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Vietnam Census 1999
Enumerator's manual

Chapter II. General classifications of this enumeration

I. Census date and time: Zero hour of April 1, 1999
Regardless of the time of interview, interviewers should refer to the census date and time as zero hour on April 1, 1999 to define number of household members and other enumeration's information for each member.

II. Scopes and objects of the enumeration:

1. All Vietnamese persons and foreigners (not including persons in embassy, diplomatic missions, and their relatives) who usually reside in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on the date and time of census.

2. Vietnamese persons who receive permits from government's authorities to stay for a given duration abroad and they still live abroad at the time of census.

Persons who were born after the date and time of census and persons who died before the date and time of census are not eligible for the enumeration and are not in the list of enumeration.

3. Housing of all households is located in the land of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

III. Unit of enumeration: "household" which is defined as below:

Household: includes one person or a group of individuals who reside and eat together.

For household with 2 or more persons, they might or might not have common income-spending budget, they might or might not have biological relationship or a combination of both factors.

A household often resides in an entire house or a part of it or resides in a room/apartment; however, household can also reside in tent/camp/guest house/hotel; or collective apartment, barracks, student's residence hall, etc. or does not have a place to stay.

Note: for students at the professional schools (technical college, professional middle schools, college, university, etc.), staying in school's residence hall, rent house/apartment/room, students at the stay-in general schools, they can have 1 or more households in one room and each household should be filled in a separate enumeration form. However, for convenience, these students who share one room/apartment/house are listed in one household enumeration form (regardless of the condition to sharing a meal).

IV. Actual residents in household

Actual residents in household are persons who usually reside and eat in household or persons who just settle in the household, regardless of their household registration status at that address with police department.

Actual residents in household include all temporarily absentees, but do not include temporary residents.

Actual residents in household are defined, as follows:

1. Persons who have settled in household until the time of census are:

Persons who often reside and eat at household. At the time of census, they still live in the household, even if they have names in the household registration or not (do not include soldiers, policemen, foreigners because they are in special enumeration plans).

Babies who were born just before the time of census.

Persons who have received legal paperwork for moving out of the household but they have not moved out of household to a new place at the time of enumeration (draft notice, school's admission, job offer, job transfer, etc.)

2. Persons who just settle in household before the enumeration, include:

Persons who permanently moved out of their previous place of residence and have moving paperwork (regardless of the duration of settling in the household);

Persons who moved out of their previous place and do not have moving paperwork but they can be easily defined as settling down in a new place of residence, such as moving to new economic zones, moving in married husband's (wife's) house, adopted child, retired government employees returning to their family (do not include those who are in army or police department and currently stay home waiting for their official documents to retire or unable to work), etc.

3. Temporary absentees: are those who temporarily are absent from their usual place of residence, regardless of the length of absence, for example, on business trip (domestic or international), routine petty trade, conscripted laborer, visiting relatives, traveling or health related treatment, students at general school level living away from home (not including students in stay-in general schools), temporary detainees, etc.

"Temporary absentees" are considered as "temporary residents" at the place where they stay at the time of enumeration. All persons who are "temporarily absent" and "temporarily resident" must be enumerated at the actual place of residence.

Note: For persons who migrate out to work, such as rural-urban migrants who have unstable or short term jobs (e.g. servers in hotel, restaurant, maids, construction workers, etc.), persons who are hired to work in agriculture (cutting grass, cutting rice, cultivating coffee, rubber, etc.), general rules for enumeration are, as follows:

If entire household moves, enumerate them at the place of current residence.

If one or several members of household migrate: if these persons have left their usual place of residence for 6 months or more from the time of enumeration, count them at the place of current residence (regardless of the duration of stay at the current place of residence). In case, these persons have left their place of usual residence less than 6 months from the time of enumeration, count them at the previous place of residence.
Persons who are not actual residents in the household are:
Infants who were born after the enumeration time and persons who died before the time of enumeration.

