the name of the Institution in the space provided. This includes Collective living quarters. The codes for institutions/collective living quarters are as follows:
2. Hostel/Rest House
4. Learning Institution
5. Prison/Police Cells
Enter the appropriate code in box 21. In case of a normal housing unit draw a line across the space provided and enter 8 in box 21.
19. Non-Contact-Occupied: You will pick this category after making sure that the house is occupied, but that you cannot find anybody at home all through your three visits during the Census period. Enter 2 in box 22.
20. Not-Interviewed Vacant: You will pick this category after making sure that the house is vacant all through your three visits during the Census period. Enter 3 in box 22.
21 Non-Residential: In case of a building which is not a housing unit, pick this category and enter 4 in box 22.
22. Enter the total number of people enumerated in the questionnaire as listed in P - 3 codes 1 and 2, that is, usual members present and visitors. The total has to be further broken down into male and female and entered under these categories. You should therefore ignore usual members absent. These must not be entered under Summary Count.
24. A building is any independent structure comprising one or more rooms or other spaces, covered by a roof and usually enclosed within external walls or dividing walls which extend from the foundation to the roof. Each building will be given a separate Census Building Number irrespective of whether anyone is living there or not at the time of enumeration. Abandoned and incomplete buildings in which no one is living at the time of the Census should not be given a Census Building Number. Observe that an abandoned building differs from a vacant building in that an abandoned building is not habitable and may never be used again (condemned). A vacant building is one which is temporarily unoccupied.
25. There exist a number of variations to this definition. For example, a structure consisting of a roof with supports only, i.e. without walls, will be considered as a building if it is being used for living purposes.
26. For Census purposes one or more structures belonging to the same household on the same premises will be treated as one 'building'. Examples:
ii. A bungalow (main house) and its detached garage and servant's quarters together form one building.
iii. Several huts for the same household constitute one building.
For cases like the above first make sure that all the structures are part of the same building.
iv. A block of flats forms one building.
27. Where there are several structures in an institution, each of these structures will be given a separate Census Building Number.
Example: School Premises: each of the teachers' houses, each classroom block, each dormitory block will be given a separate Census Building Number
29. A conventional house (Housing Unit) is a room or set of rooms and its accessories in a permanent building or structurally separate part thereof which by the way it has been built, rebuilt or converted is intended for habitation by one household and is not, at the time of enumeration, used wholly for other purposes. Examples: bungalows, flats/apartments, etc.
30. A conventional housing unit may be just one structure, several sructures or part of a big structure. If it is part of a structure then other parts may also be housing units, like in a block of flats, or be other than housing units, like a shop, an office, etc., or a mixture of such units. In some cases a place may be originally designed as a barn, warehouse, etc., and thus not intended for human habitation. Later on it may be converted into a housing unit by structural alterations, re-design, etc., and thus may now be fit and intended for habitation. In such cases these will now be classified as conventional housing units.
31. An improvised housing unit is an independent, makeshift shelter or structure built of mostly waste or salvaged materials and without a predetermined design or plan for the purpose of habitation by one household, which is being used as living quarters though it may not comply with generally accepted standards for habitation. Such a unit will be generally found in suburban shanty areas. Not all structures in shanty areas may be considered as improvised as many of these may have been built in a planned manner from regular building materials.
32. Unintended or marginal housing units are places that are not intended for human habitation although in use for such purposes at the time of enumeration.
Examples: Barns, Warehouses, Caves, Bridges, School Classrooms, Natural Shelters etc. which are being used as living quarters at the time of enumeration.
33. Collective living quarters include structurally separate and independent places of abode intended for habitation by large groups of individuals or several households With no common bond, public objective or interest. Such quarters usually contain common facilities such as kitchen, bathrooms, lounge rooms or dormitories, which are shared by occupants. Examples are hotels, motels, inns, lodges, rooming houses, etc., which provide lodging on a fee basis.
34. Institutions are sets of premises in a permanent structure or structures designed to house groups (usually large) of persons who are bound by either a common public objective or a common personal interest. In this type of living quarters persons of the same sex frequently share domitories.
Examples: Hospitals, military barracks, boarding schools, convents, prisons, etc.
35. Other is a residual category of living quarters and includes trailers, boats, tents, caravans, etc.
36. A building may have one or more housing units but not vice versa. Some buildings may not have any housing units because they are used exclusively for non-residential purposes.
37. Although a housing unit is intended for habitation by one household it may be occupied by more than one, or even be vacant.
38. For the purposes of the Census, a household is defined as "a group of persons who normally live and eat together". These people may or may not be related by blood, but make common provision for food or other essentials for living and they have only one person whom they all regard as a head of the household. Such people are called members of the household. A household will thus include servants and farm-hands who normally live and eat with other members of the household. There are situations where people eat together and even sleep under one roof, but have different persons whom they regard as head. These should be considered as belonging to separate households. There can also be a one member household where a person makes provision for his/her own food or other essentials for living. Such a person is the head of his/her household.
39. A household normally occupies the whole of a Housing Unit (defined above) or part of it, or more than one Housing Unit. A household is in most cases (if not in all cases) identified with a housing unit.
[Examples are omitted here.]
Usual Household Member
40. A usual household member is one who has been living with the household for at least six (6) months. He/She may or may not be related to the other household members by blood, marriage, or may be a house-helper or farm-labourer. A usual household member normally lives together with other household members in one house or closely related premises and takes his/her meals from the same kitchen.
Head of Household
41. This will be the person all members of the household regard as the head. He/she is the one who normally makes day-to-day decisions governing the running of the household. In most cases this will be the husband/father in the household. In cases of one member households, the member will be the head of the household. In many of the households you visit, the head of the household will also be the main respondent, i.e the one giving most of the information. Remember a person does not become the head of a household simply because he/she is the main respondent.
42. In order to identify the housing unit a special sticker will be pasted on the main door of the housing unit after the persons in that household have been enumerated. This sticker will be marked with a census number comprising the "Census Building Number" and "Housing Unit Number" within this building. In the examples in paragraph 10 above the census number will be given as follows:
iii. 034-01 034-02
It can be seen that the first three digits in each census number are for the Census Building Number and the last two for the Housing Unit Number within this building.
43. Sometimes you won't find people at home. In such cases you will have to go back to the housing unit to enumerate the household later. Since the sticker is to be pasted on the door of the housing unit after enumeration of the household has been completed, assign the housing unit number but do not paste the sticker until after the household has been enumerated. Remember to note this down in your note book.
44. Only one sticker should be used for each housing unit occupied by one household. In case of a block of flats, separate stickers having different census numbers, i.e the same census building number but different housing unit numbers, should be used for each flat occupied by a separate household. When a household is spread between two or more structures write the same census number on each of the structures.
45. Even though no one is living in a housing unit, you must use one questionnaire to indicate this fact and, if possible, record the housing characteristics of this unit in Section H of the questionnaire. Fill in a sticker and stick it on the door of the housing unit.
Listing Sheet CPHA9000.
46. You will be required to list all the households you visit on this sheet. You will fill the listing sheet at the end of each household or institution interview. You should start by allocating a household serial number which you will enter in the first three columns headed -Serial Number'. This number runs serially in your enumeration area and it goes
to three digits, so the first household you visit will get number 001, the next one 002, etc., up to the very last household in your enumeration area. In the case of an institution in your work area you enter an 'X' in the second column. This will indicate that this is not a normal household. Next you transcribe information on census building number, housing unit number, household number and residential address from the identification particulars section on the main questinnaire for the household. If you come across a vacant housing unit enter a "V" in column 8 and it dashes (----) in the subsequent columns up to column 14. You will get the name of the head of the household (or the name of the institution) and the number of persons enumerated in the household (those who spent the night) from the main questionnaire again. If you completed an agriculture supplement questionnaire for the household, you indicate this with an X in column 13. If you completed a questionnaire(s) for a managed farm(s) for the household indicate the number of such forms (questionnaires) in column 14.
47. Columns 15 to 19 are for interview record. You may have to make several visits to a household before getting the necessary information, for example, if you find the member(s) of such a household leave very early in the morning for their places of work. Enter the date of visit for each visit you make to any such household in column 15 for the first visit, 16 for the second one and 17 for the third one. Enter the date you complete the interview for the household in column 18, and the date you edit the questionnaire(s) for the household in column 19 only after you have edited. You will have notes or comments to make about some of the entries for some of the households which will guide your supervisor or anyone having any questions about the entries. For such notes, space is provided in the last column.
48. For any case to be entered vacant, first make sure it is a vacant housing unit and not that the occupants are away for just a short duration of time since this would mean that you have left a household(s) unlisted. For vacant housing units you will not get information on Household Number, Name of Head, Number of Persons and Agriculture Supplement. You will enter code 3 in the box provided under INTERVIEW STATUS after making sure that the house is vacant all through your visits during the Census period. You will then fill in housing particulars, section H in the main questionnaire.
