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Statistics South Africa

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1.4 Concepts and definitions
This section contains definitions of some key terms with explanations of relevant census procedures.

Enumeration is the process of counting all the members of a given population and collecting demographic and other information about each person. This counting takes place by means of administering a questionnaire to all households in the country.

Enumeration area
An enumeration area (EA) is the smallest geographical unit (piece of land) into which the country is divided for census or survey enumeration, of a size able to be enumerated by one census fieldworker (enumerator) in the allocated period. EAs typically contain between 100 and 250 households.

Enumeration phase
Stage of the population census process that involves counting the people. During this phase enumerators visit every household to administer questionnaires.

Enumerator's Summary Book (09 book)
The Enumerator's Summary Book, or 09 book, is a register of census mapping and listing information pertaining to a particular EA. The summary book identifies an EA by province, local municipality, main place name and sub place name. Maps and/or aerial photographs of the area are provided.

The book contains a list of each address or structure found in the EA, plus its location and identifying features. During enumeration you will use this book to record which households you have enumerated, and to enter other key information such as total households and people counted. The book becomes a summary of your work.

Census night
The night before the census date, that is, the night between 9 October and 10 October. The decisive point of time for being included in the census or not is the midnight before the proclaimed census date.

Everyone who is in the country at midnight on census night is to be counted. Persons who die after that hour are to be counted because they were alive at midnight. Babies born after that midnight are not to be counted.

De facto census
A de facto census is a census in which people are enumerated according to where they stay on census night. The South African population census is a de facto census. In other words, we do not enumerate people where they usually stay if they are elsewhere on census night.

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A household is a group of people who live together, and provide themselves jointly with food or other essentials for living, or a single person who lives alone. For a de facto census only people in the household on census night are counted as part of the household.

Notice that a household is not necessarily the same as a family.

Household head
In the first instance, the head of household is the person that the household regards as such. If necessary, the head can be defined as the main decision-maker, or alternatively, the person who owns or rents the dwelling, or the person who is the main breadwinner. The head can be either male or female.

If two people are equal decision-makers, the older of the two should be named as head of the household. In a household of totally unrelated persons, the oldest should be named as the household head.

Only a person present in the household on census night or returning there the next day can be entered in the questionnaire as head of the household.

Acting head of the household
The person who assumes decision-making responsibility in the absence of the head of the household. If the person who would normally be considered the head of the household is away on census night and does not return the following day, another person must be designated as acting head of the household.

Domestic worker
Person employed to work in the household e.g. as a maid, cook, gardener, driver or nanny. A domestic worker who lives on the property of the employer, either in the same house or in separate domestic quarters, is known as a live-in domestic worker. Such a person is not considered part of the household of the employer but forms his/her own household. This will apply even in cases where the domestic worker has most of his/her meals with the employer. Domestic workers usually have families and responsibilities of their own elsewhere and are thus considered as separate households.

If, however, a domestic worker lives in the same house as the employer e.g. in a spare bedroom, does not get a formal salary in cash, and shares meals and other resources with the household, then s/he should be treated as part of the main household. These cases are rare; in most cases such people are relatives of the family.

A person who answers on behalf of another person (who is e.g. absent or ill). The term is used chiefly in connection with information obtained e.g. from a neighbour when a household refuses to cooperate.

Any structure intended or used for human habitation. It may be a house, a hut, a flat, etc.

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Housing unit
A unit of accommodation for a household, which may consist of one structure, or more than one structure, or part of a structure. (Examples of each are a house, a group of huts, and a flat.) It may be vacant, or occupied by one or more than one household.

A housing unit has a separate entrance from outside or from a common space, as in a block of flats.

Premises not intended for use as living quarters, but used for human habitation at the time of the census, such as a barn, warehouse, etc., are also classified as housing units for census purposes.

National Bureau: The term housing unit is a demographic term used when you need to be precise for certain purposes. It is contrasted with collective living quarters -- i.e. all living quarters are either housing units or collective living quarters.

Collective living quarters
Living quarters where certain facilities are shared by groups of individuals or households. They can be divided into: (a) hotels, motels, guest houses, etc. (b) workers hostels and student residences; and (c) institutions.

People living in residential hotels, boarding houses, and hostels will be enumerated using the household questionnaire (Questionnaire A). The inmates of institutions and tourist hotels will be enumerated using the questionnaire for individuals (Questionnaire B).

An institution is a particular type of collective living quarters, for people with a common characteristic who are living under a common regime. The following are institutions: hospital/clinic, frail care centre, childcare institution/ orphanage, home for the disabled, boarding school hostel, initiation school, convents and monasteries, defence force barracks, camps and ships, prison, refugee camps, shelters for the homeless.

Institution number
A sequential number given to each institution found in an EA. The number is allocated during listing and also put on the map of the EA.

Record number
A unique number usually from 001--600 within each EA. Each housing unit or other place to be visited for purposes of enumeration is listed against a separate record number in the 09 book. Each record number is on a separate line or row.

The process of identifying and recording each housing unit and other structure to be visited for purposes of enumeration in each EA. The list is compiled in the 09 book.

Person who answers questions in an interview.

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1.5 The questionnaires
The census questionnaires are the forms used to count the people in the areas to be enumerated and to collect information about them.

There are three types of questionnaire:

Questionnaire A -- Households
This questionnaire is used for all households and individuals in housing units, and in collective living quarters that are not institutions. It collects information about each person in the household, and information about the household as a whole, including services.

Questionnaire B -- Individuals
This questionnaire is used for persons living in institutions and persons staying in tourist hotels, as well as for the homeless. It contains most of the questions in the first part of Questionnaire A, but no questions about services.

Questionnaire C -- Institutions
One questionnaire C, which asks questions on housing and services, is completed for each institution or tourist hotel, with the co-operation of the manager. In addition all persons enumerated on questionnaire B are listed on this questionnaire.

Questionnaires B and C always go together.

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MODULE 2 The 09 book, map reading and ensuring coverage of your EA

2.2 How to read the maps in your 09 book

2.2.3 What to look for
Study the maps for your particular supervisor unit or EA with the help of your trainer. Can you recognise any features on your map? Remember that features will vary according to the type of area you are going to work in.

There are four broad types of area (sometimes called geography types):

urban formal
urban informal
commercial farms
tribal areas.

Within these four main types are ten EA types:

vacant land
tribal settlement
urban settlement
informal settlement
recreational land and state parks
industrial area

There are also three EA sub-types:

no institution
mixed EA

We will now discuss what you can expect to find in each main type of area, and within the various EA types.

Urban formal
Urban formal areas are structured and organised. Houses and flats are built on plots and these often have fences or walls around them. Township houses are usually on smaller plots and there are usually many of the same size and shape.

Industrial areas, shopping centres, office parks and commercial areas also form part of urban formal areas. You will see larger and multi-storey buildings, often with car parks around them.

Recreational areas (golf courses, caravan parks, nature reserves, state forest areas, public entertainment areas, parks and botanic gardens) can contain large grassed areas; pools, paddling pools and other entertainment areas; and areas with dense trees.

Hostels are places where mine or factory workers live. They normally comprise several buildings set in ordered rows or blocks.

Institutions are prisons, hospitals, army areas, etc. On the map, some institutions look similar to hostels. If you recognise something of this kind on the photo, use the list in your 09 book to establish what kind of institution it is.

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Urban informal
Informal settlements or so-called squatter camps are easy to recognise on a photo. The structures are small and crowded together.

Rural formal
Commercial farms cover extensive areas, so any buildings on your map will be very small. Try and pick out owners' houses and labourers' houses. Look for cultivated fields, or grassed fields for animals. Fence lines can usually be seen.

Small holdings are smaller farms, closer to towns. They are usually used for market gardens or orchards.

Commercial plantations are planted in ordered rows in large fields and are easily recognised on an aerial photo.

Tribal areas
Tribal settlement areas are usually villages that fall within a tribal area or tribal authority or administrative area. In some areas villages appear on the map as clusters of houses/huts with large areas of vacant grassland, fields, and patches of natural forest in between. In other areas huts or kraals are scattered throughout the area.

