Community Survey 2007: Enumerator's Manual
Statistics South Africa
[Pages 1-5 omitted]
[Administrative information omitted]
[Pages 7-11 and top of page 12 omitted]
There is a need to have a shared understanding of all terms and definitions used in this manual and in the questionnaire. By having a common understanding, this will ensure that the correct procedures are followed and that the information obtained is accurate and reliable.
Acting head of the household
Person recognised or nominated by the household as assuming the role of the household head in the absence of the usual household head. This may be because the person recognised as the household head stays else where for work purpose, or because he/she was not present on the reference night (census) or for the required period of time in the reference period (surveys).
A person who receives accommodation and meals in someone else's house in return for payment.
Block of flats
A structure, usually multi-storey, consisting of a number of dwellings sharing the same residential address, and usually sharing a common entrance, foyer or staircase.
(Note that some people in South Africa use the word 'flat' to refer to a whole block of flats. In this manual the word flat is only used to refer to a single unit.
Collective living quarters /Communal living quarters
2. Living quarters where certain facilities are shared by groups of individuals or households. They can be divided into: (a) hotels, motels, guesthouses, etc. (b) workers hostels and student residences; and (c) institutions.
For the purpose of CS, Demolished dwelling is a dwelling that has been destroyed.
Person employed to work in a household as a cleaner, cook, nanny, gardener, driver, etc.
A domestic worker who lives on the property of the employer, either in the same house or in separate domestic quarters, is known as a live-in domestic worker. Such a person is not considered part of the household of the employer but forms his/her own household. This will apply even in cases where the domestic worker has most of his/her meals with the employer. Domestic workers usually have families and responsibilities of their own elsewhere and are thus considered as separate households.
If, however, a domestic worker lives in the same house as the employer, e.g. in a spare bedroom, does not get a formal salary in cash, and shares meals and other resources with the household, then he/she should be treated as part of the main household. These cases are rare; in most cases such people are relatives of the family.
Any structure intended or used for human habitation.
Structure or part of a structure or group of structures occupied or meant to be occupied by one or more than one household. Includes structure or part of structure which is vacant and/or under construction, but can be lived in at the time of the survey. Includes units in collective living quarters, unlike housing unit. Dwelling units may therefore comprise housing units plus units collective living quarters when applicable. (Examples of each are a house, a group of huts, and a flat.)
A dwelling unit has a separate entrance from outside or from a common space, as in a block of flats.
Premises not intended for use as living quarters, but used for human habitation at the time of Community Survey, such as a barn, warehouse, etc., are also classified as dwelling units for Community Survey purposes.
Enumeration for the purposes of the Community Survey is the process of counting members of a sample of a given population and collecting demographic and other information about each person. This counting takes place by means of administering a questionnaire to a selection of households in the country. The data is then weighted to the given population.
An Enumeration Area (EA) is the smallest geographical unit (piece of land) into which the country is divided for enumeration purposes. EAs typically contain between 100 and 250 households.
In Community Survey, the EA serves as a sampling unit, that is, an area selected to be in a sample. Each EA is expected to have clearly defined boundaries. Selected EAs have to be enumerated by enumerators in the allocated period.
Enumeration Area number
An Enumeration Area number is a 8 digit unique ID number given to an EA for purposes of record keeping and coding. The first digit indicates the province. The next two digits indicate the municipality and the last five digits distinguish the different EAs from each other within the municipality.
Enumerator's Summary Book
A register of demarcation and listing information pertaining to a particular EA, known colloquially as the 09 book, which identifies an EA by province, local authority, main place name and sub-place name, and by means of maps and/or aerial photographs. Used during enumeration to record key information such as visit or attempted visit, and total households and people counted.
During enumeration, the Enumerator Area Summary Book is used to record the households enumerated, and to enter other key information such as total households and people counted. The book becomes a summary of the enumerator's work.
Enumerator area type (EA type)
The classification of enumerator areas according to set criteria profiling
land use and human settlement within the area. Not to be confused with
settlement type, a broader classification.
Collective accommodation for workers e.g. in mines, factories, power stations, hospitals and for municipalities. Accommodation in hostels may be in single rooms or dormitories, with shared facilities such as kitchens and bathrooms.
A freestanding dwelling.
A household is a group of persons who live together and provide themselves jointly with food or other essentials for living, or a single person who lives alone.
Note that a household is not necessarily the same as a family.
Person recognised as such by household, usually the main decisionmaker, or the person who owns or rents the dwelling, or the person who is the main breadwinner. The head can be either male or female.
If two people are equal decision-makers, or in a household of totally unrelated persons, the older or oldest can be named as the household head.
Makeshift structure not approved by a local authority and not intended as a permanent dwelling. Typically built of found materials (corrugated iron, cardboard, plastic, etc.). Contrasted with formal dwelling and traditional dwelling.
An institution is a particular type of collective living quarters, for people with a common characteristic who are living under a common regime. The following are institutions: hospital/clinic, frail care centre, childcare institution/ orphanage, home for the disabled, boarding school hostel, initiation school, convents and monasteries, defence force barracks, camps and ships, prisons, refugee camps, shelters for the homeless.
Compiling a register of all dwellings, possible dwellings and landmarks in a given EA, including all housing units, all units or rooms within collective living quarters, all non-residential buildings and all vacant stands.
The list is compiled in the EA Summary Book.
Lodgers are enumerated as separate households, if they pay for their food and accommodation as a business arrangement.
First level of the place name category, namely city, town, township (apartheid), tribal authority or administrative area.
Two or more separate households living in the same dwelling unit.
Multiple households occur when:
- There is more than one household at one address, or
- There is more than one household at one dwelling unit.