1. When you come to a structure determine whether someone is using it as a residence. You must do this even if it looks as if the structure has not been built for habitation. In addition to regular residential buildings people will be found to be living in offices, garages, petrol stations, barns, railway signal control stations, railway and bus stations, lorry parks, under stalls in market places, under bridges, storage sheds, shops and many odd places. Watchmen and caretakers who live within the premises where they work will be enumerated there. You will enumerate every person in your enumeration area at the housing unit where he/she spent the night. As for people who work during the night but have usual places of residence, their case has already been explained to you in Chapter II paragraphs 39 and 40.
2. When you get to a housing unit, introduce yourself to whoever meets you that you are from the Department of Census and Statistics and that you would like to meet the head of the household. If he/she is not at home find out if there is any knowledgeable adult person present. This person will be the Main Respondent for the household. Introduce yourself and explain the purpose of your visit. Information about persons below 12 years of age can be obtained from the main respondent but questions about each individual adult should, as far as possible, be directed to each such individual adult persons if they are present.
3. Find out how people in the housing unit/building are grouped for living purposes. Each of these groups of people or single persons as the case may be, will be defined in terms of a household (see Chapter III para 38). Each of these households will be enumerated on one separate questionnaire except when it is necessary to continue on additional questionnaires when the number of persons in a household or institution is more than twenty (see Chapter II para.45). Before starting to enumerate, enter the identification particulars on the front page of the questionnaire.
P - 1 Serial Number
4. Under these columns, there is enough space for 20 persons.
Column number 25 has a set of numbers ranging from 1 to 0 followed by another set ranging from 1 to O. For the first 9 names you list under P-2, you are to enter a '0' in column 24 making the serial numbers 01, 02, 03 up to 09. If the household has more than 9 people, you should enter a '1' in column 24 to make serial numbers 10, 11, 12 .... 19. For a household which has more than 19 people enter '2' in column 24 to make the serial number 20. If there are more than 20 persons in a household or institution, use additional questionnaires (see Chapter II para. 45). On these additional questionnaires enter 2's in column 24 to make it 21,22,23,29. Then you can write 3-s before the digits that follow to make it 30,31,32, and so on. You can continue with 4,5, etc. as needed on subsequent additional schedules for the household/institution.
P - 2 Name
5. In this column write the names of the persons you are enumerating. Start with the name of the head of the household whether or not he spent the previous night with the household. Continue with the names of all members of the household, followed by all visitors who spent the previous might with the household. Lastly ask the main respondent, who may or may not be the head of the household, for the names of all the usual members of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household.
6. In order to be systematic, you should follow some kind of order.
So write the name of the spouse of the head of the household after that of the head, followed by the names of their unmarried children, married children and their families and, lastly, those of other relatives and the non-relatives, in that order. In case the head of a household has more than one wife living as one household, enter first the name of the first wife then her children, and then the next wife and her children and so on.
7. If you find that there is not enough space to write the full names,(first and surname) of the person, then enter only the name by which that person is commonly known. For babies who have not yet been given a name, write 'Baby' followed by the surname.
8. After writing down all the names ensure that they are serially numbered as instructed in P - 1
ii. 'Visitor who spent the night with the household- given code 2 and,
iii. Usual member of the household who did not spend the previous night with the household' given code 3.
In this column enter the appropriate code in the box for each individual depending on his/her membership status. Remember the names of the persons are supposed to be written following the same order as that followed by the categories in membership status, that is, category 1 first, then 2, the visitors, and lastly the usual members temporarily absent (3), except for the head of household who has to be entered first irrespective of whether or not he/she spent the previous night with the household.
10. Find out the relationship of the person to the head of the household and enter the appropriate relationship code in the box provided. Other relative (code 5 in the questionnaire) will cover relationship by blood, marriage, adoption etc.
[Example is omitted here.]
11. For people in institutions, questions P-3, and P-4 are not to be asked. You will just enter 8's in these boxes.
P - 5 Sex
12. Enter code 1 for males or 2 for females. Take particular care to record the correct sex of young children. In some cases you will not be able to tell whether a baby is male or female; you should ascertain what the sex of the child is since even the name may not reflect the sex of a child.
P - 6 Age
13. Age is a very important personal characteristic that we are concerned with in the Census. Two columns are provided for entering the age. For all those persons who are one year old or older, the age will be entered in completed years and '00' will be entered for babies less than a year. The age will be entered in two digits, 01, 02, 09, 10, 11,. . .89. Those who are 90 years and over will have age 90 entered.
[Example is omitted here.]
14. In some cases the question on age will not create many problems. Almost all persons who have been to school know their age. Where there may be some doubt, ages of children can be reasonably estimated by looking at them and comparing them to other children of known ages in the household.
15. Some people will, however, not know their ages. In such cases you will have to estimate their ages. Ask such a person how long he has been
living in this area, about what time in his life he came here, what he did then, for how long, how old he was when he left his parents' home, etc. In this manner you can build his life history. It is also possible to determine his age by referring to some historical events that he may remember, e.g., how old he was when the Lusaka-Mongu road was built by the Chinese, or when the name of Feira boma was changed to Luangwa, or when a certain chief died, or when Katima Mulilo Pontoon disaster occurred, or when Mufulira Mine disaster occurred or when Zambia became independent, etc. Such historical events are meant to help a respondent remember how old he may have been when they were occurring. Do not rely completely on a single event. You should also check this with a later event. A Calendar of events will be issued to you to help you estimate the ages of such people.
16. If you have already ascertained the age of some other member of the household or of a neighbour, this may be of considerable help in determining the ages of other members of the household. For example, if you have estimated that the eldest son of the head of the household is 12 years old, you may be able to determine the ages of the other children by finding out how many years elapsed between the births of the different children.
17. In case you are only given the year of birth and no month, even after probing, calculate the age by subtracting the year of birth from 1990.
[Example is omitted here.]
b. Totally Deaf/Dumb
c. Crippled or lost the use of one or more limbs
d. Mentally Retarded;
If a person has lost the sight of only one eye do not categorise him/her as blind. Persons to be enumerated as deaf are those who are totally deaf. For the dumb, even those who are only able to mumble a few sounds are to be taken as dumb. Loss of limb could mean either that the limb (i.e. a hand or leg) is severed or the person has lost the powers to use the arm or leg. If the response to any of the disability categories is `yes' enter code '1', if the response is no enter code '2' in the appropriate box.
Migration: For All Persons
19. One of the characteristics of a human being is the tendency to move. There are many and varied reasons why people move. We shall only consider movements which result in crossing administrative boundaries as `Migration', that is, only if a person has moved from one district to another.
P - 8 Where was [the respondent] born? (Birth Place)
20. In this question "Place" refers to district for cases within Zambia, or country for cases outside Zambia whether the person is Zambian or not. This should be the place of usual residence of the mother of the respondent, at the time of birth of the respondent, and not the hospital or place where she just went to give birth. For persons born in Zambia, write the district of birth and then enter the appropriate code which is provided in Appendix 1 on page 77. Some people may not know the name of the district in which they were born, but they will generally know the name of the Chief's area. In such cases you should write out the Chief's area and then later on refer to the list of Chiefs by districts in Appendix 2 on page 79 and find out which district the Chief belongs to. In case the person was born outside Zambia, write the name of the country in which he/she was born. Then enter the apropriate country code in the three boxes provided. The country codes are given in Appendix 4 on page 93. Do not write the name of the district of a foreign country. Note that a zero, '0' has been added to the district codes in order to standardize them with country codes.
21. Find out whether the part of the district in which the person was born was a rural or an urban area at the time of his/her birth. Enter code '1' for Rural and code '2' for Urban. The list of urban areas and townships is given in Appendix 3 on page 89. In case of a foreign country write '8- meaning, not applicable.
P - 9 What is [the respondent]'s Country of Citizenship?
22. Write the name of the country of which the person is a citizen in the space provided. Then enter the appropriate country code in the appropriate boxes. A list of countries and their respective codes is given in Appendix 4 on page 93.
P - 10 How long has [name] been continuously living district?
(District of enumeration)
23.A person can live in the same district from birth without moving. Others may move from district to district, changing residence over time. For those who move it is possible to keep coming back to the same district. What we are interested in is the length of their present unbroken or continuous residence in this district. Enter the number of completed years in the first two boxes and the number of months in the next two. Thos who have not completed a month yet will have 01 entered in the boxes for months and 00 in the boxes for years.
[Example is omitted here.]
P - 11 Where was [name] living 12 months ago? (i.e last August)
24. In this question you are to ask the respondent his place (district) of residence 12 months ago and whether that place was an urban or a rural area. This is not over the duration of the last 12 months; rather it is about this time 12 months back, i.e in August the previous year.