Other features such as transport routes (roads, freeways, railways and paths), public buildings (schools and churches), cemeteries, swimming pools, mine dumps, parking areas, natural forests (not plantations) will be present nearly everywhere.

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MODULE 3 Conducting interviews and the Questionnaire

3.1 Preliminary procedures

3.1.4 Find out how many households live in the dwelling
Before you start to fill in any questionnaires, you first need to find out how many households are living in the dwelling or on the property, and help the residents understand what constitutes a household for this purpose.

A household is a group of people who live together, and provide themselves jointly with food or other essentials for living, or a single person who lives alone. For a de facto census only people in the household on census night are counted as part of the household.

You may find more than one household at one address. Sometimes households share housing units. These will all be captured on the same line in the 09 book.

Sometimes there are separate households in separate quarters behind the house, or in one of the other huts or dwellings in a kraal. These are considered to be separate housing units, and should be entered on separate record numbers, with cross-referencing. (See examples 311-312 on the sample page of the 09 book.) This is referred to as "unpacking" an entry, and is described in more detail in section 3.4.3.

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Housing unit
A unit of accommodation for a household, which may consist of one structure, or more than one structure, or part of a structure. (Examples of each are a house, a group of huts, and a flat.) It may be vacant, or occupied by one or more than one household.

A housing unit has a separate entrance from outside or from a common space, as in a block of flats.

Premises not intended for use as living quarters, but used for human habitation at the time of the census, such as a barn, warehouse, etc., are also classified as housing units for census purposes.

In order to decide whether people belong to the same household or a different household, ask questions like this:

"Does everyone 'eat from the same pot', or share resources?" If "No", they are separate households. Even members of an extended family may in fact be separate households, e.g. married children with their own children.

"Are there any paid domestic workers?" If "Yes", separate household, probably in a separate housing unit.

"Are there any boarders (lodging for pay)?" If "Yes", separate household.

"Are there any other households at this address?" If "Yes", enumerate separately. If such households are in separate housing units, e.g. backrooms with separate entrances from the yard, the housing units should be entered on new record numbers (with cross-referencing).

Get permission from the respondent to interview all these households separately.

Add separate housing units, if any, on new lines and find out when you can interview those households.

Remember however that if a backroom is occupied by a member of the main household, that room is not considered a separate housing unit. Moreover if such a structure, e.g. a "granny flat", was listed and in fact is not occupied by a separate household, write "unoccupied dwelling" in the 09 book or write "same household as (+ record number)". If it is being used for a purpose other than residential, such as an office or storage, write "unoccupied dwelling".

Once you have established how many households to interview at this address, you can start filling in the first questionnaire.

3.1.5 Who should answer the questions?
The best person to answer questions is the head of the household. However, if necessary, any responsible respondent, preferably older than 15 years of age, who was present in the household on Census night and can provide information on other members of the household, may answer the questions. If children are alone or were alone on census night, information may be taken from any child that is able to give it, and the oldest child should be recorded as head of the household.

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3.1.6 Who should be counted?
Each person that is alive in the country at the census reference time -- midnight on census night -- should be included in the count.

Births and deaths
Babies born before midnight on census night (9--10 October 2001) should be included but those born after midnight should not be included.

In the same way people who died after census night, but before you arrive to enumerate the household, should be included.

If you need to ask questions regarding this issue, do so in a sensitive manner, e.g. "we are trying to measure the size of the population at a very specific point in time, and that time is the midnight before census day, 10 October."

Lodgers and boarders
Lodgers and boarders are enumerated as separate households, as they pay for their food and accommodation as a business arrangement.

Domestic workers and other resident employees
Domestic workers should be considered as separate households and enumerated on separate questionnaires. The domestic worker is only counted as part of the household in rare cases where no money wage is given.

Visitors, including foreign visitors, should be included in the enumeration of the household they were visiting on census night, and not where they usually live.

Diplomatic staff
Foreign embassies will not be enumerated, as they are considered to be on foreign soil. Anyone who stayed overnight in a foreign embassy, whether a foreign diplomat or a South African, will not be enumerated. If there is an embassy listed in your 09 book, write embassy in the result column. Diplomatic staff staying elsewhere should be enumerated where they are found, unless they insist on their diplomatic status.

Persons who return on 10 October 2001
People who were absent on census night, e.g. at work or travelling, at a place of entertainment and return home on 10 October should be counted as part of their usual household.

Persons who return after 10 October 2001
Persons who were staying elsewhere on census night but return to their usual household by the time the enumerator comes, should be enumerated where they were staying, e.g. as visitors in another household, and not in their usual household. This is because it is a de facto census.

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3.2 The questionnaire

3.2.5 The front page of the questionnaire
Fill in the following items at the beginning of the interview, or before you leave a questionnaire for self-completion.

EA number from the 09 book. 8 digits.

Record number, from the first column of the relevant entry in the 09 book.

Institution number. All institutions and tourist hotels in an EA should be marked with an encircled number ? on the map and in Column 5 of the 09 book. The institution number is mostly for tracking Questionnaires B and C, but it will also apply where households are found living on the property of an institution.

Household number. When more than one household is found at one address or housing unit, i.e. for the same record number, number the households starting from 01. For example, if there are three families in a house, occupying one room each and sharing the kitchen, you will enumerate each family as a separate household, meaning that you will have three questionnaires from this housing unit. On each questionnaire you will write the household number, i.e. 01, 02, 03.

Province. Use the following abbreviations: WC, EC, NC, FS, KN, NW, MP, GP, and NP.

Name of local municipality. Copy the name of the municipality from the front of the 09 book.

Main place is a city, town, township, administrative area or tribal authority, e.g. Pretoria (which is a city) or Kutama (which is a tribal area). This should be on the front of the 09 book. If it is missing, ask the household to help you.

Sub-place is a suburb, a section of a township, a smallholding, a village, a ward or an informal settlement, e.g. Arcadia (which is a suburb of Pretoria) or Tshikwarane (which is a village in Kutama). Again, this should be on the front of the 09 book. Check with the household and record the local name that the household uses. Sometimes there may be extra sub-place names within the same EA that Statistics Africa were not aware of.

Physical address of the household. This is the street number and street name if any, or a description of the place, or the name of the village or settlement. It should be written on the relevant line of the 09 book. Check the address with the household. If there is no address, ask the household to help you. (The address of a flat in a block of flats or a unit in a townhouse complex will have two parts: the unit number and the name of the block or complex, and the street name and number.)

Postal code, if you or someone in the household knows it.
Telephone number, if any. If necessary, explain that only census staff will use this number if they need to clarify answers. Make sure you get the telephone number in all cases of self-enumeration.

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Contact telephone numbers: If you are leaving the questionnaire for self-enumeration, fill in a contact name and telephone number at the bottom of the front page, either yours if you have one, or the supervisor's, or the fieldwork co-ordinator's. You can also tell the household that they can phone the toll-free number for assistance in completing the questionnaire.

It is very important to fill in the front of the questionnaire before leaving a questionnaire for self-enumeration. Do not leave this to the household to do.

3.3 The questions

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Question P-00 -- Name

"Please write the name and surname of the household head and the first name of every person who was present in this household on the night between 9-10 October."

Start with the head or acting head of the household in the first row. Give the first name (or most commonly used name) and the surname.

"The head of the household is the person who is the main decision-maker in the household. If people are equally decision makers, take the oldest person."

The head may be male or female. If the head was not present on census night the household must name an acting head.

List the names of all the people to be enumerated before proceeding to the questions. Use a separate row for each person and give the first or most commonly used name i.e. a unique, but simple name, for reference during the interview. For babies with no name, write, "baby".

Enter the names in a logical family order where possible: head (or acting head) on the first row, the husband or wife of the head on the second row, then their unmarried children, married children if they live with them, then other relatives and lastly non-relatives.

Make sure that every household member is listed -- see the reminder at the bottom of the column. Many respondents tend not to include babies, small children, old people, and visitors. If necessary probe in a polite manner.

Remember to ask if there were other people present on census night even if they are no longer there. These people must be counted here, because we are doing a de facto census.