Multiple households can be found, for example, in polygamous or
extended family situations.
During enumeration, multiple households must always be given separate
interviews and separate questionnaires, and a household number.
A situation where data collection is incomplete as the enumerator fails to make contact with a household at an address, or an individual in collective living quarters because:
For the purpose of CS questionnaire, No usable info is information given by the respondents during the interview that does not make sense
For the purpose of CS questionnaire, Partly complete is when the questionnaire is incomplete.
A person who answers questions on behalf of another person.
A unique number usually from 001-600 pre-printed in the Enumerator Area Summary Book. During listing, each dwelling unit or other place to be visited for purposes of enumeration is associated with a separate record number in the EA Summary Book. Each record number is on a separate line or row.
Situation where a household or individual refuses to answer the questions or complete the questionnaire.
Space in a housing unit or other living quarter enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, or to a height of at least two metres, of an area large enough to hold a bed for an adult, that is, at least four square metres.
Dwellings usually occupied only at certain times of the year but which remain unoccupied during the rest of the year, such as, for example, holiday/vacation homes, harvest-time homes, etc. These types of dwelling must be labelled as such in the EA Summary Book.
One of two houses joined together with one common wall. Each house usually has its own private ground and no other dwelling below or above it.
Second (lowest) level of the place name category, namely a suburb, section or zone of an (apartheid) township, smallholdings, village, subvillage, ward or informal settlement.
Arrangement under which a household occupies its dwelling.
Toilet Facility Installation or system for the disposal of human excreta.
A self-contained dwelling with private grounds within a common ground for other dwellings.
A dwelling made of clay, mud, reeds or other locally available materials. This is a general term that includes huts, rondavels, etc. Such dwellings can be found as single units or in clusters.
Premises built specially for living purposes, which are suitable for occupation, but which are not occupied during the Community Survey, for example, an empty house or an empty flat in a block of flats.
A dwelling that is uninhabited, i.e. no one lives there.
A person who stays temporarily in a household different from his normal place of residence. Visitors must be enumerated as part of the household they are visiting.
[Chapter objectives omitted]
Types of geographical areas and EA types
There are four types of geographical areas that are within the scope of coverage of the Community Survey. These are:
All EA types (mentioned below) are within the scope of the Community Survey:
While all types of structures are listed in the EA Summary Book, the CS enumeration itself, that is, the interviewing will be limited to selected dwellings. See Table 1 below.
During Enumeration, you will administer the CS questionnaire for:
- All households living in selected dwelling units. This includes dwelling units located on the premises of shops and factories, or on the grounds of institutions such as, the living quarters of a caretaker, of doctors and nurses in a hospital, of warders in a prison, or of nursing or cleaning staff in a child-care institution. The house, the flat, or the rooms where they live is their dwelling unit.
- All households living in selected dwelling units in hostels for workers.
- All households living in selected dwelling units in convents, monasteries and other types of religious dwellings / residences.
The following types of dwellings are out-of-scope for enumeration:
- students' residences (non-boarding)
- caravan parks/camping sites/tents
- private ships/boats/marina
- tourist hotels/ motels/ inns
- hospitals/ medical facilities/ clinics/ frail care centres
- child care institutions/ orphanages
- homes for the disabled
- boarding school hostels
- initiation schools
- defence force barracks/ camps/ ships in harbour
- prisons/ correctional institutions/ police cells
- community/ church halls (as refugees)
- refugee camps/ shelters for the homeless
Feature use / Conduct interview (enumeration)?
Dwelling units / Yes
Seasonal dwellings/holiday homes / Yes
Collective living quarters
Workers' hostel / Yes
Convent/ monastery/ religious retreat / Yes
Residential hotel / No
Home for aged (other than frail care centre) / No
Students' residences (non-boarding) / No
Caravan parks/camping sites/tents / No
Private ships/boats/marina / No
Tourist hotel/ motel/ inn / No
Hospital/ frail care centre / No
Child care institution/ orphanage / No
Home for the disabled / No
Boarding school hostel / No
Initiation school / No
Defence force barracks/ camp/ ship in harbour / No
Prison/ correctional institution/ police cells / No
Community/ church hall (as refuge) / No
Refugee camp/ shelter for the homeless / No
Offices / No
Post office / No
Market / No
Shop / No
School / No
Factory / No
Bank / No
Police station / No
Filling station / No
Church and other places of worship / No
Day clinic / No
Sports, Oval, Stadium / No
Bottle store / No
Vacant land / No
Homeless persons / No
Who shall be counted in CS 2007?
All usual members of the household who stay in the dwelling at least four nights a week and have done so over the last four weeks, plus visitors who spent the night before the interview with the household. A household is a group of persons who live together, and provide for themselves jointly with food and other essentials for living, or a person who lives alone.
[Subsection "2.1 Use of the EA summary book" on p.21 omitted.]
["Chapter 3: Overview of Enumeration" omitted.]
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[Chapter objectives omitted]
The times when you work will depend on the circumstances in your area. For example, in some rural areas it may be possible to conduct interviews throughout the day, whereas in some urban areas, responsible respondents may not be available during the day. In that case you will have to enumerate in the evenings.
Some items on the cover page of the questionnaire have to be filled in before entering the dwelling; others can only be filled in after the completion of the interview. This is explained below.
The EA number is an 8-digit number that appears on the front page of the EA summary book. Copy it on to the questionnaire.
Dwelling Unit Number
Copy the dwelling unit number as recorded in column (M) of the EA Summary Book
Physical Identification of the Dwelling Unit / Household
Copy the physical address of the dwelling as listed in your EA Summary Book. This is the house or street number and street name, if available, as in Column (B) and (C) in the EA Summary Book.