25. Write the name of the district in which this person was residing 12 months ago and then enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. This can either be the district where he is now residing or another district. In case the person lived outside Zambia 12 months ago, write the name of the country where he was residing at that time and then enter the appropriate country code. For infants born less than 12 months ago, enter 888 in the boxes.
26. Find out whether the place where the person was living 12 month, ago was a rural or an urban area. Enter code -1' for rural or code '2' for urban area. The list of urban areas and townships is given in Appendix 3 on page 89. For infants born less than 12 months ago and for those who were living outside Zambia at that time enter 8 in the box provided..
27. If a person is not sure of the district, then ask him the name of the Chief in whose area he was/is living. From this information you can find out the name of the district (see Appendix 2 on page 79).
28. If a person seems uncertain about the period "12 months ago" then ask the question "Where was living this time last year?"
P - 12 Ethnicity
29. This question refers to the Tribal-Group the person belongs to and in case of Zambians it refers to those who belong to any of the Zambian tribal groups, that is, those belonging to any of the 73 or so indigenous tribes. It is an easy question but can be misunderstood. If a person says his/her parents belong to two different tribes, ask him/her which one he/she identifies himself/herself with. In the case of some Zambians and non-Zambians write the major racial group to which the person belongs, i.e. African, American, Asian or European, then enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided.
P - 13 What is [name]'s language of communication
30. You are now required to find out the two languages the person uses most frequently for his/her day-to-day communication with his\her neighbours, at factory, in office, in market places, etc. You are to Write only two such languages in order of importance. For this purpose two separate columns have been provided. The most used (Predominant) language will be written in the first column and the appropriate code entered in the two boxes. Do the same for the second language. Note that it is not necessary that a person may be able to read and/or write in these languages. The information required here is regarding the languages mostly used by the person.
31. Some people have only one language of communication. In that case write the name of that language in the first column and enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. Put a dash (-) in the second column and then enter 88 in the two boxes.
P-14 Can [name] read and write?
32. Ask if the person can read and write in any language (local languages included). If the person can read and write in any language enter code 1, if not enter code 2 in the box provided.
P - 15 Does [name] go to any institution of learning?
33. Under this question you are to record the present status of school or college attendance of each person. Enter the appropriate code as it appears in the questionnaire.
34. Since the Census will be held during a period when many schools and colleges will be closed for holidays, for those still attending school the word 'attending' will be taken to mean that the person attended school during the last term and intends to do so in the next term also. Note that:
b. Apprentices in factories or workshops should not be shown as full-time students.
c. Persons attending night school should be shown as part-time attending (code 2).
d. People on study leave, although sometimes in formal education, e.g studying for a degree, are not full-time students.
e. People engaged in correspondence studies should be assigned code 3
P - 16 Did [name] previously go to any institution of learning?
35. This question is for persons who answered "No" under P-15. Since we have established that they are not attending any institution of learning at present, we are interested to know whether they did so previously.
P - 17 What highest level of academic education has [name] completed?
36. Under highest academic educational level completed a apace has been provided to write the year and the educational level completed by each person who has ever attended an educational institution (including correspondence schools). Write the highest level completed whether a person is still attending full time or part-time or has attended previously and is not attending now. Enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. The codes are given in the last column below on page 32 and in Appendix 5b on page 96. For persons who were educated outside Zambia, write the appropriate Zambian equivalent of the level reached.
[Examples are omitted here.]
37. The system of school standards, grades and forms has been changed four times since 1956. The following are roughly the relative levels. Enter the appropriate code as provided in the last column below.
02. Standard 1, Grade 2
03. Standard 2, Grade 3
04. Standard 3, Grade 4
05. Standard 4, Grade 5
06. Standard 5, Grade 6, Standard 6 Lower
07. Standard 6 Upper, Standard 6, Grade 7
08. Form1, Grade 8
09. Form 2, Grade 9
10. Form 3, Grade 10
11. Form 4, Grade 11
12. Form 4 (GCE), Form 5 GCE (0), Form 6 lower, Grade 12 GCE (0),
13. Form 6 upper, GCE (A), University Undergraduate Students
14. Bachelors Degree
15. Masters Degree and above
38. The level completed is the qualification or attendance (i.e. degree, diploma, certificate, etc.) that an individual has acquired, whether by full-time study, part-time study or private study, whether conferred in the home country or abroad, and whether conferred by educational authorities, special examining bodies or professional bodies. The acquisition of an educational qualification, therefore, implies the successful completion of a course of study.
39. All professional or vocational education will be recorded under this column. The codes for levels are:
3. Degree and above (Bachelors, Masters, Doctorate, etc.)
The codes for the different educational programmes are given in Appendix 5a on page 95.
[Examples are omitted here.]
A list of educational programmes is provided in Appendix 5a on page 95.
1. In this chapter we want to find out whether a person is working or not and, if working, then what type of work he or she is doing. For those who are not working, we would like to know whether or not a person is seeking work or interested in getting work or whether a person is engaged or involved in some other activity such that he or she is not available or interested in doing work of any economic kind. These questions are to be asked only of/for persons who are at least 12 years old on the day of enumeration.
2. The persons who are 12 years old and over can be divided into two categories: (i) those working, or not working but interested in work (Labour Force) and; (ii) those neither interested nor available for work (not in Labour Force).
3. Those who are in the labour force can be further classified as below:
ii. Not working:
b. Able to and interested in work though not actively seeking work.
4. Those not in labour force will include the following categories of persons:
ii. Full-time students;
iii. Not able to work (disabled, too old, invalids);
v. Persons living only on rental incomes, past savings, interest, inheritance, gambling income, etc.;
vi. Others, who are neither interested nor available for work, such as beggars, vagrants, prisoners, etc.
Economic Activity: For Persons 12 Years and Over
P - 19 What was [name]mainly doing in the last 7 days?
5. Under this question you have to determine the economic activity category to which the person belongs as shown in paragraphs 3 and 4 above. Use the codes as shown in the questionnaire. The reference period in this question is the last 7 days and all persons who will fall under categories 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 will be treated as the currently economically active population (Labour Force).
Working for Pay or Profit (Code 1)
6. We define a person as working if he or she performed some work for pay or profit. Payment may be either in cash, in the form of goods or services or in any combination of these.
b. A person who is paid by an employer on the basis of piece work.
c. A person running his/her own business such as a marketeer, a hawker, a cobbler, a tinsmith, a bottle-store operator, a grocery store owner, etc.
d. Two (or more) partners running a business.
e. A farmer who tills his own farm, with or without the help of other persons.
f. A farm labourer who is paid partly in cash and partly in terms of farm produce.
g. A person who works in a hotel and gets his wages partly in cash and partly in terms of board and lodging.
h. Some students manage to find a job during school holidays and might be working during the reference period. These should be classified as working.
7. Persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind but were: (a) prevented from working by temporary illness, bad weather, industrial dispute such as a strike or a lock-out, on suspension and; (b) all persons who had got a new job but had not yet reported for work, are to be classified as working.
8. Since a person may work for some time and then stop for a period, we shall define a specific reference period during which he may have worked on a regular basis in order to classify him as working or not.
9. A person will be classified as working if he/she did any work for pay, profit, or family gain any time during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day.
By 'preceding week' we mean seven days immediately before the day of enumeration.
10. For people in agricultural and allied operations the following activities will constitute work during the preceding week for a period equal to at least one working day:
ii. Fishing and hunting.
iii. Forestry: Collecting or cutting wood, charcoal burning, gathering of honey and beeswax from trees, gathering of mushrooms, caterpillars, etc. and collecting wild fruits, etc. for sale or own consumption
11. Generally, housewives doing only household duties of looking after their own family are not to be regarded as working. Therefore, do not include housewives who do not have paid employment or who do not work regularly in a family business or on a family farm as working. However, if a housewife is having paid employment or works on a family farm or a family business she is then to be regarded as working. Similarly a housewife who looks after another family and is paid for her work in cash or kind is to be regarded as working.
On Leave (Code 2)
12. This code is for persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind but were on paid or unpaid vacation or study leave.
Unpaid work on household holding or business (Code 3)
13. This code is for persons who performed unpaid work during the reference period on a household holding or business.
Unemployed and Seeking Work (code 4)
14. This code is for persons who sought a job any time during the preceding week. This will include people who:
ii. went to possible employers to ask for a job;
iii. wrote a letter or applied for a job;
iv. asked friends, relatives, neighbours, etc. to help them find a job;
v. made any effort to start business e.g opening a market stall, clearing a piece of land for an agricultural activity etc.