Temporary residents in household

Soldiers in their active duties, army workers and staffs, policemen, including all temporarily hires, short term and long term contracts (excluding hourly hired or seasonal hired) in all production units and business companies managed by ministry of defense and ministry of public security, persons who are in army or police department and currently stay home waiting for their official documents to retire or unable to work;

Persons who are in reeducation camps or retraining schools (managed by Ministry of Defense or Ministry of Public Security), including those who are temporarily arrested (approved by the people's court of investigation);

Persons who settle down abroad (with or without crossing border's permission), including those who overstay the legal permission.

Vietnamese overseas who visit their relative/family in Vietnam

Foreigners who are not naturalized Vietnamese citizenship.

Vietnamese who are in embassies, diplomatic missions in foreign countries (including their family/relatives accompanying them).
Persons who are in one enumeration area are:
1. Person who are actual residents in household in enumeration area (excluding persons in army or police, and foreigners who are not eligible based on the 5th point below).

Hourly workers or seasonal workers (excluding contract or temporary hired workers) for Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Public Security are usual residents of household.

2. Vietnamese persons who receive permits from government's authorities to stay for given duration abroad (business, studying, traveling, study tour, visiting relatives, health treatment, etc.) and they still live abroad within the permitted duration at the time of census (excluding persons who work in army or police, in Vietnamese embassies or diplomatic missions abroad and relatives living with them).

3. Persons who left army or police (having notice from their office or with reliable confirmation) and currently stay at household.

4. Persons who live in nursing home, foster care, leprous care unit, and other center/school/camp/units managed by Ministry of Labor, invalid and social welfares in the enumeration area.

5. Persons who just settle down at the enumeration area.

6. Persons who receive migrating/moving paperwork (draft notice, offer letter to work at office or factory in all economic sectors, admission notice to professional school or college, including those managed by army or police forces, notice of changing workplace, moving to new economic zones, etc.) but still stay at their home at the time of enumeration.

7. Foreigners who are naturalized Vietnamese.

8. Persons who are under house arrest, on suspended sentence, or temporary arrest (not approved by the people's court of investigation) and often stay at their actual place of residence in the enumeration area. If head of household is not able to define "temporary arrest" or "temporary imprisoned", interviewers can use general rule to define "temporary arrest" as holding at police station less than 24 hours, and "temporary imprisoned" as holding at police station more than 24 hours.

Notes:
1. Household with 2 or more places of residence:

If the household's places of residence are in the same enumeration area, interviewers register them in one place where they define as main place of residence.

If the household's places of residence are in different enumeration areas in the same or different commune/ward, interviewers register persons who are defined as actual residence of their own enumeration area at the time of enumeration.

2. Households with source of living from aqua activities

If they have house on soil, interviewers register them as residents at that place of house's location for the enumeration.

If they do not have house on soil but register the household at the original landing stage: interviewers who are in charge of that original landing stage would register that household for enumeration.

3. Persons who do not have established place of residence and are often on the move: On the first day of enumeration (April 1, 1999), the commune's (ward's) enumeration's steering committee register them at the place where they are present on that day.

V. Duration of enumeration

The enumeration is carried out for 9 days, from 7 hours of April 1, 1999 to 19 hours of April 9, 1999. For sampling census, the enumeration is carried out for 11 days from 7 hours of April 1, 1999 to 19 hours of April 11, 1999.

At the time of enumeration, interviewers should refer to the date and time of enumeration (0 hour of April 1, 1999) as a reference time to get correct information on number of usual residents in household and their individual characteristics.

Map of the enumeration area, lists of house's number, household number, and number of persons in household [Omitted.]

Chapter III
Instructions for interviewing and filling-in the enumeration form

A. General rules and regulation
[Omitted.]

B. Instructions for interviewing and filling-in the enumeration form
[Omitted.]

Part I. Population enumeration
[Omitted.]