However, in certain instances, the physical address is not available and the following columns have been used to provide additional information:
- Column (D) and (E) - Name and Surname of Household
- Column (F) - Name of Village, Settlement or Locality
- Column (G) - Unit or Other Number
- Column (H) - Name of Building, Block or Farm
- Column (J) - Further identification or description
Landline (Telkom) telephone number, if any.
Ask the household and record the landline telephone number, as well as area code. If necessary, explain that Stats SA staff will only use this number should they need to clarify answers.
Cell phone number, if any.
Ask the household and record. If necessary, explain that Stats SA staff will only use this number should they need to clarify answers. Ideally the cell phone number should be the number of the person who provided survey information.
Total number of persons in the household
This refers to the total number of people enumerated in the household, as listed on the flap. Please remember that more than one questionnaire may have been used and the total of all persons on each questionnaire should be recorded.
Regarding the "total number of people in the household" when more than one questionnaires are used, add up the totals from all the questionnaires used for the household and write the number on each questionnaire. Hence, the totals written on each questionnaire will always reflect the total number of people in the household and not just the subset of persons that was entered in a given questionnaire.
The total number of people in the households should be equal to the total number of males plus the total number of females in the household.
Number of questionnaires for this household
This depends on the number of persons in the household. If they are less than 10, then only one questionnaire is used in that household. You will record "1" in the block provided. However, in households where there are more than 10 persons, more than one questionnaire is used. You will record "2" on both questionnaires respectively in the blocks provided.
If more than one questionnaire was completed for one household (more than 10 persons in the household), write the barcode of the first questionnaire in the box provided on the last page of the 2nd questionnaire.
Household number for this household
If one household is found at the selected dwelling, record "01" in the blocks provided. When more than one household is found at one dwelling unit, assign a separate household number to each household. Example: if there are three households occupying the same dwelling, with each household staying in a room and sharing the kitchen, you will enumerate each family as a separate household, meaning that you will have three questionnaires from this dwelling unit. On each questionnaire you will write the household number for the respective household as identified, i.e. 01, 02, 03 in the blocks provided.
Total number of households at the selected dwelling
If one household is found at the selected dwelling record "01" in the blocks provided. When more than one household is found at one dwelling, write the total number of households in the provided blocks.
The date (DDMMYY) that should be indicated should be the actual date on which the interview is 100% completed or the date on which the completed questionnaire is submitted to the supervisor.
Supervisors ID Number
You are not required to answer this. It is however very important that you ensure that your supervisor does indeed checks your questionnaire. His/her ID must appear to process payment.
Response Details Table
The response detail table consist of seven columns. All information that is required should be completed in the row that corresponds with the visit number:
This is when you have successfully completed the questionnaire, with all
sections applicable to the household 100% complete.
This is when you cannot make contact with the household. Example: the
sampled dwelling unit is occupied but the respondents are not at home at the
time of the initial visit or any of the revisits. A person or household are not
available on at least three different occasions but are living at the dwelling unit.
This is when the household refuses to be enumerated.
This is when the questionnaire is not 100% completed, the questionnaire has
No usable info
This is when the information collected from the respondent does not make sense. E.g. when information is contradictory.
This is when during the listing period a dwelling unit number was allocated to a particular structure, however during enumeration it is discovered that the dwelling unit identified is actually not a dwelling, e.g. store room, stable, outside toilets etc.
A dwelling whose inhabitants are absent during the enumeration period. Example: a person or household who have gone away for a long period of time like migrant workers.
This is when the sampled dwelling unit is no longer there. i.e. it has been demolished.
A dwelling that is uninhabited, i.e. no one lives there
Any other scenario not mentioned above. E.g. change of status
[Sections 4.2 to 4.4 are omitted]
[Pages 40-41 omitted]
[Chapter objectives omitted]
This section covers particulars of each person in the household.
Read out the following statement to the respondent: Please give the name and surname of every person who usually resides in this household at least four (4) nights a week and has done so over the last four (4) weeks, whether present or absent last night. Also, please give information on any other person who stayed in this household last night as a visitor. Do not forget to include babies, the bedridden and the elderly persons.
Leave the Flap open for easy reference to each individual household member.
(P-01) Person number
Assign a person number to each person starting from 01.
For households with up to ten people, you use one questionnaire. Fill in "0" before the pre-printed number so the first person gets the number 01, the second 02, etc. If you use the last column, fill in "1" before the zero to make number "10". Make sure you always write inside the box, not next to it or outside of it.
If there are more than 10 people in the household, you use a second questionnaire for the same household. Fill in "1" before the pre-printed number. Thus the first person on this questionnaire (or 11th person in the household) gets the serial number 11, the second 12, etc. If you use the last column, fill in "2" to make "20". If a third questionnaire is required (in rare cases where there are more than 20 people in a household), the serial numbers will be 21, 22, 23, etc., up to 30.
Write down the first name and surname of each member of the household in the appropriate column, starting with the Head or Acting Head of household whether or not he/she is the one responding to the questionnaire. After the Head or Acting Head, continue with every other person who normally resides in this household at least four nights a week, including over the last 4 weeks. Also add every other person, not usually residing four nights a week, but who stayed in this household last night as a visitors.
The answers to this question will make the rest of the interview much easier. Stress the point that names are only asked for reference purposes to make the interview go smoothly, and will definitely not be used for anything else. You can write sideways, if necessary.
Column 1 should only be used for the head or acting head of the household.
Write the age in block provided based on answer from P-03.