Not Seeking Work but Available for Work (Code 5)
15. This code is for persons who were not working but indicate that they would like to have a job but are not sure that there is any job available, or who imagine that they are over qualified, or who just say "Where can I get employment?"
Fulltime Housewife/Homemaker (Code 6)
16. This code is for those females or males who are neither working nor seeking work because they are just attending to household duties (housewives or homemakers).
Full-time Students (Code 7)
17. This code is for those persons who are full-time students and were not in any employment during the reference period.
Not Available for Work for Other Reasons (Code 8)
18. This code is for people who were not seeking work and were not housewives or homemakers, during the reference period. This includes those who may not want to work, pensioners, beggers, prisoners, vagrant, gamblers, etc.
P-20 What was [name] mainly doing since 1st August, 1989?
19. Under this question the reference period is the last 12 months, thus persons who will fall under codes 1, 2, 3 or 4 will be regarded as the Usually Economically Active population. The difference from P - 19 is the reference period of 12 months.
20. Since this reference period of 12 months will be vital in capturing persons in agricultural and allied operations, the following are examples important in pinpointing such persons:-
ii. Did you work as a farm-hand during this agricultural season?
iii. Were you engaged for pay, profit or family gain mainly in fishing, hunting, charcoal burning, wood cutting, gathering mushroom or caterpillars, collecting wild fruits, etc. since 1st August 1989?
All those who answer 'Yes' to any of these questions will be considered as working and therefore, you should enter appropriate codes as indicated in the questionnaire.
21. All respondents who have indicated codes 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8, that is those who were not working, are not supposed to have any employment status, occupation or industry. Therefore, you are supposed to skip to P - 24 (Marital Status).
23. By employment status we mean that a person is self-employed, employs others, is employed by someone or works on the family farm in the family business without actually being paid. All these terms will be further explained below.
24. The employment status will be determined by the status of the person during the reference period. If a person worked on more than one job during the reference period, then the employment status of that person will be determined according to the job on which he/she. spent more time. For example, if a person was employed in a garage as a mechanic for 7 months (as an employee), but drove his own car as a taxi driver (self employed) for 5 months, then he will be classified as an employee. If he was an employee in the garage for 6 months and drove the taxi for 6 months i.e. the time spent in different jobs being the same, then you will determine his status on the basis of the job from which he received more income.
Employer (Code 1)
25. An employer is a person who, while himself working in his own business or farm, also employs other persons to assist him and pays those people wages or salaries in cash or kind. For such a person code 1 is to be entered in the employment status box (P-21).
b. A carpenter who runs his own workshop and employs others as carpenters, helpers, etc.
c. A garage owner who employs mechanics in his workshop;
d. A shop owner who employs shop assistants, salesmen, stock attendants, truck drivers, cashiers, etc.
e. A butchery owner who employs others as butchers, cleaners, etc.
f. A factory owner who employs factory workers, a foreman, a manager, mechanics, an accountant, etc.
g. A taxi owner who employs drivers to run his taxis;
h. A cinema owner who employs other people to run the cinema, as gate-keepers, projectionist, cleaners, etc.
i. A restaurant owner who employs cooks, bar attendants, pick-up van driver, cashier, etc.
26. A person who is assisted by his own family members whom he does not pay any wages or salaries is not an employer as his family members are unpaid family workers. He is to be classfied as 'self-employed'. On the other hand, if he pays wages or salary to his own family member(s) who runs his business then he is an employer and his family member(s) will be classified as an employee(s).
27. Only those employing others help to run their business or farm will be classified as employers. Those employing domestic servants or security guards, etc., for looking after their household properties are not to be classified as employers unless they also employ someone for the sake of their business operations. Do not classify salaried managers of large companies which they do not own as employers. Similarly personnel officers and other senior officials of companies, parastatal organisations and Government departments are themselves employees who get salaries. Since they do not own the companies; etc., they are not to be classified as employers.
Employee-Wage and Salary Earner (code 2)
28. Enter code 2 in the box provided for persons who worked for others for a was or salary which may be paid to them in cash or kind or partly in cash and partly in kind. Salesmen who worked for commision are also to be classified as employees.
Examples of Employees:
A shop assistant;
A bartender (not the bar owner);
A carpenter working for a contractor;
A domestic servant, cook, gardener, security guards, etc.;
A manager of a firm;
A mechanic working for pay in a garage,
ii. All full-time UNIP officials such as Members of the Central Committee, Provinceal Political Secretaries, District Governors, etc., will be trate as employees and given code 2.
iii. Ministers and other Members of Parliament having public funds as their main source of income will be considered as employees. Similarly, chairmen of Service Commissions, and Chairmen of Parastatal Organisations will be treated as employees and will be given code 2.
Self-employed (code 3)
29.Those persons Who 5re not working for others for a wage or salary but run their own businesses, factories, workshops, farms, and also do not employ others in their establishment are classified as self-employed and will be given code 3 under the Employment Status column. Ordinarily such persons will have their own place of business and determine their own hours of work and work programme. These persons may do other people's work by fixing an hourly rate or on the basis of the job itself. These could be partners.
30. The fact that members of a person's household may assist him in his work without receiving any remuneration does not alter his employment status as 'self-employed' because he is not employing them. However, if he pays wages or a salary to any member of his household, in that case he is employing that member and this relationship (employer/employee) will then be recorded.
ii. An owner of a small family store run by him is a self-employed person.
iii. A woman marketeer or a street vendor is a self-employed person.
iv. A car mechanic running a small repair business on his own is self-employed.
v. An owner of a small tea-shop or kiosk which he runs himself or with the help of his (unpaid) family members is a self employed person.
vi. A cobbler or a carpenter running repair business without the help of others is self-employed.
vii. A tailor doing his business with no outside helper is self-employed
viii. A contractor doing odd job repairs on his own is self-employed.
Unpaid (code 4)
31. Enter code 4 for persons who normally assist in the family business or farm, but do not receive any pay or profit for the work so performed.
P - 22: Occupation
32. Occupation is the kind of work one does. For each worker write under the occupation column the occupation during the reference period, then enter the appropriate code in the boxes provided. The detailed list of occupations with their codes is given in Appendix 6 on page 97. If he was involved in two or more occupations at the same time enter the occupation in which he spent the larger part of his working time.
33. Occupation should be given in clear terms to show what kind of work one did. Examples: Carpenter, Town clerk, Messenger, Stock assistant, Car driver, Radio mechanic, Farm labourer, School teacher, Accounts clerk, Mine gang boss, Personnel officer, Plumber.
34. Avoid entering a term that implies greater skill or responsibility than is really involved in the job. Do not enter 'engineer' for someone who is actually a draughtsman, or 'accountant' for a book-keeper, or 'brick-mason' for someone who only mixes mortar and hauls bricks.
P - 23: Industry
35. The industry identifies the type of product or service produced by the worker and his fellow workers, as distinct from the worker's own activity (which is his occupation). For each worker write under the industry column the name of the industry in which he worked during the reference period. If he was employed in more than one industry then enter the industry which relates to the occupation already recorded under P 22 (Occupation column). If he had the same occupation in different industries then write the current industry in which he worked.
36. A person with a certain skill can work in any industry where his skills are required. His industry classification will depend upon the industry in which he is actually employed.
37. Many enterprises have several functions and in such a case, the industry should relate to the functions of the establishment where the respondent is closely associated.
38. Write the category of industry with which a person is most associated during the reference period.
39. Some difficulty may be experienced in identifying the industry of persons who move frequently from job to job or do odd jobs. Remember that what is wanted is the industry of the current job, even if that job started only a day or two ago.
40. There is no industry called "Service". For example someone working as a teacher/lecturer is in education industry. He is providing service, but the industry is not service. A trained soldier employed as a security guard at Zambia Breweries is not in security services but working in a 'Brewing Industry'. But someone employed by a security company e.g. Anderson security, assigned to guard Zambia Breweries, is in 'Security Services'
See Appendix 7 for a list of industries on page 103.
41. This question will be asked of/for all persons 12 years and above. For persons who are 12 years of age and above at the time of your interview, the following codes will be entered in the boxes provided.
between a. man and a woman to live together and will include church marriages, other religiously approved unions, civil registration at a Boma or other civil ceremony, traditional marriages, or even where no ceremony has been performed but the man and woman are living as husband and wife. All those persons who have a husband/wife at present are to be recorded as married and given code 1.
2. Separated: A man or a woman who is separated, but not legally (civil or customary) divorced from his/her partner, and has no other wife/husband now will be given code 2.
3. Divorced: A man who has divorced (or has been divorced by) Ills wife and has no other wife now or a woman who has divorced (or has been divorced by) her husband and has no husband now will be given code 3.