Lastly ask about people who were travelling or worked night shift on the census night, and returned on the 10th October. Unless they were counted elsewhere, they must be included here.

Please note: Usual household members who were staying elsewhere on census night should not be included. They should be counted where they stayed. This is because we are doing a de facto census.

The age and sex boxes on the inside flap should not be filled in yet.

National Bureau: The information on the flap is only to assist with the interview.

The names are listed so that as you turn the pages of the questionnaire you know which row is for which person. They are also useful when the supervisor is doing spot checks, or if someone has to revisit the house if there are errors or missing answers. They are also important if this area is chosen for the post-enumeration survey.

If the respondent is reluctant to give names you can stress that the names are not used for anything else, and will not be processed in any way.

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Question P-01 -- Person number

"Assign row or person number to each person starting from 01."

The numbers are not pre-printed, as we have to allow for households with more than ten people. So you have to complete the person numbers by filling in the boxes to the left of the printed number. Make sure that you write inside the box not next to it or outside it.

If you are only using one questionnaire, i.e. for households with up to ten people, fill in "0" before the pre-printed number so the first person gets the number 01, the second 02, etc. Write inside the boxes. If you use the last row, fill in "1" before the zero to make number "10".

If you are using a second questionnaire for the same household (if there are more than 10 people in the household), fill in "1" before the pre-printed number. Thus the first person on this questionnaire gets the serial number 11, the second 12, etc. If you use the last row fill in "2" to make "20".

If you are using a third questionnaire (in rare cases where there are more than twenty people in a household) the serial numbers will be 21, 22, 23, etc., up to 30.

It is important that the row numbers are correct when we get to questions about spouses and parents with children.

Question P-02 -- Date of birth and age

What is (the person's) date of birth and age in completed years?

First ask the person's date of birth. Then ask the age, and check together that it is consistent with the date of birth given. The reason we ask both is for cross-checking. Also, some people do not remember their age but remember their date of birth.

Notice that the age must be given in completed years, i.e. age at last birthday.

Date of birth should be written in digits, with no words. The boxes are marked DD MM YYYY. Write 2 digits for the day in the boxes marked DD, 2 digits for the month in the boxes marked MM, and four digits for the year in the boxes marked YYYY.

e.g. September 7 1993 should be entered 07 09 1993.

Remember that some people mention the month first and some mention the day first, but always record the day first and the month second.

Age should be entered using three digits, e.g. 052 for 52. Again do not use words. If the respondent is 29 years old write "029'"and not "29 yrs" or "29 years". In the case of a baby younger than 1 year write 000.

e.g. For a person who is 29 years old you write "029" and for a baby who is younger that 1 year you write "000".

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Give as much information as is known, i.e.:

if the exact date of birth is not known, but the person knows the month and the year, or even just the year, fill that in.

if the age is not known at all, give an estimated age.

Where neither the date of birth nor the age can be given, the person's age in years should be estimated as accurately as possible. The enumerator should try to elicit this estimate by probing. For example ask about a historical event at the time of the birth of the person, such as the end of World War I, or a significant local event. Lists of such events are found in Appendix 2.)

You must never leave this question without an answer.

Now copy each person's age onto the flap next to his or her name.

Question P-03 -- Sex

"Is (the person) male or female?"

Dot the correct box -- M for male, F for female.

If the person is not present at the time of the interview do not use the name to decide whether the person is male or female. Ask.

You must never leave this question without an answer.

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Question P-04 -- Relationship

"What is (the person's) relationship to the head or acting head of the household?"

In this question we are trying to find out if people are living together as families. However we will only capture relationships to the head of the household or acting head (listed in Row 01). Read all possible categories to the respondent. For people who are not related to the head of the household by blood or marriage put category 13.

"Partner" of the head of the household belongs to the same category as "husband/wife" -- category 02. Partners are two people of opposite sex who live together in the same household like married couple but who are not married to each other. However, if gay couples choose this category record it without question.

Note that there are four possible categories for children:

Sons and daughters by birth = 03.

Adopted children = 04.

Step-children = 05. A step-child is a child of the spouse or partner of the household head by a previous marriage or relationship.

Foster children = 12 or 13.

Note that we are collecting data on biological relationships. If you interview using a language other than English, probe to be sure that you have the right information.

National Bureau:
In row 01 (for the head or acting head him/herself) you automatically put 01.

If you are interviewing a single-person household you also do not need to ask the question, simply mark category 01.

Question P-05 -- Marital status

"What is (the person's) PRESENT marital status?"

Only one code should be given. We are interested in the marital status on the census night.

If, for example, a widow remarried before the census night she is classified as married not widowed, but if she married after the census night she is classified as widowed. If however she was widowed, remarried and is now separated from her second husband, she is separated.

The number of times a person has been married is not captured.

Read out all the categories from the questionnaire.

The given classifications on marital status are sufficient, but sometimes you will have to probe. When a person is married you must ask how he or she is married (codes 1-3).

If a person married under both traditional/customary and civil law, civil takes precedence.

A man with more than one wife should indicate "polygamous" rather than civil or customary marriage. The wives indicate category 1 or 2, as they cannot have two husbands. More guidelines about how to treat polygamous households appear in Appendix 5.

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Couples who are not married to each other but live together as if they are married, belong to category 4. This category is for people who live in every respect as a married couple except that they have not undergone a marriage ceremony. Only male/female couples should indicate this category -- the census does not collect data on gay couples.

For children write 5 -- "Never married". If a person says "single" they must choose from categories 4-8.

Now we get our first "skip". People who are not married or living together as married, i.e. all those who fall under categories 5-8, do not need to answer the next question, which is P-05a, so they skip Question P-05a and go to P-06.

"Skip" means omit, or leave out.

From now on all skip instructions in this manual will be in italics, like this, or bold italics, like this.

Question P-05a -- Spouse

Ask for everyone who answered married or living together as married partners in Question P-05 -- codes 1-4.

"Who, in the household, is (the person's) spouse or partner?"

National Bureau: spouse = husband or wife

For example if the spouse of the household head (see row 01) is listed in row 02, write "02" in row 01, and then "01" in row 02. (Now we see one reason why numbers should be filled in before any other questions are asked.)

If a polygamous man has more than one wife in the household, write the row number of the first wife. Write the row number of the husband for each of his wives. (See Appendix 5.)

National Bureau: row number = person number

If the spouse was not in the household on the census night write "99" ( = lives elsewhere).

Question P-06 -- Population group

"How would (the person) describe him/herself in terms of population group?"

Read the categories to the respondent.

Ask for everybody even if the population group seems obvious. Remember also that persons of different population groups do sometimes form part of the same household, so you cannot assume the population group of any household member.

There are also cases where the answer may not be not straightforward. Not everyone falls clearly into one of the four categories. The decision always rests with the respondent. Do not suggest anything. For example, the head of the household may be black African and the spouse may be white. They must decide whether or not to describe the children as coloured.

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That is their choice. Under no circumstances may the response be queried; it should be accepted as a fact.

The category "Other" is for people who do not see themselves as belonging to any of the four categories listed. In this case write the response in small capital letters (away from the boxes) on the dotted line, and write "5" in the box.

Question P-07 -- Language

"Which language does (the person) speak most often in this household?"

Give only one answer per person.

For babies, give the language of their parents. If the languages of the parents differ, give the mother's language, or the language of the person who takes care of the baby most.

Only the eleven official languages of South Africa are listed. There are many other languages spoken in South Africa. If the language is not in the pre-coded list, write code "12" in the box and the name of the language on the dotted line. Remember not to write near the boxes.

Note that this question is not asking mother tongue. It is asking the language most used by each person in the household. This may differ from the mother tongue, and from the language most used at work. For visitors you may ask them the language they speak most often in their usual household.

National Bureau: You must write only one code per person. If the respondent has difficulty choosing, ask them to choose the one that they are more comfortable with.

Question P-08 -- Religion

"What is (the person's) religion, denomination or belief?"

For babies, write the religion/denomination/belief of their parents. If the parents belong to different religions, write the mother's religion.