Questions from 1 to 7: for all persons

Question 1: First name and last name of every actual residents in the household, starting with the head of household (interviewers should follow the interviewing process).

Question 2: What is the relationship of (name) to the household head?
If respondent is the head of household, interviewers fill in code "1". For the rest of household members, interviewers fill in corresponding codes 2 to 5 depending on their relationship with the head of household.

Definition of each relationship to head of household is, as follow:

Head of household: is a household representative who is recognized by all members of household.

In households where there are only children because their father and mother work in ministry of defense and/or ministry of public security (enumerating in special plan), head of household is the oldest child.

For students of professional schools or college, students of stay-in general schools, interviewers register them by their room/apartment as one household. Head of household is a person who is recognized by all household's members. Other household's members would have "other" relationship to the head.

Spouse: if a person has two spouses or more (wives or husbands) and lives together with them in one household, these persons are all considered as spouses (wives or husbands) of the head of household (see question 15). Interviewers select code "2" if a person is a spouse of the head of household.

Biological child: is child by birth of the head of household. Interviewers select code "3" if a person is defined as biological child.

Parent: Father (mother) of the head of household includes biological father (mother), adopted father (mother), father-in-law and mother-in-law of the head of household.

Other relationship: Interviewers should report specific relationship with the head of household, such as stepchild of the head of household, daughter-in-law/son-in-law, adopted child, other brother, older sister, younger brother/sister, aunt, uncle, grandparent, grandchild, domestic employees, maid, friend, etc. A person is defined as "other relationship" with the head of household has code "5".

Question 3: Is (name) male or female?
Interviewers can easily identify sex of a respondent and fill in corresponding box. In cases of young children or absentees, interviewers shouldn't guess any person's gender based on their middle name and should ask head of household about their sexes.

Question 4: In what solar calendar month and year was (name) born?
Interviewers need to ask respondent and fill in his/her actual month and year of birth by solar calendar. Interviewers fill in month of birth in two cells in the line for "month". If the month of birth is less than 10, interviewers place "0" in the cell on the left. Filling in the last 3 digits of year of birth in the 3 cells for the line "year".

Note: For persons who were born before April 1899 (100 years old and older), interviewers should also report their information on "List of elderly aged 100 years and older" (appendix 5) after filling in their month and year of birth.

In fact, it is difficult to have correct information on month and year of birth in solar calendar for many people, especially for elderly. Therefore, interviewers should pay attention to several points:

a) Respondent only remembers his/her month, year of birth or age by lunar calendar:

When respondent answer month of birth, interviewers should reconfirm if it is by solar calendar or lunar calendar. If respondent use lunar calendar, interviewers should add 1 unit to have correct solar calendar month of birth (usually, lunar calendar is one month behind solar calendar).

If respondent only remembers year of birth by lunar calendar, interviewers should use "Lunar calendar and solar calendar conversion table" (appendix 2) to convert lunar calendar year into solar calendar year.

In cases where respondent only remembers "zodiac" (chi) (such as: rat, buffalo, tiger, cat, etc.) of his/her year of birth by lunar calendar and can't remember stem/branch (can) (such as: Giap, At, Binh, Dinh, etc.) of that lunar calendar year, interviewers need to ask respondent's age and use "Lunar calendar and solar calendar conversion table" to define year of birth in solar calendar for that person.

In a case, respondent only remember his/her age using lunar calendar, interviewers estimate his/her year of birth in solar calendar, as follow:

Year of enumeration (1999) - age in lunar calendar + 1 = Year of birth in solar calendar

b) Respondent doesn't remember month, year of birth by either lunar calendar or solar calendar

Respondent doesn't remember month of birth: Interviewers need to ask several questions in order to approximate month of birth in solar calendar. If respondent is still not able to report month of birth, interviewers fill in code (**) (not available) in the cells for month of birth.