4. Widowed: A man or woman whose partner died and he/she has no wife/husband at present will get code 4.
5. Never Married: Are those who have never been in any marital union (marriage). These will be given code 5.
42. This question is meant for all men and women who have ever been married (including those currently in marriage). If the person has been recorded as married, separated, divorced or widowed in P - 24, ask him/her about his/her age at his/her very first, marriage. Quite a number of people find it difficult to remember their age at first marriage. You have to probe before you can get the correct response. One of the ways to go about it is by getting the age of the first-born of the respondent, in his/her first marriage. Find out the time lapse between the respondent's first marriage and when this child was born. If it took just a few months, then the age at first marriage of this respondent will be just the difference between the age of the respondent and his/her first-born. If it took some time before the first child was born, then age at first marriage will be the same difference minus the duration between the date of the respondent's first marriage and the date of birth of the first-born. However, if the respondent remembers the date of the first marriage, then you just work out the number of years that have passed since this date and subtract this from the respondents' age now. Enter the age in the boxes provided.
[Examples are omitted here.]
Note: If it is a male you have been interviewing go to the next person or to Mortality Section.
1. You are about to start a new topic so you have to prepare the respondent by informing her that you are now going to ask her questions about children and child bearing. Remember these are questions to be asked of female adults and not for husbands to answer for their wives, except where it is inevitable. Questions on fertility are to be asked only of those females who are 12 years old and over and they involve only their own children.
F - 1: Live birth
2. This is a child which, after being delivered showed signs of life, like crying, movement by involuntary reflexes, etc. If a child never showed any of these actions when it was born, then it was not a live birth. Married females tend to leave out children from earlier marriages. These are also supposed to be included for all the questions. Enter code 1 for "Yes" or code 2 for "No" in the box provided.
F - 2: Age at first live birth
3. Ask the female respondent who has ever had a live birth how old she was when she had her first live birth. You are to record the age of the respondent at the time of her first live birth. If the first child was born dead, or the first pregnancy was aborted or miscarried, then you have to ask about the second pregnancy, etc., until she says that she gave birth to a child who was alive at the time of birth. Enter this age (in completed years) in the boxes provided.
F - 3: How many children born to you are still alive?
4. Children still alive include all the children that have been born alive to this particular female throughout her life and are still living. Some of these children may be grown up now and may even have their own children. Some of her children may have spent the night with the household, some might have spent it elsewhere or may be living with grandparents, uncles, aunts, or other relatives, and some may have gone away in marriage. You have to record all children ever born to her who are still living. The number of male and female children is to be recorded separately as indicated in the column.
F - 4: Of the children born to you alive how many ...?
5. The number of male and female children ever born alive to this female is to be recorded separately in three different categories. These are: still living and still at home with the respondent (i.e staying in the same household with the respondent); still living but staying with some other households e.g other relatives, married off, in institutions e.t.c; 'and those who have since died (regardless of whether the death took place just after birth or much later in life).
6. If a woman is visiting, then the question of "still living with you should be asked with respect to her usual place of residence. That is about children she normally stays with. Enter the number of children as reported by sex in two digits e.g. 1 male child living with her = 01, 2 children = 02, 10 children = 10 and they should be entered into the respective boxes. If the answer is none enter 00, never leave a box blank except where there is a 'Go To instruction.
F - 5: Have you had any live birth since August, 1989?
7. Do not put this question to females over 50 years of age since it will only be embarassing. Just enter code "2" in F-5 for such a female. The question is similar to F - 1 except that this time we are trying to find out if the female had a live birth in the "last 12 months".
8. These questions are similar to F - 4, except that this time we are interested in the number of children born alive to this woman during the last 12 months. Thus while in the former question the reference period was the woman's reproductive life up to now, in the present questions we are concerned only with a period of one year just preceding the date of interview. Enter the numbers as reported.
1. This is a topic about deaths that occurred in the household over the last 12 months_ It is a sensitive topic to most people, so you have to prepare the respondent and take on an air of concern before you pose the question.
M - 1: Has there been any death in this household since August, 1989?
2. This is a household question and it should be posed to the main respondent. It should not be asked of institutions. We are only concerned about deaths which occurred since August, 1989 and only those that involved members of the household. Deaths of visitors or relatives who were not usually living with the household should be excluded. If the response is "Yes", enter code 1 in box 24 and ask M - 2, if "No" go to HH-1.
HH - 1: What is the main source of energy used for lighting by this household?
4. Ask for the main source of energy used by the household for lighting. Since availability of energy for lighting is what is to be determined, even if a housing unit has the necessary wiring but is not connected to the electric supply system, the household will not be considered to be using electricity. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
HH - 3: What type of toilet is used by members of this household?
6. Everybody uses some toilet of some sort and we are interested in the type of toilet used by members of the household. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
8. Ask the respondent if this toilet is shared with members of other households. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided depending on the response given.
HH - 6: Is this housing unit owned by any member of this household?
9. Ask the respondent if this housing unit is owned by any member or members of the household. If the response is "Yes", ask the respondent question HH - 7, if the response is "No", skip question HH - 7 and go to HH - 8.
HH - 8: Is this housing unit provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member of this household?
11. If the response to HH - 6 is 'No', that is, if the housing unit is not owned by any member of the household, then find out if the housing unit is provided free by the employer/friend or relative of any member(s) of the household. When housing is provided by the employer, it may or may not involve payment of rent as sometimes employers charge full rent, sometimes a nominal rent and sometimes no rent at all. If the employer deducts any amount of money from the salary of any member of the household for rent, then the housing unit is not provided free.
12. When an employer provides a housing unit then it is not necessary to find out whether or not the employer is also the owner of that house/housing unit. For example, the housing unit may be owned by a private landlord but rented by a company which has provided this housing unit to its employee. As far as this household is concerned, the housing unit has been provided by the employer.
13. If the housing unit is provided free by the employer then skip questions HH - 9 and go to HH - 10 since HH - 9 would not be relevant to such a household. If the response is 'No', then you ask the next question. In either case enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
HH - 9: Is this housing unit rented from the employer of any member of this household?
14. Find out if the housing unit is rented from the employer of any of the members of the household. If the response is 'Yes' enter code 1 in the box and go to HH - 10. If the response is 'No' enter code 2 and go to HH - 11.
HH- 10: Is the employer...
15. Ask the respondent who the employer is and enter the appropriate code in the box provided. Go to HH-12 for all the responses to this question. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is 'Individual'.
HH - 11: Is this housing unit rented from
16. This question is asked of households who responded "No" in HH - 9, that is those who replied that the housing unit is not rented from the employer of any member of the household. In cases of domestic servants who are provided with housing by their employers, the response category taken is 'Individual'. After getting the response enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
HH - 12: Is this housing unit owned by[name]
17. The purpose is to know who owns the housing unit. Find out from the respondent who the owner of the housing unit is. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
b: How Many Television sets does this household/institution own?
18. The purpose for asking these questions is to find out how many households/institutions own radios and/or television sets. Find out how many radios and/or television sets are owned by the household/institution. Ascertain that the radio/television set is actually with the household/institution and is functioning. Enter the number of radios owned by the household/institution in boxes 39 to 41 and the number of television sets in boxes 42 to 44. If the response is none', enter '000' in the appropriate set of boxes.
1. In this setion we are interested in collecting information on housing particulars. A house and a housing unit will mean the same thing for this purpose. There are eight questions concerning each housing unit.
2. A building may have several housing units and therefore particulars of each housing unit will be collected separately for each of these even though these may be similar.
3. Since a housing unit is usually occupied by one household, the housing particulars will be entered in section H of the questionnaire for that household. If a household is large in size and therefore you have to use more than one questionnaire, enter the housing particulars only on the first questionnaire, giving the serial number of the questionnaire on which the particulars for this housing unit have been entered on all questionnaires used for the household.
4. If the housing unit is occupied by more than one household, enter the housing particulars only in the questionnaire for the first household enumerated within this housing unit. On top of the housing section of the questionnaires for the other households write 'see CBN..., HUN...,HHN..." referring to the CBN, HUN and HHN-on the questionnaire in which the housing particulars are entered.
5. In case of vacant housing units write 'Vacant' across section P of the questionnaire and fill the housing particulars in section H. In case of difficulties in identifying the materials and other housing particulars you may seek help from people who know about the housing unit like watchmen, neighbours, etc.
6. If a building is earmarked for demolition, but is standing intact and is occupied at the time of your visit, then you are to consider this as a standing building and you must collect housing particulars on each housing unit within this building. You are to record information for each housing unit on a separate questionnaire. If such a building is not occupied, however, it is not to be considered. Do not record anything.
7. If a building is under construction then you must exclude it. However, it is possible that someone may be living in a part of this incomplete building in which case you will consider the occupied part of the building as a housing unit (house) and collect the necessary information about it.