Mark the appropriate box with an X based on the answer from P-04.
This information should be filled in after completing the interview.
For each person in the household, indicate the number of the person who provided or responded to most questions applicable to that person.
The purpose of section A is to collect demographic information about each person in the household to give the profile of the population in the country.
When filling in the questionnaire, start from the left (Person number 01) and complete section A for each person in the household separately.
Read out the following statement to the respondent: First I am going to ask you for some basic information about each person whose name you have provided.
(P-02) Date of birth: What is (the person's) date of birth?
The date of birth should be written in digits, with no words. The boxes are marked DD MM YYYY. Write 2 digits for the day in the boxes marked DD, 2 digits for the month in the boxes marked MM, and four digits for the year in the boxes marked YYYY, e.g., if the person was born on 5 January 1970, write 05 for day, 01 for month and 1970 for year.
Get as much information as is known, i.e.:
(P-03) Age: What is (the person's) age in completed years?
Ask the age for each person.
Note that the age must be given in completed years, i.e. age at last birthday.
For babies younger than one year, write 000 for age and for person 7 years and 10 months old write 007 for age.
If the age is not known at all, ask for an estimate. If no one in the household is able to estimate the age, write in 998. Please note an answer for each person must always be provided in the boxes for this question.
(P-04) Sex: Is (the person) male or female?
This information can be obtained most of the time through observation. Only ask if there is doubt or in cases where the relevant person is not present during the interview.
Do not use the name of a person to decide whether the person is male or female.
Mark the correct box with an X, 1 if male, 2 if female.
(P-07) Relationship: What is (the person's) relationship to the head or acting head of the household?
The head or acting head of household referred to is the person identified in the first column of the questionnaire.
In Column 01 (for the head or acting head him/herself), you automatically put 01 for relationship. If you are interviewing a single-person household you also do not need to ask the question, simply mark category 01.
Then determine the relationship of each person listed in P-01 to the head of household in (person number column 01). Write the appropriate code in the box provided. There should be no questionnaires without a head of household.
A "Partner" of the head of the household belongs to the same category as "husband/wife" - category 02. Partners are two people who live together in the same household like a married couple even if they are not married to each other.
(P-08) Marital status: What is (the person's) present marital status?
Read out the options to the respondent.
Mark only the present marital status. We do not need a person's marital history.
Any couple living together as married persons without a civil/religious or traditional/ customary marriage should be coded as 'living together (like married partners)' (code 4).
Mark code 5 (never married) for unmarried children in the household, and not code 4 (living together).
For a man with more than one wife, indicate "polygamous" rather than civil or customary marriage. For the wives, indicate category 1 or 2 (married civil/religious or traditional/customary).
If a person is not in a marital union or living together as married partners (i.e., codes 5 to 8), Go to P-10
(P-09) Spouse: Who, in this household, is (the person's) spouse or partner?
Ask only of those who are married (Civil/religious, traditional/customary, polygamous) or living together as married partners (code 1 to 4, P-08).
Write the person number of the spouse or partner. If a man has more than one wife, the person number of the first wife should be recorded. The person number of the husband should be recorded for each wife.
Write 99 if the spouse does not usually reside in the household 4 nights a week including the last 4 weeks.
If a person is married or living together (codes 1 to 4) and is the only occupant of the household, write 99 as the spouse does not usually reside in the household 4 nights a week including the last 4 weeks.
(P-10) Population group: How would (the person) describe him/herself in terms of population group?
Ask for everybody even if the population group seems obvious.
Remember that persons of different population groups do sometimes form part of the same household, so you cannot assume the population group of any household member.
Accept the response that is given even if you do not agree and under no circumstances may the response be queried.
The purpose of Section B is to measure the movement of people from one place to another in order to adjust the resources allocation.
Read out the following statement to the respondent before proceeding with P-11: I am now going to ask you for some information on migration for each person in the household, i.e. the movement of people from one place to another.
(P-12) Main-place of birth: In which city, town, township or tribal area was (the person) born?
If a person was born outside South Africa (P-11, code 10), ask for country of birth and write it under Main Place and Go to P-14.
Please note that this question refers to the main place i.e. city, town, tribal area, administrative area, etc. and not the province name as asked in the previous question. For example, if a person was born in Gauteng province, Johannesburg city in Diepkloof Ext., write Johannesburg.
(P-13) Sub-place of birth: In which suburb, village, informal settlement, section or farm was (the person) born?
Please note that this question refers to the sub-place i.e. suburbs, townships, farm names, informal settlement names, etc., and not the main place as asked in the previous question. If a person was born in Gauteng province, Johannesburg city in Diepkloof Ext, then write Diepkloof Ext.
(P-14) Main-place of residence: In which city, town, township or tribal area does (the person) usually live?
Please note that this question refers to the main place i.e. city, town, tribal area, administrative area etc. If a person usually lives in Gauteng province, Johannesburg city in Diepkloof Ext, write Johannesburg.
(P-15) Sub-place of usual residence: In which suburb, village, informal settlement, section or farm does (the person) usually live?
Please note that this question refers to the sub place i.e. suburbs, townships, farm names, informal settlements, villages and not the main place as asked in the previous question. If a person usually lives in Gauteng province, Johannesburg city in Diepkloof Ext, then write Diepkloof Ext.
(P-16) Five years ago: Was (the person) living in this dwelling in October 2001?
Note should be taken that this question refers to any movement, no matter how close the original place is to the new one, including a move from one dwelling unit to another on the same stand or in the same block of flats.
Option 3 would only be marked if the child was born after October 2001.
Please note the skip instruction, if the answer is "No, code 2", continue to P-17 but if either of the other options is selected (Yes, code 1, or Born after October 2001, code 3), Go to P-21.