Respondent doesn't remember year of birth and age: Interviewers can ask several questions to define respondent's age. If respondent is still not able to report his/her age, interviewers may estimate respondent's age (based on his/her appearance, age of the first child, age of brother/sister, etc.), then year of birth in solar calendar. Interviewers shouldn't fill in code "not available" or leave year of birth blank.

Question 5: To what ethnic group does (name) belong?
Interviewers fill in the name of ethnic group based on the head of household's response.

Children of a couple who does not have the same ethnicity or adopted child who doesn't have the same ethnicity with adopted parents, they can define their own ethnicity if they are 18 years of age or older. If they are younger than 18 years old, their ethnicity can be defined either by their father or mother.

For those who are naturalized Vietnamese, interviewers report their original nationality.

Note: In border districts, several ethnic groups have nomadic life. Interviewers need to ask and report all of "temporary absentees" at the time of enumeration.

Question 6: Is (name) following any religion?
Based on respondent's answer, interviewers fill in corresponding code "1" if the answer is "yes", and write down name of religion in the blank line and leave code box blank. If the answer is "no" (or "luong"), interviewers fill in code "2" and ask question 7.

6b. If the answer in Q.6a is one of the following 6 religions, further ask:

This question is only asked to those who have code "1" in question 6a and the line next to the code has one of the 6 religions: Buddhist, Catholic, Protestant, Muslim, Cao Ðài, and Hòa H?o.

Buddhist: if respondent has been "proselytized" ("quy y tam b?o") or issued "s? di?p"? If respondent answers "yes", interviewers select code "1", if not, interviewers select code "2".

Catholic: interviewers should ask if the respondent has "repentance of sins". If the answer is "yes, repentance of sins", select code "1", if not, select code "2".

Protestant: interviewers should ask if the respondent has been "baptized". If the answer is "yes, baptized", if not, select code "2".

Muslim: interviewers should ask if the respondent believes in "Islam Muslim" or "Bni Muslim".
If the respondent is Islam Muslim: for male, ask if he has undergone circumcision? If he underwent circumcision, select code "1"; if not, select code "2".
For female, as if she has done "hair cutting ceremony" yet? If yes, select code "1"; if not, select code "2".

If the respondent is Bni Muslim: interviewers should observe if they have prayed for "Pig deity". If "yes", select code "1"; if not, select code "2".
Cao Ðài: interviewers should ask if the respondent has been issued "letter to pray" ("s? c?u d?o"). If yes, select code "1"; if not, select code "2".

Hòa H?o: interviewers should ask if the respondent has been issued "membership card", or prayed for Tr?n Ði?u (a piece of red or brown cloth) in his/her house, or hanged on a picture of the head of religion named Hu?nh Phú S?. If the respondent has one of the conditions, select code '1"; if not, select code "2".

Question 7: On the census night (3/31/1999), was (name) present in this province, in another province or overseas?
Place of stay during the census night on March 31, 1999 is defined as name of province/city where respondent was present on the night of March 31, 1999. It is not necessarily the respondent's actual place of residence.

If name of province/city where the respondent stays at the night of March 31, 1999 is the same with the name of province/city on the 1st page of the enumeration form, interviewers select code "1". If it is different from the name on the 1st page of the enumeration form, interviewers select code "2" and fill in name of that province/city in the given line and leave three code cells blank.

If respondent is aboard on that night, interviewers select code "3".

Note: If persons are traveling on the night of March 31, 1999, interviewers follow this rule:

If respondent is aboard a train, airplane or ship at the 24 hours of March 31, 1999, interviewers fill in name of province/city where that means of transportation is. If respondent doesn't know for sure where that means of transportation is at 24 hours of March 31, 1999, interviewers can fill in the name of province/city at departure as a place of stay at census night.

For fisherman who is on their boat at the night of March 31: interviewers fill in province/city where the boat is registered or his house is located.