8. If a new building has been completed, but not yet occupied, write 'Vacant' across section F, then if possible collect the data about each housing unit. If there are more than one housing units in a building then use one questionnaire or each housing unit. For this exercise a complete house is one which has a roof, walls and a floor.
9. In some parts of Zambia it is customary to abandon a standing house/hut if a death occurred in that house/hut. Since for all practical purposes this particular house will never be used, it is as good as already demolished. Do not collect information about this house/hut and treat it as if it was not there. In case only one hut out of a group of huts forming one housing unit has been abandoned but other huts are being used for living, then ignore the abandoned but but collect the information about the remaining huts.
10. In this question we are interested in knowing the different types of housing units as defined on page 19 Chapter III, e.g. single structure, several structures, etc. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
11. You can easily see the type of roof the housing unit has. In case it is not very obvious or if in doubt, ask the respondent. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
12. Generally the walls are plastered both inside and outside. If you are not able to tell, ask the respondent. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
13. Just like in H - 3 above, the respondent may be of assistance in this question. However, if it is quite obvious to you, enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
14. Find out how many households are living in this housing unit. Usually there will be a single household in one housing unit. Sometimes the household may be occupying more than one housing unit. On the other hand you may find more than one household occupying one housing unit, which is actually intended to house just one household. In such a case enter code 3 in box 49 and the number of households sharing this housing unit in box 50. Otherwise, enter the appropriate code in box 49. For conditions 1, 2, 4 or 5 enter 0 in box 50.
15. A room is defined as a space in a housing unit enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering at least to a height of two metres, of a size large enough to fit a bed for an adult. A hut meeting these two qualifications will also be treated as a room. Normally, bedrooms and living rooms will be included in this definition. Passage ways, verandahs, lobbies, kitchens, bathrooms and toilet rooms are
not counted as rooms even if they meet the criteria. A garage and a store meeting these requirements should be treated as rooms only if these are actually being used for living purposes at the time of enumeration. Enter the number of rooms in the box provided for this.
16. Find out the number of livingrooms and bedrooms in the housing unit and enter them in the respective boxes provided.
Note: Study and drawing rooms, living or family rooms, play rooms, etc. are to be considered as 'rooms' if they meet the above criteria.
17. A kitchen is a space which conforms in all respects to a 'room' and is equipped for the preparation of meals and is intended primarily for that purpose. In cases where more than one household share a kitchen attach the kitchen to only one of them. Enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
18. Find out the main source of water for drinking and cooking for the household and enter the appropriate code in the box provided.
19. These are screening questions aimed at determining whether or not the household being enumerated is an agricultural one or any member of the household is managing an agricultural holding for somebody else. A "No" and/or a "Yes" under A-2 and A-3, respectively, would require that you fill in Agriculture Supplement questionnaire(s). Mark x[X] against the applicable answer categories and enter the codes in the appropriate boxes below for each question.
Map interpretation and updating
Maps to be used during enumeration
1. There are two kinds of maps which will be used during the 1990 Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture:
i. Master Copy
2. This map will be used by the Master Trainer, Regional Census Officer and the District Census Officer.
3. This is a district map at a scale of 1:250,000 and gives a "bird's eye view" of the district as a whole. It shows major features such as roads, rivers, general terrain and other boundaries. Boundaries of individual Census Supervisory Areas (CSAs) and adjoining CSAs are shown on the map. It will assist the concerned officers to plan their routes of travel during supervision in the district.
ii. Census Supervisory Area (Csa) Map
4. This map will be used by the Enumerators, Supervisors and Senior Supervisors. It contains 3 - 5 SEAs in urban areas and 2 - 4 SEAs in rural areas. It varies in scale from 1:50,000 (for rural) to 1:5,000 for urban areas. It shows all necessary details, villages, rivers, churches, houses, schools, roads, etc.
Standard Enumeration Area (SEA)
5. These are sub-divisions within the CSA which constitute your work area as an Enumerator. Roads, railwaylines, buildings, etc., are clearly shown on the map. The map will assist you to locate the Enumeration area, identify your starting point and plan the best route of travel during canvassing. This is important in case your Supervisor would like to reach you in an emergency. SEA boundaries are clearly identifiable both on the map and on the ground and are shown as black dotted lines on the map. You should know your boundaries very well so that you do not cross into another SEA as doing so will result in duplications and omissions which will in turn affect the accurancy and timeliness of the Census results.
All maps contain the following basic map elements.
b. Scale e.g. 1:50,000
c. Legend/specification [e.g. for footpath, for a permanent building, for a river, for a hut etc. Illustrations are omitted.]
6. In the field we locate the position of features in relation to each other in order to determine their direction. On the CSA map our reference system of direction and location is based on the North and South directions. These being the North and South poles. The North pole is also known as the Geographical North. On the SEA map you will find an arrow pointing in a certain direction. The direction to which this arrow points is the North. By locating the North on your map you know other cardinal points. South is opposite north, east to the right and west to the left.
[Illustration for North Arrow is omitted here.]
7. The scale of a map is the relationship between the distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground. This can be expressed as a ratio i.e. 1:4 which means that one unit of measurement on the map will represent four of the same units of measurement on the ground.
[Example is omitted here.]
8. The most common scale you will be using during your Enumeration is the graphic scale. This shows the relationship of the distance between two points on the map and the distance between the same two points on the ground by use of a bar or a line. The graphic scale on your CSA map enables you to determine distances within your SEA. An example of the graphic scale is shown below;
[Illustration for scale is omitted here.]
To get the scale you put the ratios to the same unit of measurement and then write to the lowest common term.
A. Paper Strip and the Graphic Scale
9. This is the simplest method to use when one wants to measure distances. The graphic scale is subdivided into uniform measures of equal units and to use it the procedure is as follows:-
Let us suppose you want to measure the distance between villages A and B on your map. Take a straight edged piece of paper and lay it on the map so that the straight edge joins village A and B. On the paper strip make a mark at village A and B.
[Illustration im for measuring distance is omitted here.]
Place the paper just below the bar scale. The ground distance between village A and B can be read off from the scale.
[Illustration im for measuring distance is omitted here.]
In actual situations roads and streets are not always straight. Therefore, to measure distances on curved roads the same procedure is followed and the distances between points on each leg (straight section) of the road is individually measured and then added to get the total distance. Read off the distance from the graphic scale. Start reading from the zero position and use the left side of the scale which is subdivided into smaller units for fractions of kilometres.
B. When walking
10. In some instances you might find yourself in a situation where you may need to measure distances without any measuring instrument. In this case a simple but carefull pacing procedure is required. Distance is calculated by counting the number of steps between two points and then multiplying by the average length of the pace.
If a person steps off 120 paces between point A and B and the average length of his pace is 0.5 metre, then the distance between point A and B is 120 x 0.5 or 60 metres.
B.2 Determining length of a pace
11. To determine the average length of your pace proceed as follows:
ii. By walking normally, not taking unusually long or unusually short steps, walk distance AB at least three times in each direction (making 6 trips). Count the number of steps taken in each direction every time.
iii. Add the total number of paces in each direction. When adding disregard counts that are unusual e.g., if your counts are 150, 153, 168, 152, 145, and 151, disregard 168 and 145. Your average will thus be (150 + 153 + 152 + 151) divided by 4 or 153.3 paces.
iv. Divide the average number of paces into the distance between A and B. In this case we had 100 metres. Therefore, we divide 153.3 into 100 metres. This gives us an average of 0.65 metres per pace. This method is a good approximator of distances in the absence of other means of measurement.
12. Plotting is simply using the graphic scale to locate new features onto the map. It is the conversion of the paces between features to metres and transferring this information on to your map in representative form as per given specification (legend). Assume you have determined the length of your pace as given above, and that you are at point A and you want to plot point B which is not on your map. Start by walking to point B from point A. When you reach point B you find you have travelled 153 paces. In order to get the distance you have travelled you simply multiply 153 by 0.65 which equals 99.45. Thus you can take this to the nearest metre and this gives you 100 metres. Since you are using a map of scale 1:50,000, 100 metres is represented by 2mm on your map. By measuring 2mm in the direction of point B on your map you will be able to plot (locate) the position of point B. You can use this method for all features whenever the necessity to update your map arises.
13. A legend is a list of conventional signs and symbols which are used to depict and locate man-made features (roads, buildings, etc.) and natural features (such as rivers, hills, etc.). Their use and choice depends on tnc purpose and scale of the map.
[Example is omitted here.]
14. In case of imaginary boundaries (ie. administrative boundaries are usually imaginary) be sure to identity them correctly in the field. Township boundaries at main routes are usually marked by signs (see example).
15. If there are no signs marking imaginary boundaries use the following procedure.
b. Using the graphic scale, determine the distance from the landmark to the boundary.
c. Use any available measuring device to determine actual ground location of the boundary from the landmark.
d. If you cannot locate and satisfactorily verify a boundary consult your Supervisor or local residents who are familiar with the area.