For the major faiths other than Christian simply write one of these terms: African Traditional, Jewish, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Bahai, New Age. The census does not collect data on the sub-groups of these faiths.

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If the respondent says he or she is a Christian, probe for denomination, e.g. Roman Catholic, Baptist, Apostolic Faith Mission, Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk. (We do not want the name of the local parish, congregation or church building, such as "St. Alban's", "St. Paul's", "Bronberg Kerk", etc.)

Try to be as precise as possible. Be sure to distinguish, for example, between "Church of England in South Africa" and "Church of the Province of South Africa".

Write the answer in the boxes provided. These answers will be scanned and coded if possible. You have to be very careful in writing these answers. Use neat capital letters, keeping inside the boxes. Do not leave any spaces and do not use hyphens at the end of lines. If you run out of boxes do not worry. Just write as many letters as will fit.

If the respondent's denomination is Zion Christian Church, you will write


Do not use any abbreviations.

If a person does not want to answer this question, do not persist but write "Refuses". If they say they have no religion, write "None".

Do not confuse "refuses to answer" with "none". "None" means the person does not have any religion; "refuses" means the person chooses not to answer. He/she may have no religion, or may have a religion but does not want to disclose it.

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Questions P-09, P-09a and P-09b -- Place of birth

This question is divided into three parts -- 9, 9a and 9b. Each person must answer two parts i.e. 9 and 9a or 9 and 9b. First we ask if the person was born in South Africa. If they say "Yes", we then ask in which province. If they say no, we ask instead for the country where they were born.

If "Yes" to P-09, go to P-09a, and then to Question 10. If "No" to P-09, skip P-09a and go to P-09b, and then to Question 10.

Now let's look at how to capture the answers to these three parts.

P-09 "Was (the person) born in South Africa?"

Persons who were born in the Transkei/Bophuthatswana/Venda/Ciskei (former TBVC states) or in any of the homelands are regarded as having been born in South Africa. If the person was born in South Africa, dot the Y box and if not dot the N box. Make sure that you dot in the middle of the box, not to the side or next to the box.

P-09a "In which province was (the person) born?"

The nine provinces are pre-coded, so you write the correct code in the box. We have to capture the information according to the new provinces, not according to the old divisions, e.g. Gauteng, which is 7 on the list, or Northern Province, which is 9 on the list, and NOT Transvaal, which is not on the pre-coded list.

For elderly persons it might be difficult to define the place according to the present provincial division. Ask for the name of the place where the person was born and then locate that place in one of the present provinces. E.g. if born in Kimberley, write 3 = Northern Cape.

P-09b "In which country was (the person) born?"

Write the name of the country in the boxes provided. Use the name the country is presently known by. Do not add names of cities or provinces.

Remember to use capital letters for the answers to 9a and 9b, and not to leave spaces between words.

Some people are reluctant to tell you where they were born. If necessary, you can stress that the information is only used for statistical purposes and will never be released to the police or other government departments in an identifiable form, only as numerical totals.

[P. 42]

Question P-10 and P-10a -- Citizenship

This question has two parts, P-10 and P-10a. The second part only applies to people who answer "No" to the first part. So people who answer "Yes" to the first part will "skip" P-10a and go to Question 11.

P-10 "Is (the person) a South African citizen?"

Remember that people who were not born in South Africa can be citizens of South Africa. The reverse is also sometimes true. That is why we need this question as well as the last question.

Accept the respondent's answer. You do not need to ask for proof. However, if immigrants hesitate to tell the truth, remind them that the information is for statistical use only, and will not be disclosed to any other authority or organisation or private person because the Statistics Act restricts the use of census data to statistics only.

Dot the correct box, i.e. Y or N box.

If Yes go to P-11. In other words, if Yes to P-10, skip P-10a and go to P-11. If No to P-10, write the name of the country of citizenship in P-10a.

P-10a "What is the name of the country of citizenship?"

Write one letter per box. Use capital letters only. Do not leave any spaces between words. Write as many letters as you have spaces for.

Question P-11 and 11a -- Usually live

This question also has two parts i.e. P-11 and P-11a.The first part asks if the person usually lives in this household. People who answer "Yes" can move straight on to Question 12. People who say "No" must answer the second part of the question, P-11a.

P-11 "Does (the person) usually live in this household for at least four nights a week?"

If "Yes" skip P-11a and go to P-12, if "No" ask Question P-11a.

P-11a "Where does (the person) usually live?"

The purpose of this question is to identify visitors and exclude them from data about total household income, or data about the number of people who live in a particular place.

If the person does not usually live in this dwelling but lives in the same sub-place, dot the S box (S = Same).

[P. 43]

If the person usually lives in a different place, write the name of the main place and the name of the sub-place in the spaces provided, e.g. Pretoria, Arcadia; or Kutama, Tshikwarane. One place name is not sufficient for coding purposes.

Main place and sub-place
This is the first question that brings in the concepts of main place and sub-place. So far we have only needed province or country. Now we have to write sufficient information to pinpoint local places.

A main place is a city, town, township, tribal authority or administrative area.

A sub-place is a suburb, section of a township, smallholding, village, subvillage, ward or informal settlement.

On the front of the questionnaire for sub-place we wrote the most local name used by the household. For this question, and other questions asking for main place and sub-place, we must be a little more careful, as some local names can occur more than once within a main place.

For more details, see Appendix 6, which also give examples within the new metros.

There are also two boxes for the abbreviation of the province, as some place names occur in more than one province. Use the following two-letter abbreviations: EC, FS, GP, KN, MP, NC, NP, NW, WC.

National Bureau: Write the main place in the main place row and the sub-place in the sub-place row. Do not continue writing the main place in the sub-place row if the name is too long. Just write as many letters as will fit, as we did for religion.

If the person usually lives abroad, ask for the name of the country and write it in the space provided. Write the name of the country, not of the city or the province.

Question 12, 12a and 12b -- Five years ago

Question 12 has three parts i.e. 12, 12a, 12b. Everyone answers the first part. Those who answer "No" must answer the other two parts as well. Everyone else goes to Question 13.

This question also depends on the concepts of place. The question asks:

P-12 "Five years ago (at the time of Census '96), was (the person) living in this place (i.e. this suburb, ward, township, village, farm, informal settlement)?"

If the answer is "Yes" dot the Y box, if "No" dot the N box. Dot the box marked B for people who were not alive at the time of the last census (B = born after October 1996).

[P. 44]

The main issue here is, what counts as a move? Again the question refers to a very small area -- the sub-place. If the person lived in the same dwelling 5 years ago the answer is "Yes". If the respondent has moved within the same "sub-place" from one house to another, the answer should also be "Yes" because we do not count short-distance residential moves for this question. If the person was living in a different sub-place from the one on the front of the 09 book, the answer is "No".

If "Yes" or born after October 96 skip P-12a and P-12b and go to Question P-13.

If "No" go to Questions P-12a and P-12b.

P-12a "Where did (the person) move from?"

If more than one move, give details of the last move.

Write the name of the main place and the sub-place from which the person moved in the boxes provided, e.g. Pretoria, Arcadia; or Kutama, Tshikwarane. The main place might be the same as the one you are in, even though the sub-place has changed -- e.g. Pretoria, Sunnyside (from Pretoria, Arcadia). Or it might be a different main place. Either way, be sure to give a main place name and a sub place name. One place name is not sufficient for coding purposes. The combination of the two names, together with the province code, should identify the place.

If the respondent lived in another country five years ago, write the name of the country (not the province or town/city) in the main place row and leave the province boxes and the sub-place boxes empty.

P-12b "In which year did (the person) move to this place?"

If the person has moved more than once indicate the year of the last move.

Because this question only applies to people who moved in the last five years, alternatives are only given for the years 1996 to 2001. Write the code for the correct year in the boxes provided.

Question P-13 -- Disability

"Does (the person) have any serious disability that prevents his/her full participation in life activities (such as education, work, social life)?"

Disability is a limitation or lack of ability that prevents a person from performing an activity within the range considered normal, or from behaving in a manner considered normal.