Questions number 8 to 12: Only for persons who were born before April 1994 (aged 5 years and older)

Question 8: Where was the place of usual residence of (name) 5 years ago (on 31st March 1994)

a. Same commune/ward: if respondent still lives at the same commune/ward (listed in the commune/ward on the cover of the enumeration form) as s/he lived 5 years ago, interviewers select code "1", skip question 9 and ask question 10.

b. Different commune/ward in the same district: if respondent previously lived in a different commune/ward in the same district as the currently actual place of residence, interviewers select code "2", and ask questions 9.

c. Different district in the same province: if respondent previously lived in a different district in the same province as the currently actual place of residence, interviewers select code "3" and write down name of that district in the given line and ask question 9.

d. Different province/city: if respondent previously lived in different province/city from the current actual place of residence, interviewers select code "4" and write down name of that province/city in the given line and ask question 9.

e. Overseas: if respondent lived aboard before March 31, 1994, interviewers select code "5" and skip to question 10.

Note: If a respondent lived in a different actual district/province of residence on March 31, 1994, but that district/province's name has been changed due to changes in administrative boundary or renaming of that district/province, etc., interviewers should report new district/provincial name of the previous usual place of residence, and do not fill in the old name of that district/province (appendix 8). If interviewers do not know a new name of that previous district/province of residence, interviewers can fill in name of that district/province as reported by respondents.

For persons who do not have actual place of residence on March 31, 1994, interviewers report address where they were present on March 31, 1994.

Question 9: Was the above-recorded place of (name) a commune, a ward or district town?
If name of the previous actual place of residence is a "ward" or "town", interviewers select code "1". If it is a "commune", interviewers select code "2". If respondent doesn't remember or doesn't know that the previous actual place of residence is a commune or ward or town, interviewers select code "9".

Question 10: Is (name) attending school now, or has (name) stopped or never attended?
School attendance is an individual's educational status at a nationally recognized general school or professional and higher education (at college level and higher), such as primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school, public/semi-public/ private professional schools at college level and higher, or equivalent (including on-the-job long-term training, evening education, and open education). These types of education aim to provide general education or systematic professional skills in a given time period.

A person response to this question has one of three choices: attending now, attended in the past, and never attended. Therefore, interviewers only can select one of three codes "1", "2", and "3".

If respondent is currently attending general school or college or university or post graduate program, interviewers select code "1" and ask question 11.

Note: Persons who are attending technical school/class, primary and middle professional school are coded as "2 -- attended in the past".

If respondent attended general school or professional school in the past, interviewers select code "2" and ask question 11.

If respondent has never attended general school or professional school (never go to school), interviewers select code "3" and skip question 11 and ask question 12.

Question 11: What is the highest educational level that (name) is attending or has completed?
This question is only for persons who have code "1" or "2" in Question 10.

Filling-in process for this question, as follows:

1. Selecting code "1" and writing down highest grade (or completed) for those who are attending or stopped going to general school and never studied at professional school/class, and persons who are attending technical school/class, primary and middle professional school.

Grade in general school: If respondent is attending general school, interviewers record the grade which respondent is studying. If respondent is no longer enrolled, interviewers record the highest grade completed (passed the final exam or graduated). If respondent is attending or completed technical school/class, primary and middle professional school, interviewers report his/her highest grade at general school (passed the final exam or graduated).

Persons who dropped out at a certain grade at general education level, and persons who completed training curriculum of a certain grade but failed the final exam or graduation test are considered to complete the next lower grade. Persons who did not complete the 1st grade or dropped out before the 2nd grade are considered as "00" grade.

Persons who studied aboard should report their grade and name of the country where they receive education. Persons who attended French schools before country's independence should report their grade and level of education.

Note:

Writing down respondent's grade in the given line, do not fill in code in 2 empty cells.

Do not convert grade at general school in the enumeration form (person who is in charge of coding will convert it later).

Grade system: grade system is coded by the last grade at upper secondary school (high school) which a person should complete in order to graduate from national's training curriculum at general education level. In our country, there have been two main grade systems. These are 10 grades and 12 grades.