If the person has moved more than once in the last 5 years, give the details of the last move only.
(P-17) Period of movement: In which year and month did (the person) move to this dwelling?
This question is only asked of those people who have moved within the last 5 years (code 2, P-16).
Note that the period should not be before October 2001. Write 2 digits for the month in the boxes and 4 digits for the year in the boxes. If the month is not known, leave blank.
(P-18) Province of previous residence: In which province did (the person) live before moving to this dwelling?
If the person was not living in the province, indicate which province they moved from. If the person moved within the same province, fill in the code of the same province.
If the move was within South Africa, then province code should be filled in, but if the move was from another country, then the "Outside RSA" (code 10) should be filled in. Only one answer is allowed.
(P-19) Main-place of previous residence: In which city, town, township or tribal area did (the person) live before moving to this dwelling?
If a person was living outside South Africa (P-18, code 10), ask for country from which moved and write it under Main Place and Go to P-21.
Please note that this question refers to the main place i.e. city, town, tribal area, administrative area, etc. and not the province name as asked in the previous question.
If a person was living in (Free State province, Welkom) and moved to (Gauteng province, Pretoria), the answer for main place should be Welkom.
The movement from one main place to another can also be within the same province, e.g. from Free State province, Welkom to Free State province, Bethlehem, in this case the answer is Welkom.
(P-20) Sub-place of previous residence: In which suburb, informal settlement, village, section or farm name did (the person) live before moving to this dwelling?
Please note that this question refers to the sub place i.e. suburbs, townships, farms, informal settlement, village and sections, etc. and not the province name or main place as asked in the previous question.
If a person was living in (Free State province, Welkom in Thabong) and moved to (Gauteng province, Pretoria in Brooklyn), the answer for sub place should be Thabong.
Please note that the movement could also be within the same province.
The purpose of Section C is to collect social information to support government policy targeting the special needs of this sector.
Read out the statement: I am now going to ask you some information on any difficulties each person may have because of a health problem or condition.
(P-21) Disability: Does (the person) have any kinds of disability?
Ask whether the person has a disability.
Explain to the respondent that the definition of a disability includes a serious sight, hearing, physical, communication, intellectual, emotional or mental disability that has lasted for 6 months or more. Mark the appropriate box.
If the answer is "No" code 2 or "Do not know" code 3, Go to P-24.
(P-22) Disability type: What type/s of disability does (the person) have?
Ask only if "Yes, code 1" to P-21. Read out the options and then mark the appropriate option. If the respondent identifies more than one disability, mark all mentioned with an X.
(P-23) Disability intensity: Does the disability seriously prevent (the person) from full participation in life activities (such as education, work, social life)?
Ask only if "Yes, code 1" to P-21. The disability should be serious in such a way that it prevents the person from full participation in life activities.
Read out: I'm now going to ask about social grants that each person may be receiving. By social grants, we mean financial assistance given by the government to people who have no other means of support or income.
(P-24) Social grant: Does (the person) receive any social / government grant?
This question must be answered for all persons listed on the flap.
A social grant is financial assistance received from the government.
If the answer is "No" code 2 or "Do not know'" code 3, Go to P-26.
(P-25) Type of social grant: What type/s of social/ government grant does (the person) receive?
Ask only if "Yes, code 1" to P-24. If the person receives any social / government grant, record which he/she receives. There may be more than one answer.
Read out list from questionnaire and mark the appropriate boxes with an X.
The purpose of Section D is to collect information giving the profile of the knowledge and skills capacity in the country.
The enumerator should read out the following statement to the respondent before proceeding with P-26: I am now going to ask you for some information on education of each person listed on the flap.
(P-26) School attendance: Does (the person) presently attend an educational institution?
Read out: Attendance includes all part-time and full-time studies, whether in person or as a distance learner, as well as home schooling.
If the person does not 'attend' any educational institution, i.e. No, code 2, Go to P-29.
(P-27) Educational institution: Which of the following educational institution does (the person) attend?
[Asked of people who answered "yes" to Question P 26 (Does the person presently attend an educational institution?]
Children attending any pre-school, crèche, nursery school, day school, etc., must be recorded as (Option 1).
Option 6 refers to formal ABET (Adult Basic Education and Training) classes.
Option 7, Other, includes adult classes, for example, practical skills, that are less formal, e.g., at churches. Home schooling is also included here.
(P-28) Public or independent institution: Is the institution (the person) attends public (government) or independent (private)?
[Asked of people who answered "yes" to Question P 26 (Does the person presently attend an educational institution?]
Note that a public school means a government school, including former model C schools, even if they are fee-paying, i.e. a school directly under the provincial Department of Education. An independent (private) school refers to all non-government schools.
(P-29) Level of education: What is the highest level of education that (the person) has completed?
We are interested in the highest level of education that the person has completed, not the level they are currently studying. Thus a pupil at school who is in Grade 9 has completed Grade 8.
If grade 11 is mentioned, probe whether he/she has attended grade 12 but not completed it.
NTC 1 stands for the National Technical Certificate on first year level.
If grade 12 is mentioned, probe whether he/she has a university exemption or not and code accordingly.
If a certificate or diploma, probe whether he/she has a grade 12 or not.
NB: If the person is less than 5 years of age, write code 98
If the person is 5 years or older and had no schooling, write code 24.
Read out the following statement to the respondent before proceeding with P-30: I am now going to ask you for information on employment for each person 15 years and older.
(P-30a) In the last 7 days, did (the person) run or do any kind of business, big or small, for himself / herself or with one or more partners even for only one hour?