Locating a CSA/SEA
16. Your Supervisor will show you boundaries of your SEA before you start canvassing in your area. He will also assist you in choosing the best route of travel that will ensure convenience and minimize delay.
17. Always turn the map in the direction in which you are travelling. You must turn the map each time you change directions so that features on the map are always lined up in their correct relationships to the actual features on the ground. This ensures that you do not miss important roads or boundaries:
C. Map corrections and up-dating
18. The map may be out or may contain incorrect information about specific ground features. It is your responsibility to correct and update the map as necessary.
ii. New Development: You must add to your map any new features in the area That are not shown such as new roads, buildings etc. Use standard symbols when drawing them on the map. Use the graphic scale for measuring distances between features to ensure proper placement of features.
iii. Features existing on the Map but not found on the Ground: You may find streets or landmarks on your map that do not exist on the ground. Carefully cross them out using an "X". Do not cross them out completely.
iv. Road/River Names: Roads and rivers may have names which the local people use in preference to the gazetted ones. In order to assist subsequent enumerators who will be returning to the same area, write the local road or river name on the map.
v. Care for Maps: Maps must be kept in good condition in order to be reusable.
CSA maps should be rolled. Should you find it necessary to fold them in order to fit them in your kit, do so neatly. Protect them from rain, mud and dust.
Geographical Coding Scheme
19. To process and tabulate Census results by geographic areas, a complete geographical identification scheme is necessary. The geographical scheme is so designed to enable us to uniquely identify geographical areas at various levels for which the data are to be reported, tying CSAs and SEAs to each of these areas in a systematic manner, in order to derive precise data aggregates of the areas without omission or commission. The coding scheme should therefore be exhaustive and comprehensive to include all area units adopted for both data collection and reporting. In this way, data are correctly assigned to the administrative areas to which they belong.
20. Zambia has 9 provinces, and each province is divided into districts. None of the 9 provinces has more than 9 districts. The Central Statistical Office (CSO) demarcates the district into CSAs, which are further sub-divided into SEAs. The coding system adopted by the CSO is based broadly on the order of the administrative hierarchy as shown below:
21. Since there are less than 10 provinces in the country, and none of the provinces has more than 9 districts, the province has been assigned one digit and the district one digit within a province. The same arrangement is applied to the Rural/Urban, where one (1) is for rural and (2) for urban. The CSA has been assigned three digits because in most cases there are more than 99 CSAs in a district. The SEAs which appear on the face of the map are assigned one digit each because the maximum number of SEAs in a CSA does not exceed 5. Examples follow below:
Suppose what appears on the map is: Scale 1: 50,000 on the top left hand corner, Republic of Zambia in the center, and CSC-27-1-047 on the right hand corner. Scale 1: 50,000 tells us the scale of the map (as a ratio).
Republic of Zambia is the main heading informing us that the map covers a part of the Republic of Zambia.
CSO-27-1--047 is the main geographical code and tells us the following information:
b. 2--- the second province in Zambia (in alphabetical order), i.e, Copperbelt
c. 7--- the 7th district in the province (in alphabetical order), i.e, Ndola rural
d. 1--- standing for Rural CSA
e. 047- Census Supervisory Area number 047.
1990 CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE - PART I INSTRUCTIONS FOR ENUMERATORS
Purpose: The purpose of Part I of the Census of Agriculture is to collect basic information pertaining to agricultural activities in the country. Primarily, this exercise is meant to set up the frame which will be used for the Census of Agriculture Part II to be conducted during the 1991-92 agricultural year. The frame will among other things, pinpoint areas where particular field crops, types of livestock and poultry chickens), are predominant and such information will then be used to establish zones of agricultural activity which will provide a basis for sampling frame construction. The data to be collected will also provide benchmark information which will assist in assessing the quality and reliability of results to be obtained in future sample surveys.
The data to be collected will include types of field crops grown and area planted to these crops during the 1989-90 season.
Information will also be collected on types of livestock and poultry (chickens) reared and their numbers as on the day of enumeration.
Coverage: The Census of Agriculture - Part I will be conducted at the same time as the Census of Population and Housing in all areas of all districts in the country between the months of August and September, 1990.
It is important that you familiarise yourself with the various concepts and definitions used for this exercise before embarking on the field work.
Qualified Respondent: is an adult member of the household who is knowledgeable about the household's cropland, livestock and poultry. It is not necessary that all information be given by a single person. A respondent may consult other members present on different items in the questionnaire.
Household: consists of all members of one family who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and including other persons such as house-help or farm-labourers, who normally live together in one house or closely related premises and take their meals from the same kitchen.
A household may also consist of only one member.
Agricultural Household: is a household in which at least one member is carrying out some agricultural activity on the holding belonging to the household, (excluding the growing of vegetables meant for home consumption).
Head of Household: is the person who is considered to be the head by the other members of the household. The husband, in a matrimonial household, is usually taken as the head of the household. In his absence, it is the wife or the eldest member of the household who assumes the responsibility of head of household.
* For elaboration see the Census of Population and Housing part of this Manual.
Holding: is all land wholly or partly operated for agricultural purposes i.e., growing of crops and/or raising livestock and/or raising poultry under a single technical management. A holding may consist of one or more parcels (defined below) located in one or more separate areas, provided the parcels share the same means of production, e.g., labour.
Parcel: is an undivided block of land in the holding entirely surrounded by land and/or water that does not belong to the same holding. It may contain one or several fields growing one or different crops, or it may be left idle or fallow, or it may be under pasture.
Field: is a piece of land usually cultivated with one crop at a time. In some cases, a number of different crops may be grown in a single field at the same time.
Area under Mixed Crops: is the area of the field in which several crops are grown almost simultaneously. The area of such a field has to be apportioned to the constituent crops in the proportion of the field's area occupied by each of the crops in that field. Thus, the area of the field under each of the crops planted in mixture, when added together will be almost equal to the area of the field.
Rice (Paddy): Production of rice should relate to paddy (i.e., rice in husk) in 80kg bags. Where the quantity of production is reported in milled or hand-pounded rice (i.e., rice whose husks have been removed) then, before recording, this should be converted to paddy equivalent by multiplying by 1.5.
Wheat (Irrigated/Rainfed): Quantities of production of wheat (whether irrigated or rainfed) should be recorded in dried grain form in 90kg bags. In the case of irrigated wheat which may not have been harvested by the time of the Census, record expected production.
Cassava: Is harvested in tuber form but production may be reported in several forms: tuber, chips, or in flour form (i.e., pounded and sieved). For statistical purposes we will adopt one form in which cassava production is to be recorded, i.e., flour form. Therefore, quantities of production of cassava should relate to cassava flour in 90kg bags. Where a respondent reports production quantities in the form of tuber and/or chips, these quantities should be converted to flour equivalents before recording. A conversion table is provided on page 75.
The following equivalents may also be used:
1 Standard Bag of Chips = 50kg of Cassava Flour
1.8 Standard Bags of Chips = 1 Standard Bag of Cassava Flour
18 Standard Bags of Chips = 10 Standard Bags of Cassava Flour
5 Standard Bags of Raw Cassava (Tuber) = 3 Standard Bags of Cassava Flour
(A Standard Bag is one which when filled with maize grain, weighs 90 kilogrammes).
Groundnuts: May be reported in shelled as well as unshelled form. For Statistical purposes, the concept of shelled groundnuts (i.e., groundnuts without the covers) will be adopted. Accordingly, quantities of groundnut production should relate to shelled groundnuts in 80kg bags. Where a respondent reports production in unshelled form, this should be converted to shelled form before recording, using the conversion table provided on page 74.
Seed Cotton: Production of seed cotton should be recorded in kilogrammes. Where the quantity of seed cotton produced is reported in bales and/or woolpacks, such quantity should be converted to kilogrammes before recording, using the conversion table provided on page 76.
Note: Bales/Woolpacks are of two sizes, viz: small (75 kilogrammes), large (150 kilogrammes).
Tobacco (burley/Virginia): Quantities produced should relate to tobacco in cured form in kilogrammes. Where the quantity produced is reported in bundles/bales/packs, such quantity should be converted kilogrammes before recording, using the Conversion Table provided on page 76.
Livestock/ Poultry inTransit: are livestock/poultry which are kept for a short period of time for onward delivery, such as resale, to be given away as gifts (e.g. , dowry), for slaughter, etc. These should not be included among livestock/poultry on the holding. Livestock temporarily away to grazing lands and those on their way to the holding should be included among livestock on the holding.
Engaged in Agricultural Activity: refers to active involvement in the growing of crops or raising of livestock or raising of poultry or any combination of these activities. Mere ownership of an agricultural holding/farm (without active involvement) which is run by an employee will not warrant the owner of such a holding/farm to be regarded as being engaged in agricultural activity.