Filling in correct grade system for respondent in the given line and do not fill in code in 2 empty cells.

Persons who attended general education aboard report name of that country or write down "French colonized period" for persons who attended French schools before country's independence.

2. Select code "2", "3", or "4" for those who are attending, graduated from two-year college, university, or postgraduate education.

Note: If a person has one or more graduation certificate at college level or higher level of education and is now studying at a college, university, or post graduate program, interviewers select his/her highest level of education completed or currently attending.

For example: a person graduated from a teacher training college and is currently studying evening law school, interviewers select code "3" for question 11 and code '1" (is attending) for question 10.

Checking question 11:
If question 11 has code "1" and respondent's grade is 5 and higher or has code from "2" or "3" or "4", interviewers skip question 12 and ask question 13. In case that grade at general school is less than 5, interviewers ask question 12.

Question 12. Is (name) currently able to read and write?
This question is only answered by persons who has code "3" in question 10, and persons who has code "1" in question 11 and grade at general school is less than 5.

A person is able to read and write if that person is able to read, write, and fully understand a simple sentence in Vietnamese, other ethnic minority's language, or foreign language.

Persons who can only read and write numbers and their names, or who are just able to read but not able to write, or who are only able to write a sentence learned by heart are not considered as being able to read and write. Persons who are not able to read and write can also include those who are not able to read and write even if they were attending school in the past (re-illiterate).

Questions 13 to 18: Only ask persons who were born before April, 1986 (aged 13 years and older) (Persons who were born in 1986 and do not have month of birth in question 4 should also answer these questions).

Question 13: What is the highest qualification or professional skill that (name) had attained?
The highest qualification or professional skill that a person is officially recognized from a professional/technical training class/school in the country or aboard, whether this qualification or skill is received from full-time program or on-the-job training.

A person can have one of these qualifications:

a. No qualification/technical skill and related certificate: Persons who are doing simple labor jobs (common laborers), or working in professional/technical skills positions without any professional/technical certificate. For both types of respondent, interviewers select code "1", skip question 14, and ask question 15.

b. Technical worker and professional staff with certificate:

These are persons who have graduation certificate from professional or technical class/program/school which is lower than the level of middle vocational schools (in country or abroad), in spite of his/her training technical level, and duration of training. A person who is defined as a technical worker or a professional staff with certificate has code "2" in question 14.

Note:

Persons who do not have any formal training at technical or professional class/school but receive license or professional certificate of their skill level from the local authorities can be considered as having technical/professional certificate for their current work. These persons have code "2" in question 13.

An artist of a given profession with official certificate from local authorities is considered as having professional certificate and is coded as "2" in question 13.

Persons who previously attended technical or professional class/school (lower level than middle vocational school) and dropped out of their training program are not considered as having technical/professional certificate. These persons have code "1" in question 13.
c. Middle vocational school: Persons who graduate and have certificate from any middle vocational school. If a person is defined as graduating from middle vocational school, interviewers select code "3" and ask question 14.

d. Two-year college: Persons who graduate and have certificate from a 2-year college. If a person is defined as graduating from 2-year college, interviewers select code "4" and ask question 14.

e. Four-year college/university: Persons who graduate and have certificate from a 4-year college or university. If a person is defined as graduating from a 4-year college or university, interviewers select code "5" and ask question 14.

f. Master, Ph.D.: Persons have actually been awarded master or Ph.D. degrees. Persons who study several courses in graduate school or only perform internship after college graduation are not considered as having master/Ph.D. degree. If it is necessary, interviewers can check actual certificate from respondents. A person with master or Ph.D. degree has code "6", "7", or "8", and ask question 14.

For persons who have several technical/professional certificate at different level of skills, interviewers record the highest degree that person completed (or technical/professional certificate of skill level for his/her current job).

Question 14: What field of study has (name) completed with the highest degree?
This question is only asked among those who have code "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", or "8" in question 13.

Field of study which a person has completed is the field of study listed in his/her certificate and reported in question 13.