Stress the reference period of the last 7 days. Note that it includes any activity up to the day before the interview.
Also note the phrase, "even for only one hour". It must be clear that the time frame is per category and not in conjunction with other activities. Thus, for each category, a person should be engaged for at least one hour in the last seven days to answer "Yes" to that category. You must go through each part of the question slowly and thoroughly, reading out examples and ensuring the respondent understands each part before answering "Yes"," No" or "Do not know".
Note: An answer is required and must be recorded for each question "Yes", "No" or "Do not know" should be recorded for each activity.
(P-30b): In the last 7 days, did (the person) do any work for a wage, salary, commission or payment in kind (excluding domestic work) even for only one hour?
This includes all types of paid employment, even for one hour, in the last seven days, paid either in cash or in kind, for example, with food, clothing or accommodation. Probe particularly for: casual work, piece jobs and part-time work.
Note: Exclude domestic work - this should be recorded only under P-30c.
(P-30c): In the last 7 days, did (the person) do any work as a domestic worker for a wage, salary or payment in kind even for only an hour?
It is important to note that this question refers to domestic work that a person does as an employee of a particular household and is receiving some sort of remuneration for doing it. Household gardeners also come under this category. They are different from gardeners employed by institutions or organisations.
It excludes the normal housework that is done by members of the household for no pay at all.
(P-30d): In the last 7 days, did (the person) help unpaid in a household business of any kind even for only one hour?
This is a common activity, especially for young people in some areas, and must be probed for. It is often missed in surveys. Make it very clear that a household business does not mean helping out with the housework at home.
(P-30e): In the last 7 days, did (the person) do any work on his/her own on the household's plot, farm, food garden, cattle post or kraal, or help in growing farm produce or in looking after animals for the household even for only one hour?
In areas where agriculture or grazing is possible, this activity is common in certain seasons and must be probed for.
These activities are also commonly missed in surveys. It is expected that many young persons in the old homeland areas will do these activities, particularly during the school holidays.
(P-30f): In the last 7 days, did (the person) do any construction or major repair work on his/her own home, plot, cattle post or business even for only one hour?
This question differs from P-30e in that it only refers to construction and major repair work while P-30e refers to farming activities.
(P-30g): In the last 7 days, did (the person) catch any fish, prawns, shellfish, wild animals, either as food for sale or for household use, even for only one hour?
Mark a "Yes", "No" or "Don't know" for each person.
If "yes" for a person to any of the questions from p-30a to p-30g, go to p-36 for that person.
Even if the person did only one of the mentioned activities even for at least one hour during the past 7days the skip to Question P-36 is still valid.
If "no" to all questions from p-30a to p-30g, continue with p-31 to p-35 for that person.
(P-31): Temporary absence from work: Even though (the person) did not do any of these activities in the last seven days, does he/she have a job, business, or other economic or farming activity that he/she will definitely return to?
This question is only to be asked of those persons who have not been engaged in any activities in the last 7 days, i.e. No to all of P-30a to P-30g.
The most common group is people on leave, e.g. annual leave, sick leave, maternity leave or any other leave. They did not work in the last 7 days, but they have a job to go back to and should be recorded as active in their usual job.
Note that if a person is not working because of the off-season in agriculture or other seasonal industries, he/she is not to be regarded as temporarily absent. He/she is regarded as unemployed or not economically active until the next season begins.
If the answer is "No", continue with P-32.
If the answer is "Yes", Go to P-36.
(P-32) Reasons for not working: Why did (the person) not work during the past seven days?
This question must only be answered for the person who answered "No" to all the questions P-30a to P-30g and P-31.
Do not read out the categories; let the person give the reason without being influenced by the categories. Mark only one reason.
If the person has found a job and has a definite starting date (Code 01), do not ask P-33 to P-39 - Go to P-40.
(P-34) During the past four weeks, has (the person) taken any action to look for any kind of work?
The person, who went to visit factories or other employment places, placed or answered advertisements, looked for work should answer "Yes".
(P-35) During the past four weeks, has (the person) taken any action to start any kind of business?
The person who went looking for land or a building or equipment to start their own business or farm should answer, "Yes".
Now go to question P-40.
(P-36) Work status: How can one describe (the person's) main activity or work status best?
Read out the list of options. Write code in the box.
If the person has two occupations, ask for the occupation worked most at.
1 = Paid employee - this means a person who works for someone else or for a company/organisation for a wage or salary, or for commissions from sales or bonuses, or payment in kind such as food, housing or training.
2 = Paid family worker - for example, those family members who work in family businesses or on family farms and receive a normal salary or wage.
3 = Self-employed - this means a person who has his or her own business or enterprise but does not employ other persons on a full-time basis.
4 = Employer - this means a person who works for him/herself and employs others in his business.
5 = Unpaid family worker - this means someone who works in a family business or on a family farm without receiving any monetary payment.
(P-37): Business type: Is the organisation / company / business / enterprise / branch where (the person) works in the formal or informal sector?
Here we want the respondent to state his/her opinion as to whether he/she works in the formal or informal sector.
Formal sector employment is where the employer (institution, business or private individual) is registered (i.e. the business has a tax number) to perform the activity.
Informal sector employment is where the employer is not registered to perform the activity.
(P-38) Occupation: What is the main occupation of (the person) in this workplace?
Occupation refers to the main type of work in which the person is engaged.
To give an accurate occupation to what a person does in his/her occupation, we need a very good description. Probe for full details: If the respondent answers "a clerk", probe for what type of clerk (see first example below).
The answer that clearly describes the main occupation should be written and the two or more words should generally be given to describe the occupation.