Read out the categories and dot the appropriate boxes. For this question you may have to dot more than one box. Encourage the respondent to name all serious disabilities a person has, e.g. if deaf and wheelchair-bound, dot 2 and 4.

Note that if 1 bad sight is corrected with glasses or 2 bad hearing with a hearing aid, it is not considered a disability for the census.

[P. 45]

This question is likely to be sensitive. If necessary, show the prompt card on the back of the 09 book to the respondent so that s/he can point out the correct alternatives without saying them.

Question P-14 -- Mother alive

Question 14 has two parts, P-14 and P-14a. Everyone answers the first part. Those who answer "Yes" must answer the second part as well.

P-14 "Is (the person's) own biological mother still alive?

Biological mother means not a stepmother, or mother by adoption.

Dot one alternative:

Y = Yes
N = No
D = Don't know

Answer "don't know" only if nobody in the household can help you with the correct answer.

If "No" or "Don't know" skip P-14a and go to P-15.

If "Yes" go to Question P-14a.

P-14a "Who in this household is (the person's) mother?"

If the person's mother is a member of this household, give the row number of the mother in the boxes. For example, if the person's mother is the household head, write "01". Or maybe the person's mother has been listed in row 14 on questionnaire 2, so you will write "14".

If the person's mother does not live in the same household write "99".

Question P-15 -- Father alive

This question works in exactly in the same way as the previous question.

P-15 "Is (the person's) own biological father still alive?"

Again we do not mean stepfather or father by adoption.

Dot one alternative -- "Yes", "No" or "Don't know". Answer "Don't know" only if nobody in the household can help you to find the correct answer.

If "No" or "Don't know" skip P-15a and go to P-16. If "Yes" go to Question P-15a.

P-15a "Who in this household is (the person's) father?"
[P. 46]

If the person's father is a member of this household, give the row number of the father in the appropriate space.

If the person's father does not live in the household write "99".

Question P-16 and 16a -- Present school attendance

Question 16 has two parts, P-16, and P-16a. Only those who answer "Yes" to P-16 have to answer 16a. Those who answer "No" go straight to P-17, as 16a will not apply to them.

P-16 "Does (the person) presently attend an educational institution?"

Please include studies by correspondence/ distance education.

If the answer is "Yes", read out the options so that you can enter the correct code 2--8 in the box in the column headed "Institution".

If the person is attending an educational institution that is not listed, write code 8 in the box and specify under the box. Be careful not to write near the boxes.

If a learner is not attending school for a number of days because of illness, s/he is still regarded as attending school.

This question must be answered for all persons, regardless of age.

If "No", skip P-16a and go to Question P-17. If "Yes", ask the next question.

P-16a "Is this institution public or private?"

1 = public, 2 = private, 3 = don't know.

Write the answer in the box in the column headed "Type". Write 3 = don't know only if no-one in the household knows the type.

[P. 47]

Note: A public school means a government school, i.e. a school directly under the provincial department of education. Former white schools known as ex-Model C schools are government schools, even if they are fee-paying.

Question P-17 -- Level of education
Ask for all persons aged 5 years and over.

Question 17 has two parts, 17 and 17a. Only those people who indicate that they have a post-school qualification in Question 17 will answer 17a.

P-17 "What is the highest level of education that (the person) has completed?"

Read the categories to the respondent.

In this question we are interested in the highest level of education that the person has completed, not the level they are currently studying. Thus a pupil at school who is in Grade 9 has completed Grade 8.

Note that formal schooling starts from Grade 1, while Grade 0 means the year just before Grade 1, that is, the last year of pre-school. If currently in Grade 0, write "99". For a child currently in Grade 1, write "00" or "99", depending on whether the child attended Grade 0 or not.

If the person has not attended school, this should also be recorded as "99".

Diplomas and certificates must be at least six months full-time study or equivalent. NTC 1 stands for the National Technical Certificate on first year level. Probe about post-school diplomas/certificates. If a person say that he/she has completed a certificate or diploma, like MCSE, computer or secretarial courses, or a course in typing, welding, etc, ask how long it took to complete.

The next question, 17a, concerns the field of post-school education so some people will skip this question:

If the respondent chose one of the codes in the first column skip P-17a and go to P-18.
If the respondent chose one of the codes in the second column, other than 21 or 22, go to P-17a.

[P. 48]

Question P-17a -- Field of education
Ask for all persons with a post-school qualification.

"In which field is (the person's) highest post-school qualification?"

The respondent may not know have the exact qualifications of some members of the household. You may have to probe to decide on a field of study.

You can show the prompt card at the back of the 09 book to the respondent so that s/he can look for the correct field. The prompt card is useful for this question because there are so many categories to read out and remember.

If the person wants to indicate more than one field of study, ask him or her to indicate the field in which he or she has the highest level of education. If he or she has several fields of the same level, ask him or her to choose the field that is most related to his or her work (now or previously).

Question P-18 -- Any work in the 7 days before 10 0ctober
Ask for all persons aged 10 years and over, that is, born before 10 October 1991

Question 18 has four parts i.e. P-18, P-18a, P-18b and P-18c. Only those who are working continue with the rest of Question 18. Those who are not working go to Question 19.

P-18 "In the seven days before 10 October did (the person) do any work for pay (in cash or in kind), profit, or family gain, for at least one hour?"

Payment in kind = e.g. when an employer buys a domestic worker clothes and pays for her medical expenses, or when people working on a farm get part of the crops in return.

Family gain = e.g. when a member of the family looks after the cattle.

Read all the categories to the respondent.

Work includes formal or informal work, farming, food production or food gathering, seasonal work (e.g. farm workers or other people who only work during a specific season), casual or piece work/job, selling vegetables or running a spaza.

[P. 49]

Classifying work as formal or informal
Formal work is work that takes place in a business or organisation registered in any way, or in the public sector, or in a non-governmental organisation. There are several ways to register a business, such as registration at a Registrar of Companies, Commissioner of Unemployment, South African Medical and Dental Council or Commissioner of Worker's Compensation. Businesses registered to pay VAT or registered as a close corporation are formal.

A private enterprise that is not registered in any way is classified as informal.

If a person had more than one activity among codes 1-3, indicate the one on which s/he spent the most time.

We are talking here about the week prior to census night. The answer is "Yes" (codes 1-4) if the person worked for at least one hour on any one day during the reference week. Note that temporary absence, e.g. on annual/sick/study leave, counts as having work for the purposes of this question.

For persons who say they worked (codes 1-3) or were temporarily absent from work, (code 4) skip P-18a, P18b and P-18c and go to Question P-19.

For persons who say they did not have work (code 5), continue with Questions P-18a, P-18b and P-18c. These questions are about unemployment.

Question P-18a -- Reason why not working
Ask of all persons ages 10 years and older who said they did not have work.

"What is the main reason why (the person) did not have work in the seven days before 10 October."

If there is more than one reason, write the MAIN (most important) reason. The person must decide this for him/herself. Give him or her time to come up with a reason.

If the person (or proxy) does not know, try to find one applicable category. For children aged 10-15 the most likely answer will be 1 = scholar or student. For other young persons it might be "6 = does not choose to work" or "7 = could not find work". Normally, people find a suitable category after some discussion.

Question P-18b -- Active steps

"In the past four weeks before 10 October has (the person) taken active steps to find employment?"

Active steps = E.g. if the person went to visit factories or other employment places, placed or answered advertisements, OR looked for land or a building or equipment to start his or her own business or farm. Read the example to the first person in the household.

There are only two alternatives, "Yes" or "No". Focus on the examples of activity to find employment or to start own business.

[P. 50]

If the person cannot mention any active steps, choose "No". Just reading newspapers is not an active step. The person should also answer advertisements.

Most people who chose categories 1--6 in answer to Question 18a should answer "No". However do not query the response even if it appears to contradict the answer to Question 18a. This is intended to pick up people of ambiguous labour force status.

Question P-18c -- Availability

"If offered work, how soon could (the person) start?"