Note: if a person has various certificates at the same level of education, interviewers record his/her field of study for the current job. In a case that person doesn't work on any of his/her field of study in school, interviewers record his/her most likeable field of study or field of occupation that person worked before being retired (if a retired person), or field of occupation that s/he worked before quitting these trained field of study.

Those who have not had formal technical/professional training and receive official technical/professional certificate of their skill level from local authorities can claim their "field of study" as the field of occupation in which they receive official certificate of skill level.

Question 15: What is the marital status of (name)?
A person's marital status can be in one of five categories, as below:

1. Single, never married: persons who have never been married and never cohabited with a person of opposite sex.

Note: Single persons may have children.

2. Married: persons who are recognized as having a spouse by law or local customs or are cohabiting with a person of the opposite sex.

3. Widowed: Persons whose spouse passed away and are currently not remarried. If a person has 2 or more spouses and one of them passed away, that person is not considered as "widowed". Interviewers should count them as "married".

4. Divorced: Persons previously married but are currently recognized as divorce by law and have not remarried.

5. Separated: Persons who are actually married but do not consider themselves in married union.

Note: Interviewers need to differentiate between separated persons from those who live far distance from their spouses, for example: on business trip, work far from home for a long time. These persons are still considered as "married".

Question 16: What type of work has (name) spent most of his time during the last 12 months?
Work is all legal income-generating activities.

Employed persons are defined, as follow:

Persons are currently getting paid for their work in cash or in kind (being hired);
self-employed persons who organize and implement their own work for profit or income for themselves and their families (self-owner).

Persons work in family enterprise and do not receive wage or salary (work for household)

Persons who actually have a job but are currently on sick leave, maternity leave, vacation, or waiting for job due to company's broken machine, company's lack of productive materials, company's reorganization, etc.

Type of work spent most of time during the last 12 months can be in one of 5 following choices:

1. Worked: Persons whom their income-generated work occupies the most time among all of their works during the last 12 months before the census, regardless of the length of that work. If a person is defined as "worked", interviewers select code "1".

Examples:

A person replies about his/her work during the last 12 months before the census, as follow: study for 4 months, looking for a job for 3 months, working as a constructor for 5 months. That person is considered as "worked" because s/he spent the most of his/her time for construction work.

Another person replies about his/her work during the last 12 months before the census, as follow: in hospital for 4 months, household chores for 3 months, agricultural work for 2 months, food services for 3 months. This person is also considered as "worked" because his/her total time of work is 5 months (2 months for hired labor work and 3 month for food services) which is greater than the time in hospital or doing household chores.

2. Household chores: Persons whom household chores occupy most of their time in all of their works during the last 12 months before the census. If a person is defined as doing "household chores", interviewers select code "2" and ask the next person in household (if it is a complete census household) or ask question 19 (if it is a sampling census household), and skip questions 17 and 18.

Note: If it is a paid work in cash or in kind for doing household chores, that time doesn't count as doing "household chores", interviewers should count as working time and select the corresponding code for the job.

3. Study: persons for whom their studying time (in general school, professional school, vocational school or other government recognized school/class) occupies most of their time during the last 12 months before the census. If a person is defined as "study", interviewers select code "3" and ask the next person (if it is a complete census household) or ask question 19 (if it is a sampling census household), and skip questions 17 and 18.

4. Unable to work: persons for whom time for not doing any work (due to their health condition, or mental illness, etc.) occupies most of their time among all types of activities during the last 12 months before the census. If a person is defined as "unable to work", interviewers select code "4" and ask the next person (if it is a complete census household) or ask question 19 (if it is a sampling census household), and skip questions 17 and 18.

5. Unemployed: Persons for whom time not doing any work occupies most of their time among all types of activities during the last 12 months before the census. "Unemployed" persons can also be those who perform illegal work during the last 12 month before the census.