Note: You will complete
b. One questionnaire for each holding/farm run by an employed manager.
Before you start collecting information on agricultural activities in which the household is engaged, ensure that the Identification information is the same as on the 1990 Census of Population and Housing questionnaire. In other words, copy the Identification Particulars entered on the Census of Population and Housing questionnaire onto the Identification Section of the Census of Agriculture - Part I questionnaire.
In the top right hand corner of the cover page you are to enter the total number of questionnaires completed for each household. The first set of boxes indicates the order in which the questionnaires were completed while the second set shows the total number of questionnaires completed e.g. schedule No.02 of 03, which means we have schedule no. 2 of a total of three (3) schedules completed.
All this information will be obtained from the Population and Housing questionnaire.
Item 1: write the name of the province in which you are working, in the space labelled %Province Name'. Enter the code for the province you have written, in the box numbered '11.
Item 2: Write the name of the district in which you are working in the space labelled 'District Name. Enter the district code in the boxes numbered '2...31.
Item 3: Enter the Census Supervisory Area (CSA) number for the area in which you are working in the boxes numbered
Item 4: Write, in the space provided, 'Rural' if the area you are working in is a rural area, or 'Urban' if the area is urban. Enter in box 7 a '11 if the CSA you are working in is rural, a '2' if the area is an urban area.
Item 5: Enter the Standard Enumeration Area (SEA) number for your assigned area in box 8, and enter the check digit in box 9.
Item 6: Enter the Census Building Number (CBN), assigned during canvassing of the Population and Housing questionnaire in boxes 10...12.
Item 7: Enter the Housing Unit Number (HUN), as assigned earlier, in boxes 13...14.
Item 8: Enter the Household Number, as assigned earlier, in box 15.
Item 9: Write, in the space provided against this item, the name of the village/locality in which the household you are canvassing is located.
Item 10: Write the residential address of the household in the space provided. In the case of a rural area the village/locality name will suffice. If you are in an urban area then the residential address will include such items as the street/road name, street number, house number, and name of location/suburb.
For example: House No. 19, Chisongo Road, Chilenje South. House Number 254, Section 2, Mufulira.
Item 11: Write the name of the Chief to which your work area belongs in the space provided and enter the Chief's area code in boxes 16...18.
Item 12: Write the name of Ward under which the household as well as the village/locality falls, in the space provided against this item. Enter the code for the Ward in boxes 19...20.
Item 13: Write the name of the head of the household in the space provided. This will be identified by code '1' from P-4 of the Population and Housing questionnaire.
Item 14: Enter the age of the person named in item 13 as written in P-6 of the Population and Housing questionnaire. The age should be entered in boxes 21 22.
Item 15: Enter the sex of the head of the household in box 23. This is obtainable from P-5 of the Population and Housing questionnaire.
Assignment Record: Write your name in the space provided against 'Enumerator' and enter the date on which the questionnaire is completed, in the space against where you wrote your name.
Leave the spaces labelled 'Supervisor', 'Coder' and 'Editor' blank.
Interview Status: Place a cross (x) in the appropriate box to indicate whether the interview was completed or not. Enter the code for the status checked in box 24.
Summary Count: Count all the persons coded '1' and '3' in P-3 of the Population and Housing Questionnaire, i.e., the usual members of the household, both present and absent, and enter the result under 'TOTAL'. Using P-5, find out how many of the persons are male and how many are female and enter the numbers in the appropriate boxes.
Note: At the bottom of the front page there are two boxes one labelled 'Owner-Managed Holding' and the other labelled 'Non-owner-Managed Holding'. Check mark the appropriate box to indicate whether the holding is managed by the owner or an employee.
Item 1.0: Check mark the appropriate box to indicate how the holding/farm is operated. If the farm/holding is managed by the owner check mark box 1. If the farm/holding is managed by someone else who is an employee, then check box 2. Enter the code of the operational status checked in the box provided.
Item 2.0: Find out from the respondent the name of the manager and write it in the space provided.
Item 2.1: Find out from the respondent the name of the farm and write it in the space provided against this item.
Item 2.2: Find out from the respondent the type of ownership of the holding/farm. If it is a Government holding/farm (i.e. National Service, Government, School/College, Prison, etc.), Check mark box 1. If it is parastatal check mark box 2 and if it is a private company/institution or individual check mark box 3. Transfer the number of the box you have check marked into the box provided on the right.
Item 2.3 Find out from the respondent the farm number (if any) and write it in the space provided against 'Farm Number'. If the farm is not numbered, then place a dash '-' in the space provided for farm number. Obtain the total area of the holding/farm and record the response in the appropriate land measure unit boxes.
Item 2.4 Obtain, from the respondent or the person who manages the holding/farm, the postal address through which correspondence is conducted and write this in the spaces provided against this item.
Item 2.5 Enter the holding's telephone number (if any) in the space provided. Otherwise enter a dash '-'.
Item 2.6 Write, in the space provided against this item, the description of the physical location of the farm. In other words you ask the respondent to describe to you how to get to the farm easily.
An example of the location description of a farm would be:
2.2 Farm Name: Mulenga Farm
2.6 Physical Location: 5 kilometres from Chilanga on Kafue Road going towards Kafue, turn left and go for 25 kilometres.
Note: Each listed crop bears a number. The questions to be asked on each one of them are numbered 'a', and 'c' horizontally. Since the questions are general to the crops, the way to pose them will be discussed in general terms.
Question a: Ask the respondent whether the indicated crop was grown on the holding since 1st October, 1989. If the response is 'Yes', check box 1 and ask questions 'b' and 'c'. If the response is 'No', check box 2 and ask about the next crop listed. Do not ask questions 'b' and 'c' when the response to question 'a' is 'No' because they will be irrelevant.
Question b: If the response to question 'a' is 'Yes' for the crop that you are dealing with, find out from the respondent the total area that was planted to that crop. The procedure to obtain area planted to a crop may be as follows:
Find out from the respondent how many members of the household grew the crop and then find out how many fields were planted by each member of the household. Having obtained the total number of fields that were planted with the crop on the holding, ask for the area of each field. Find out field by field whether the crop was planted in mixture with another crop and obtain the proportions in which the crops occupied the field. The proportion of the field occupied by the crop will be used to determine the area of the field falling under that particular crop.
Those fields that were not under crop mixture will have their area recorded as reported.
The area for cassava will include the recently planted fields and those which were planted some years back and had cassava in them during the reference period.
For those fields that were under crop mixture, use the proportion given as the part of the field occupied by the crop of interest to calculate the area under it. When you are through with obtaining the area for all the fields reported (both as pure stands and stands in mixture), add up the figures that are reported in the same unit and record the total in the appropriate response boxes in the questionnaire.
NB: A pure stand field is a field in which only one crop has been planted without any other. Cases where pumpkins and/or cowpeas are also planted in a maize field such fields should be regarded as pure stands.
For holdings/farms that are managed by employees, the procedure to be followed will be the same, except that you will not ask for bow many members grew the crop but how many fields were planted with the crop.
[Example is omitted here.]
Question c: Find out from the respondent how much quantity of the crop was produced, preferably obtain the production field by field, and enter the total production in the boxes provided. If, by the time of the Census, the crop is not yet harvested, then obtain expected production. The decimal part of the response boxes is for recording quantities that are fractions of the standard unit.
Question 4: Ask the respondent whether any livestock were raised on the holding (regardless of ownership) since 1st October, 1989. If the response is 'Yes', check box 1 and proceed to ask questions on livestock. If the response is 'No', check box 2 and skip to Question 5.1.
Question a: Ask the respondent whether the indicated type of livestock was raised on the holding during the reference period. If the response is 'Yes', check box 1 and ask the next question on that type of livestock. If the response is 'No', check box 2 and go to the next type of livestock.
Question b: Obtain, from the respondent, the total number of the indicated type of livestock that are on the holding, as on the day of enumeration. Enter the number given in the boxes provided for that livestock type (Exclude livestock in transit).
Question 5.1: Ask the respondent whether any chickens were raised on the holding during the reference period. If the response is `Yes', check box 1 and ask question 5.1b. If the response is 'No', check box 2 and end the interview.
Question 5.1b: Find out from the respondent how many chickens are on the holding as on the day of enumeration. Enter the figure in the boxes provided and end the interview.
Comments/Remarks: Use the space freely for any calculations, responses you may not be able to record straight in the designated spaces in the questionnaire (e.g., those that will require conversion to the desired units) or any unusual circumstances that you may come across during interview.
[Omitted: Conversion Table for Groundnuts]
[Omitted: Conversion Table for Cassava]
[Omitted: Conversion Table for Cotton and Tobacco]