We want to know how soon the person can start work. The answer "within one week" means s/he may belong to the "labour force" according to the narrow definition. For labour force policy this question is very important. If the person cannot tell you when s/he could start work, the correct choice may be 5 = "Does not choose to work". However, as for the last question, answers that apparently contradict the answer to Question 18a are acceptable. Dot the correct box.

National Bureau: Some respondents may think that you are offering them employment. Be sure to make it clear that you are not offering any work.

For all these people who have been answering P-18a, P-18b and P-18c on unemployment, skip the whole of P-19 and go to P-20.

Question P-19 -- Work status

"How can one best describe (the person's) main activities or work status?"

Remember to focus on the seven days before the census.

If a person has two occupations ask for the occupation worked most at.

There are five possibilities. Read out the categories to the first respondent.

1 = "paid employee". This means a person who works for someone else or a company for a wage or salary, or for commissions from sales or bonuses, or for payment in kind such as food, housing or training.

2 = "paid family workers", e.g. in shops or on farms. They get a normal salary or wages.

3 = "self-employed". This means a person who has his or her own business or enterprise but does not employ other persons except for unpaid family workers.

4 = "employer". This means a person who works for him/herself and employs others in his or her business.

5 = "unpaid family worker". This means someone that works in a family business or on a family farm without receiving a monetary payment.

6.="Other, specify". Write "6" in the box and write the details on the dotted line.

[P. 51]

Question P-19a -- Business or company name

"What is the FULL name of the business/company or organisation for whom (the person) works?"

If the person works for him/herself (self-employed or employer), and the business does not have a name, write self.

If the person performs paid domestic work in a private household, enter "domestic service".

National Bureau: Write the response in the boxes provided and make sure that you write inside the boxes not outside. Do not leave empty boxes in between words. Make sure that you start at the top left corner and write only as much as will fit.

Question P-19b -- Company or business activity

"What does the business do (main economic activity)?"

Here we are interested in the main economic activity of the local unit of the organisation for whom the person works.

This may differ from the type of work the person performs, which is asked in the next question. For example, someone may be an accountant in a gold-mining organisation, or a messenger in a bank. In the first example, the main activity of the organisation is gold mining, while in the second, it is banking. Describe the activity in as much detail as possible.

Question P-19c -- Occupation

"What is the main occupation of (the person) in this workplace?"

Occupation refers to the type of work the person performed in the seven days before the census. Use at least two words. Read the examples from the questionnaire to the first respondent.

Write down the current job title of the person, using two or three words, for example, primary school teacher, private gardener, cattle farmer, domestic worker, bus driver, communication technician, senior demographer, car sales person, office cleaner.

Do not accept only "teacher", "driver", "technician". Use two or three words for the description, otherwise it will be difficult to know what type of work they are doing.

Do not use academic titles like MA or PhD, or titles of honour.

National Bureau: Write the response in the boxes provided and make sure that you write inside the boxes not outside. Do not leave empty boxes between words. Start in the top left box.

Answers to questions P-19a, 19b and 19c should be related, in that they should all refer to the same job. If a person has more than one job, they should answer these questions in relation to their main job. If the answer to the occupation question appears inconsistent, probe.

[P. 52]

The table in Appendix 3 contains several examples of name of business, industrial sector, and occupation that could go together. The table illustrates two things.

It shows the difference between industrial sector and occupation. It can be clearly seen that in some cases the occupation is directly related to the industrial sector, but in other cases it is not. Jobs such as driver, labourer, clerk, human relations officer, accountant, can be done in any industrial sector.

The examples show appropriate wording and level of detail for industrial sector and for occupation.

You should study this table in your own time and make sure you understand the concepts.

Question P-19d -- Hours worked

"How many hours did (the person) work in the seven days before 10 October?"

Remember to include overtime and to add hours worked at a secondary place of work, if any.

If the person was absent from work those seven days, but usually works, indicate the number of hours s/he usually works, including overtime.

Write two digits. Nine hours = 09, 30 hours = 30.

If the respondent says the number of hours he/she works, ask if it is per day or per week. If it is per day multiply the number of hours by the number of days worked during that week.

If a person reports 70 hours per week or more, probe. A normal working week is 5 x 8 hours = 40 hours, or thereabouts. Even including the weekend 7 x 8 would be 56 hours.

Question P-19e and P-19f -- Place of work

P-19e "Does (the person) work in the same sub-place in which s/he usually lives?"

Dot Y for "Yes" or N for "No".

We are interested in people who commute between different places from home to work.

If the person lives and works in the same suburb, ward, farm or informal settlement, etc. s/he answers "Yes".

Farmers and persons who have their businesses at home or in a home-based office, e.g. lawyers, dressmakers, dentists, or people with a spaza shop or shebeen in their home, do not have to travel to the place of work. For them dot Y = "Yes".

Sales representatives and truck drivers and other persons with a mobile place of work indicate the place where they normally start their travelling or where they get their orders.

If "Yes", skip P-19f and go to Question P-20 on children ever born.

If "No" continue with Question P-19f regarding place of work.

[P. 53]

P-19f "If No, where is this place of work?"

For persons who do not work in the same place as where they live, give their place of work. Write the name of the main place and the name of the sub-place. E.g. Pretoria, Arcadia; or Kutama, Tshikwarane. Add the province abbreviation.

If the person works abroad, write the name of the country in the space provided, and not that of the city or the province.

National Bureau: Write the main place in the main place row and the sub place in the sub-place row. Do not continue writing the main place in the sub-place row if the name is too long.

This is the end of the questions about work. We now move on to the fertility questions.

Fertility questions must be asked of the women themselves, if necessary in private. You may have to make an appointment to come back and complete these questions with some of the women in the household, even if you have completed the other questions for them by interviewing a responsible person in the household.

Questions P-20, P-20a and P-20b -- Children born

Before asking these questions, look at the flap with names, sex and age to check who qualifies to be asked the questions.

Ask these questions only of women who were born on or after 10 Oct 1951 but not later than 10 Oct 1989.

Be careful not to miss any women who qualify. At the same time be careful not to include women younger than 12 old or older than 50.

This question has three parts i.e. P-20, P-20a and P-20b. Again only those women who qualify will answer the second and third parts.

Question P-20 -- Total births

"How many children, if any, has (the person) ever had that were born alive?"

Start by asking for the total number of children born alive. Include all her children, i.e. those who are still living, whether or not they live in this household, and those who are dead. (The next question will record how many are still alive.) However do not count still births or adopted babies.

If the respondent says that she has 1 child, but that child is 'late' (passed away) you write 01 in the box for "Total" and ask:

"Was it a boy or a girl?" Then write 01 in the relevant box.

[P. 54]

If she has more than 1 child ask:

"How many of these were boys?" and write the answer in the box, e.g. 02.

"How many of these were girls?" and write the answer in the box, e.g. 01.

Then you confirm the total, e.g. in this case: 03 children who were born alive.

If there is a discrepancy, e.g. total number is 4 but the woman says 2 girls and 1 boy, probe. Ask if the total includes children who have died or are living somewhere else.

If the woman has had no children, enter 00 in the boxes for total, boys and girls and ask no more questions of this woman. Skip P-21a and P-21b and go to the household questions.

National Bureau: Note that you must write 00 in all the boxes for women who qualify for this question and have had no children, not just the total boxes. (But do not write 00 in these boxes for men or young girls or older women. For these people we do not fill in this question at all.)

Question P-20a -- Children still living
Ask this question of all women who answered "1 or more" to Question P-20, i.e. who have ever given birth to live babies.

Adjust your questions according to the answers given in Question P-20. E.g., if the woman has only had boys there is no need to ask about girls here. Just write 00 in the girls boxes.

If boys:
"How many boys are still alive (were still alive on the census night, i.e. 10 Oct)?"

If girls:
"How many girls are still alive (were still alive on the census night, i.e. 10 Oct)?"

Write the answers in the boxes for boys and girls. Add the two together for the total, then ask the respondent if this number of children is still alive.

The total here cannot be greater than the total for children ever born alive in P-21. If the total is greater, probe. The answers to these questions must be consistent.

Question P-20b -- Last child born
Ask this question of all women who answered "1 or more" to Question P-20, i.e. who have ever given birth to live babies.