The following are inadequate and thorough examples of answers to this question:
Inadequate answers / Thorough answers
a. Clerk / Accounts clerk
b. Office work / Compiles monthly accounts
a. Labourer / Construction labourer
b. Labouring / Carries bricks
a. Teacher / Primary school teacher
b. Education / Teaching primary school children
a. Manager / Hotel manager
b. Managing / Control staff, food, etc. in hotel
In particular, give a good description of the main duties of farm workers e.g. tilling soil, driving tractors, picking fruit, packing fruit, etc.
(P-39a) What is the name of (the person's) place of work or company?
It is essential that the correct full name of the place of work or company is given.
Following are some thorough and inadequate examples of descriptions:
Inadequate answers / Thorough answers
a. Dept Education / Rapele14 Primary school
b. Vaal Reef / Vaal Reef Gold Mining
c. Breweries / SA Breweries
d. Private individual / T and T Construction
e. P and G / PandG Farming
f. Bradlows / Bradlows furniture
(P-39b) What is the main business/function of the company that (the person) works/ (main economic activity) for?
The objective is to be able to give an industry to the person's place of work.
Occupation (P-38) is what a person does. Industry is what a business or other establishment does.
The questions are now directed at where the person works and not at what he/she does him/herself. For example, if a person is an accountant for a gold mining company we record gold mining company and not accountancy.
Ensure that you receive a good description so that a correct industry can be given. The description should be in English as the code lists will be in English only.
A description of the major crop or livestock should be given for commercial farms.
Following are some thorough and inadequate examples of descriptions.
Inadequate answers / Thorough answers
a. Education / Primary education
b. Mining / Gold mining
c. Manufacturing / Manufacturing tin cans
d. Construction / Building houses
e. Farming / Farming with cattle
f. Trade / Retail trade
Read out the following statement to respondent: I am now going to ask each female person aged 12 to 50 years old for information on their children.
It is preferred that each female falling within the age group 12 years up to 50 years be there to answer these questions. If possible, make an appointment to meet them later if they are not around at the time of the interview. If there is no alternative, then ask any responsible female or as a last option speak to the person who has been responding to the other questions.
Look at the flap (Page F) for the names and ages of females who qualify to be asked the questions before asking them. Be careful not to miss out any women who do qualify. At the same time, be careful not to include women younger than 12 or older than 50 years of age or males!
If no one falls into this category, ensure all columns for question P-40 to P-47 are left blank. Go to P-48.
(P-40): Has (the person) ever given birth to a live child, even if the child died soon after birth?
Include all her children, i.e. those who are still living, whether or not they live in this household, and those who are no longer alive.
(P-41): Total children ever born
a. How many children has (the person) ever had that were born alive, even if they died soon after birth?
b. How many were boys?
c. How many were girls?
Confirm that total of b. and c. equals a. If there are any discrepancies, probe.
(P-42): Total children surviving and living in this household:
a. How many of (the person's) children are still alive and living with her in this household, including grown-ups?
b. How many are boys?
c. How many are girls?
Confirm that the total of b. and c. matches a. If there are any discrepancies, probe.
The total cannot be greater than the total for children ever born alive in P-42.
(P-43): Total children surviving and living elsewhere:
a. How many of (the person's) children are still alive and living elsewhere, including grown-ups?
b. How many are boys?
c. How many are girls?
Confirm that the total of b. and c. matches a. If there are any discrepancies, probe.
The total for P-42 plus P-43 cannot be greater than the total for children ever born alive in P-41.
(P-44) Total children no longer alive:
a. How many of (the person's) children are no longer alive?
b. How many were boys?
c. How many were girls?
As this is a sensitive question, care should be taken when asking it.
Confirm that the total of b. and c. matches a. If there are any discrepancies, probe.
The total for P-42 plus P-43 plus P-44 cannot be greater than the total for children ever born alive in P-41.
(P-45) Last child born: When was (the person's) last child born, even if the child died soon after birth?
Write the day (2 digits), month (2 digits) and year (4 digits) of the last live birth. For example, if the person was born on 5 January 1990, write 05 for the day, 01 for month and 1990 for the year. If multiple births, indicate only the last child.
(P-46) Is (the person's) last born child male or female?
Ask the person if the last-born child was a boy or a girl. Mark with an X 1 for boy or 2 for girl. If multiple births, indicate only the last child.
(P-47) Is (the person's) last born child still alive?
Ask the person if the last child is still alive or dead. Mark the "Yes" box with an X if the child is still alive at the time of the interview. If multiple births, indicate only the last child.
This section is to be asked for every person listed on the flap.
The purpose of Section G is to collect a measure of probability of survival in the population.
Read out the following statement to the respondent: I am now going to ask you for some information on parental survival and income for each person in the household.
(P-49) Mother person number: Who in this household is (the person's) biological mother?
Write the person number of mother, if she lives in the same household.
If the mother does not live in the same household, write 99 in the box provided.
If '2 - No' or '3 - Do not know', Go to P-52.
(P-51) Father person number: Who in this household is (the person's) biological father?
Write the person number of father, if he lives in the same household.
If the father does not live in the same household, write 99 in the box provided.
(P-52) Income category: What is the income category that best describes the gross monthly or annual income of (the person) before deductions and including all sources of income?
Read the monthly or annual categories out to the person or show him/her the questionnaire and ask him/her to indicate a category. Fill in the correct code either under Monthly or under Annual in the corresponding block.
Both tables are provided so that people can answer in terms of monthly or annual income.
The resulting code will always be the same, e.g. an annual income of R36 000 will have a code of 05 as will a monthly income of R3000. Similarly a monthly income of R250 will have a code of 02 as will an annual income of R3000.