"When was (the person's) last child born?"

Give date of birth: DD/ MM / YYYY

Write in the correct boxes, i.e. day in the DD boxes, month in the MM boxes and year in the YYYY boxes.

Give sex. Dot the correct boxes, i.e. M for male and F for female

"Is that child alive or dead?" Dot the correct boxes, i.e. A for alive and D for dead.

[P. 55]

There remain two more questions for everyone - travel and income. Fill in the boxes for all household members.

Question P-21 -- Travel to school or place of work

"How does (the person) usually travel to school or to his/her place of work?"

If more than one mode of travel, indicate the mode that covers the longest distance.

If the person uses different modes during the week, e.g. some days gets a lift and some days goes by minibus (also called "taxi"), s/he indicates the one that is most frequent or is related to the longest distance in the week.

If the mode of travel is not listed, code 9 for "Other" should be used, e.g. horses, donkey carts. If a truck driver takes the truck home, this counts as "Other".

The category 0 = "not applicable" is for people who do not work and are not at any educational institution. People who work at home, and live-in domestic workers, should therefore choose 1 = "on foot", because this category is for those people who work or go to school but do not use any form of transport.

Question P-22 -- Income category

"What is the income category that best describes the gross income of (the person) before tax?"

Read the categories out to the first respondent.

Identify the income from one of the two tables, and enter the code. Both tables are provided so that people can answer in terms of monthly or annual income. The resulting code will be the same, e.g:

an annual income level of R20 000 is category 05.
a monthly income of R3000 is also category 05.

The reference period for annual income is 1 October 2000 until 31 September 2001, and for monthly income September 2001.

Gross income means income before tax or deductions.

Income from investments, private business, etc. should be included. Income from the sale of home-grown produce or home-brewed beer or cattle should also be included. If any of these activities have brought in income for the household as a whole rather than for a particular person, simply add the amount to the income of someone in the household.

If the household has received remittances or payments e.g. from a person working or living elsewhere, add this income to the total of someone, e.g. the head of the household.

[P. 56]

Even a small child can have an income in the form of a child maintenance grant.

It is not necessary to be very exact because the income categories are relatively broad. If the income varies during the year, take the average.

You can show the prompt card on the back of the 09 book to help the respondent to identify the total income. The prompt card is useful when people do not want to say their income aloud in front of other household members.

[P. 57]


The questions in Section B are for the household as a whole. The questions on page 11 are about housing and services. The questions on the back page are about deaths in the household in the past year.

Ask all the questions in this section of a responsible person, preferably the head or acting head of the household.

Question H-23 -- Type of living quarters

This question has three parts. Everyone answers the first part. Only those who choose option 1 for H-23 will answer the other two parts.

"What is the type of these living quarters?"

This questionnaire will be used for households in housing units and for households in some types of collective living quarters. The choices in Questionnaire A are 'housing unit' or one of the different kinds of collective living quarters. If you choose housing unit you will specify which kind in the next question.

Housing unit: A unit of accommodation for a household, which may consist of one structure, or more than one structure, or part of a structure. (Examples of each are a house, a group of rondavels, and a flat.) It may be vacant, or occupied by one or more than one household.

A housing unit has a separate entrance from outside or from a common space, as in a block of flats.

Premises not intended for use as living quarters, but used for human habitation at the time of the census, such as a barn, warehouse, etc., are also classified as housing units for census purposes.

Those who choose one of options 2-5 skip H-23a, H-23b, H-24 and H-24a, and go to Question H-25 on the next line. The others will answer the next questions.

Question H-23 a -- Type of housing unit

"Which type of dwelling or housing unit does this household occupy?"

Write the code in the boxes.

This question should be answered in relation to the housing unit for that household. So a household in a separate housing unit such as a backyard room will answer accordingly. This is another reason why domestic workers, for example, are captured on their own questionnaires.

[P. 58]

If this household lives in more than one dwelling (as captured in the next question), answer this question in relation to the main dwelling.

For example, some housing units consist of more than one dwelling, such as a brick house and one or more traditional huts, or a room in a converted hostel, plus a shack outside. In such cases give the type of the main dwelling.

Note that "more than one dwelling" refers only to dwellings on the same site, not dwellings or houses elsewhere.

Question H-23b -- More than one dwelling

"Does this household occupy more than one dwelling on this site?"

This question will capture housing units consisting of more than one dwelling, as explained above. Again we are not talking about other dwellings or houses elsewhere.

Question H-24 -- Rooms

This question has two parts, H-24 and H-24a. Only those who answer '1 room' to H-24 will answer 24a.

"How many rooms, including kitchens, are there for this household?"

Count all rooms (in all dwellings, if applicable). Exclude bathrooms, sheds, garages, stables, etc. unless there are people living in these rooms, but include all rooms occupied by household members.

Write the answer in the box, e.g. if 4 rooms, write "04". If three families share a four-roomed house, meaning they occupy one room each and share the kitchen, write "02". (Notice that the question does not ask how many rooms there are in the dwelling unit, but how many rooms the household uses.)

Note that the skip is only stated in the instruction for the next question.

Question H-24a -- Sharing 1 room
Ask this question if the answer to Question H-24 was "1 room". If more than one room skip H-24a and go to H-25.

"Are there two or more households sharing a single room?"

Here we get further details of overcrowding if households have indicated in the previous question that they only have one room. Dot "Y" or "N".

[P. 59]

Question H-25 -- Tenure status

"What is the tenure status of the household?"

Read out the categories to the respondent. If the household uses several dwellings, fill in the information for the main dwelling.

Indicate by writing the code for the relevant category.

Question H-26-- Piped water

"In which way does this household obtain PIPED WATER for domestic use?"

Please write only one answer.

First ask whether the household has piped water or not. If not, write 1. If they have access to piped water, read out the other categories for the respondent to choose from. Notice that this question includes water piped locally e.g. from a nearby stream or a private borehole. In other words, it focuses on convenience.

The question is asking about water used for household needs, not water used for gardens or cattle.

Question H-26a -- Source of water

"What is this household's MAIN source of WATER for domestic use?"

Please indicate only one alternative.

Households who have piped water do not necessarily know where the water comes from. In most cases piped water comes from regional or local water schemes (1), boreholes (2) or springs (3). If the piped water is from a regional or local scheme, this takes precedence, and the respondent should not answer e.g. dam even if the scheme uses a dam. The reason is that this question is interested in the quality of people's water (rather than convenience), and it is assumed that water from a scheme is of good quality. People who do not have access to water from a scheme should indicate one of the other sources -- this assumes they carry water or have local pipework only.

If the respondent is not sure about the source of piped water, ask if they pay the municipality or service provider for water; if "Yes" mark 1. Note however that some people do receive a certain amount of water free from the municipality, so this is not a foolproof way of knowing.

If the answer is alternative 8 ("Other"), specify beneath the box.

Question H-27 -- Toilet facility

"What is the MAIN type of TOILET facility that is available for use by this household?"

[P. 60]

Read out the alternatives. Alternative 1, flush toilet attached to a sewerage system, is found mainly in urban settlements.

Alternative 2 is a flush toilet attached to a septic tank. A septic tank is an underground tank where the organic matter in sewage is dealt with by bacterial activity. It has to be emptied from time to time.

We want only one toilet facility. If there are several types available for the household, indicate the one that is mostly used.

Question H-28 -- Energy/fuel

"What type of energy/fuel does this household MAINLY use for cooking, heating and for lighting?"

There are three boxes to be filled in for this question. Note that certain fuels cannot be used for certain purposes.

If e.g. electricity is used for cooking, heating and lighting, write "1" in each box.

If e.g. the household mainly uses wood for cooking, coal for heating and candles for lighting, write "4", "5" and "6" in the respective boxes.

If the electricity is not from a service provider but from a private source, e.g. a small private generator or solar panel, write code 9 and specify.

When you specify the energy used, do not write in the box; instead write on the dotted line.

Question H-29 -- Household goods

"Does the household have any of the following (in working condition)?"

Dot Y = "Yes" or N = "No" for radio, television, computer, refrigerator, telephone and cell-phone. All these devices should be in working order. If a person can receive calls but cannot use the phone to make calls this does not count.

Dot Y for cell-phone if at least one member of the household owns one or has the right to use one.

If more than one household has the right to use the device, e.g. a refrigerator or computer in a common space, dot Y = "Yes". We are not counting the devices, only how many households and persons in the country have access to them.

In households where they have neither a telephone (landline) nor a cell-phone, ask Question H-29a about access to a telephone.

In households which have either a telephone or a cell-phone, skip H-29a and go to H-30.

[P. 61]

Question H-29a -- Access to telephone
Ask of households which have neither a telephone in the house nor a cell-phone.

"Where do members of this household MAINLY use a telephone?"

There are 5 alternatives; choose one on the basis of the answer given and write it in the box. "Nearby" is to be defined quite subjectively.

If the household can use a telephone at a person's workplace, dot alternative 2, 3.or 4.

Question H-30 -- Refuse or rubbish

"How is the refuse or rubbish of this household MAINLY disposed of?"

Indicate only one type of refuse removal. If there are several, choose the main way.

If alternative 6 ("other"), specify on the dotted line.

[P. 62]

Question H-31 -- Anybody died

"Has any member of this household died in the past 12 months, i.e. between 10 October 2000 and 10 October 2001?"

For this question a household member is defined as someone who usually lived in this household (for at least four nights a week on average). Any such household members who died during the past year should be recorded here, irrespective of exactly where that person died.

Dot "Yes" or "No".

If "Yes" dot the correct box and go to H-31a.

If "No" the questionnaire is completed.

Question H-31a -- Deceased
Ask of all households which answered Yes to H-31.

This might be a sensitive question. Ask tactfully.

In this question you have to complete the table for each household member who died in the reference period. Use one line for each person. First obtain the names of all the people who have died and then go back and fill in the rest of the information for each person named.

"What is the first name of the deceased?"
First name is sufficient. The names will not be used in data processing; they are needed only for communication during the interview.

"What was the month and year of death?"
If the month is not known, try to get the year.

"What was the sex of the deceased?"

"What was the age in years at death?"

Write the response in the boxes provided, e.g. if the person was two years when he died write 002. Always use three digits -- this is important for the scanning.

If the exact age at death is not known, estimate it as accurately as possible. You may ask if the date of birth of the deceased is known, and calculate the age at death. Do not leave the date blank.

"Did the person die from an accident or through violence?"
A person is classified as dying as a result of an accident or through violence if death took place within one month of the date of the incident. If a person was involved in a car accident [P. 63] and dies within a month from injuries received during the accident, the death is regarded as being caused by the accident.

"If the deceased woman was a woman under 50 years, did (the person) die while pregnant or within six weeks after delivery?"
The answer to this question is "Yes" if the woman died within six weeks after delivery from complications due to pregnancy or childbirth.

[skip P. 64-71]

[P. 72]

MODULE 4 Collective living quarters and the homeless

4.1 Which questionnaire to use

Occupants of institutions (in the strict sense of the term) must be enumerated using Questionnaire B and C.

The B Questionnaire is designed to capture personal information for one individual. Questions about housing and services are then asked once, to the manager of the institution, using Questionnaire C. This saves unnecessary repetition. On the rest of Questionnaire C all the individuals to be enumerated via Questionnaire B are listed.

Tourist hotels, motels, etc.
Tourist hotels, motels, etc, for short-term residents, will also be enumerated using Questionnaire B and C. Even if, for instance, married couples are found in such hotels, they are to be treated as individuals. The manager will answer the housing and services questions.

Residential hotels
Residential hotels and boarding houses, where people live semi-permanently, are enumerated using Questionnaire A.

Workers hostels, nurses' residences and student residences are also enumerated using Questionnaire A. This means that each person will have to fill in all the housing questions. The answer to the question about rubbish removal can be obtained from the manager.

Old age homes
Frail care sections of old age homes are institutions, just like a hospital. Use Questionnaire B and C.

For people in other sections of old age homes use Questionnaire A.

National Bureau. Note that if older people are living in individual units in a retirement home (or retirement village) these are considered to be households in separate housing units, like a townhouse complex. You must remember this when you get to the first housing questions in the questionnaire.

[P. 73]

Summary of which questionnaire to use

Questionnaire A:

Residential hotel
Students' residence
Home for the aged
Workers' hostel (including e.g. nurses' hostel)
Questionnaires B and C:
Tourist hotel/ motel/ inn
Hospital/ medical facility/ frail care centre
Childcare institution
Home for the disabled
Boarding school hostel
Initiation school
Convent/ monastery/ religious retreat
Defence force barracks/ camp/ ship in harbour

Households in housing units in or attached to collective living quarters and institutions
In all cases staff in staff quarters are enumerated using Questionnaire A, the household questionnaire. The house, flat, or rooms where they live is their housing unit. (This is important to remember when you fill in the housing questions). Examples of such people are the doctor in the hospital, warders in a prison, nursing or cleaning staff in a child-care institution, etc. Even if such staff only have a room, they are not inmates of the institution. They have one room just like a nurse in the nurses' residence.

Self-catering holiday accommodation
Note that households in self-catering holiday accommodation, such as holiday flats and chalets, time share complexes, caravan parks and camping sites, are enumerated using Questionnaire A. The flats, holiday homes, caravans and tents are treated as housing units.

4.3 The 09 book
Collective living quarters and institutions should have been listed by subdivisions such as building and room, dormitory, ward, etc., i.e. not at the level of the individual. There will be estimates of the number of individuals for each record number in Column 4.

When you use Questionnaire A in collective living quarters, you should 'unpack' the record number further for each individual or household that you enumerate that was not listed separately. This will apply particularly in hostels. Each one will be on a separate record number, identified by name, and cross-referenced to the record number for the whole room. (See record numbers 313--315 on the sample page.)

When you use Questionnaires B and C you will list all the individuals on Questionnaire C. You will then write the barcode from Questionnaire C in the 09 book. So there is no need to 'unpack' further in institutions, unless you find unlisted rooms or cells etc.

[skip P. 74-106]

[P. 107]


Rules for marital status in relation to polygamy:

A. Women cannot have multiple husbands, and women can never have marital status 3 (polygamous).

B. In a polygamous marriage, the man declares his marital status as 3 (polygamous): each of his wives declares her marital status as either 1 (civil/religious marriage) or 2 (traditional/customary marriage). Note that wives in polygamous marriages cannot have marital status 4 (living together).

C. In a non-polygamous marriage, each partner can have marital status of 1 (civil/religious marriage) or 2 (traditional/customary marriage) or 4 (living together).

D. If a man has multiple wives, his marital status must be 3 (polygamous).

E. Each of a polygamous man's wives should make her spouse number person point to the man, and the man's spouse person number should point to the first of his wives.

F. It is possible to have a polygamous man with no spouses or with a single spouse in the household.

In the situation where there is a compound ("kraal") consisting of several huts, each of which has its own separate cooking and eating areas, the people in each of these huts would be enumerated as separate households.

For example, a man lives in his compound with his 3 wives and his son 's family (total of 4 huts). There would be 4 households here to enumerate, and 4 questionnaires filled out. The hut where the husband stayed on census night would have a head (him, marital status 3) and a spouse (the wife from that hut, marital status 1 or 2), and spouse person numbers pointing to each other; each of the other 2 wives' huts would just have a head (the wife, marital status 1 or 2) with spouse person number = 99 (spouse not present in the household), and other occupants (children, etc). The son 's family would also be its own household.

None of these questionnaires should be linked (via barcode on the last page), since they are all separate households. Questionnaires linking /continuation only occurs when a single household has more than 10 people (or 20, or 30, etc.).

When a man lives with his wives in the same household and they share the same cooking/eating facilities, then they would all be enumerated as one household, with one questionnaire. The man would have marital status 3; his spouse person number would point to the first wife. Each wife would have marital status 1 or 2, and her spouse person number would point to the man.

This caters for polygamy while still adhering to the definition of a household, which is not based on financial support.

[skip P. 108-119]