For those who receive a daily, weekly or fortnightly wage, multiply by 30, 4 or 2 respectively to get the monthly income.
If the respondent is unwilling to give income information, remind him/her that the information is strictly confidential and that there is no way that a response could be traced back to a specific individual. If the respondent still refuses, write code 13.
This section is to be asked of each household.
The purpose of Section H is to collect information which will be used by local authorities and municipalities in planning and supplying services to communities.
Read out the following statement to the respondent: I am now going to ask for some information about housing and household services.
(H-01) Type of main dwelling: Which of the following types best describes the main dwelling unit that this household occupies?
Record by observation, where possible, otherwise the enumerator should read out the different descriptions to the respondent.
If the household lives in more than one dwelling, mark the dwelling-type of the main dwelling. By main dwelling we mean the dwelling where most members of the household spend most of their time.
Note that a traditional dwelling is regarded as a dwelling that is built from traditional materials such as mud, thatch, grass, etc.
The question should be answered in relation to the dwelling unit for that household. So a household in a separate dwelling unit such as a backyard room will answer accordingly. This is another reason why domestic workers, for example, are captured on their own questionnaires.
Option 01 refers to a structure being on a separate stand or stands on its own, meaning that the stand has boundaries that separate it from the neighbours.
Option 02: Is for a traditional dwelling/hut/structure made of traditional materials.
Persons living in a room/bed in a hostel must be recorded under option 11.
(H-02) Rooms: How many rooms, including kitchens, are there for this household?
Count all rooms in all dwellings occupied by this household. Exclude bathrooms, sheds, garages, stables, etc., unless persons are living in them.
Write the correct number of rooms in the box, for example, if there are 4 rooms, write 04. If three families share a four-roomed house meaning that they occupy one room each and share the kitchen, write 02. Notice that the question does not ask how many rooms there are in the dwelling unit but how many rooms there are for the household to use.
(H-03) Access to water: In which way does this household obtain WATER for domestic use?
Read out the different options to the respondent and write the applicable code in the box.
Mark the main source only. If people get water from two sources they should specify the source they use for drinking and food preparation.
If the response is '1-Piped water inside the dwelling' or '2-Piped water inside yard'.
(H-06) Toilet facilities: What is the main type of toilet facility available for use by this household?
Read out types of toilet facilities.
If more than one facility, mark the one that is most frequently used.
A chemical toilet is a toilet consisting of a seat or bowl attached to a container holding a chemical solution that changes waste into sludge/mud.
A dry toilet is a simple pit latrine that does not need water to function. It consists of a hole in the ground that can be covered when full or emptied for re-use after a period of stabilization. It may or may not have a
(H-07) Energy/fuel for cooking: What type of energy/fuel does this household use mainly for cooking?
Mark one code. If more than one used, mark the main one only. If it is "Other" mark code 9 and specify.
Write in capital letters.
(H-10) Household goods: Does the household have any of the following?
Mark each item/facility that the household has with an X.
All these items should be in working order. If the person can receive calls on the landline telephone or cell phone but cannot use the phone to make calls, this still qualifies as a "Yes".
Mark the "Yes" box for cell phones if at least one member of the household has the full-time use of one.
If more than one household has the right to use an item, e.g., a refrigerator or a computer in a common space, mark the "Yes" box.
The purpose is not to look at the number of items in the dwelling unit, but rather to measure how many households have access to these items.
In order to have Internet facilities, the person should also have a computer and a cell phone and/or a landline telephone. We are referring to Internet facilities and a computer in the household not those that the person may have access to at work.
(H-11) Tenure status: What is the tenure status of this household?
Tenure status determines on what terms the household occupies the dwelling.
If the household uses several dwellings, write the code for the main dwelling. If the response is "other", remember to specify. Write in capital letters.
(H-11) Refuse disposal: How is the refuse or rubbish from this household mainly disposed of?
The enumerator should read out the different options to the respondent. Only one response may be given.
If more than one response is applicable, mark the code for main service.
This section is to be asked of each household.
The purpose of Section I is to collect information on any changes in the mortality rates in the country.
Read out the following statement to the respondent: I am now going to ask for information on any member(s) of the household who has passed away in the last 12 months.
(M-03) Name of the deceased: What was the first name of (the deceased)?
Write the name of the deceased person in the box provided. The first name is sufficient.
(M-04) Date of death: What was the month and year of (the deceased's) death?
Date of death should be written in digits, with no words. The boxes are marked MM YYYY. Write 2 digits for the month in the boxes marked MM, and four digits for the year in the boxes marked YYYY.
Note: The date should not be longer than 12 months ago.
(M-05) Sex of deceased: Was (the deceased) male or female?
Record whether the deceased was male or female by marking 1 for male or 2 for female with an X.
(M-06) Age of deceased: What was (the deceased's) age in completed years at the time of death?
How old was the deceased in years when he/she passed away?
(M-07) Cause of death: What caused the death of (the deceased)?
Did the deceased die from a natural death or an unnatural death? Mark the appropriate box with an X.
(M-08) Pregnancy at time of death: Was (the deceased) pregnant at time of death or died within six weeks after delivery?
Ask only if the deceased was a woman over 12 and under 50 years of age (check M-06) at the time of death.
The questionnaire is complete. Thank the respondent.
Remember to fill in F04 (the person number of the person who provided the information).
If more than 1 questionnaire was used, fill in the barcode of the first questionnaire in the boxes provided.
After completing the questionnaire, the enumerator checks it for any mistakes and then writes his/her name and signs it.
[Pages 63 - 87 omitted]