For "unemployed" person, interviewers need to use a supplemental question to ask if that person wanted to work during the last 12 months. If that person answers "yes", interviewers select code "5" (unemployed) and ask the next person (if it is a complete census household) or ask question 19 (if it is a sampling census household), and skip questions 17 and 18. If that person answers "no", interviewers select code "6" (other situation) and ask the next person (if it is a complete census household) or ask question 19 (if it is a sampling census household), and skip questions 17 and 18.

Note: if a person worked on 2 types of job equally during the last 12 months and these jobs occupy most of his/her time, interviewers should follow the following instruction:

If one of these two jobs is "worked" and the second job is in job categories from "2" to "6", interviewers place this person into "worked" category. For example, Mr. Hoang answered that he worked in rice paddy field for 5 months, performed household chores for 5 months, and did not work for 2 months. Based on our rules, Mr. Hoang is categorized as "worked" (code "1").

If two jobs are in codes "2" to "6", interviewers record the smaller code for this person's job. For example, Mr. Cuong replied that he studied for 6 months, looked for job for 6 months and still had not had a job yet. According to the above rule, Mr. is coded as "study" (code "3"). Interviewers should not record Mr. Cuong as "unemployed" (do not select code "5").

Question 17: What was the main job that (name) performed during the last 12 months and what position did (name) hold (if any)?
This question is only asked of persons who have code "1" in Question 16.

The main job during the last 12 months is the job which occupies most of a person's total working time to generate income during the last 12 months before the census.

Filling-in: interviewers should write name of the main job which respondent worked (the most time occupied) during the last 12 months before the census and position (if any) of that job. Interviewers should not fill in very general name of the job, such as "working in rice field", "worker", "professional", "government staff", "being hired", or "teacher", etc.

Notes:

For persons who are managers in institution or factory and persons who work for communist party or mass organizations (receiving salary for specialists), interviewers report their position and name of their work place, level of communist party position or mass organization, for example: director of Hanoi cake and candy factory, general director of Vietnam machine assembly company, head of district statistic department, district president, secretary of provincial communist party, president of provincial labor union, president of district women's union, etc.

For persons who perform both professional and communist organization's or union's works (semi-specialization, not receiving bi-works salary), interviewers record their main job as their professional job and position (if any), and do not write position of his communist organization or union's work.

For example: a person is a head of human resource department at statistics bureau and secretary of the statistics bureau's communist party (semi-specialization, not receiving bi-works salary), interviewers record his main occupation as "head of human resource department".
A person grows rice paddy and is also secretary of village's communist party (semi-specialization, not receiving bi-works salary or only receiving allowance from commune/ward), interviewers report his/her main occupation as "growing rice paddy".

For those who are working at commune/ward and performing other income-generating activities, and both jobs are not specialized (for example, a person is a head of the village and a collaborator for program of population and family planning), interviewers check the job which occupies most of his/her time during the last 12 months and fill in the question (in this example, if that person spent more time for the job as a collaborator for program of population and family planning, interviewers write down "collaborator for program of population and family planning").

For those who perform religious activities, interviewers fill in their religious position, such as monk, bishop, missionary, etc.

Question 18:
This question is only asked of persons who have code "1" in Question 16.

Question 18a. Did (name) work for the government or for other organization?

A person who "worked" (code "1" in question 16) and reported main job in question 17, can work in one of 6 socioeconomic organizations, as follows:

1. Public: including all public offices, institutions, and enterprises managed by central or local governmental authorities. These are defined as follows:

Government agencies, public administrative and research offices
Communist party organizations, governmental union and mass organizations
Public enterprises are fully funded by domestic capital and managed by public company's rules or law.
Joint venture companies in which all partners are governmental enterprises.
Joint venture companies in which one or more partners belong to Vietnamese public sector and one foreign company or organization or individual.

A person who is defined as working for public sector has code "1".

2. Collective: includes all economic organizations (so called co-operative) which were founded and funded voluntarily by their members in accordance to the co-operative law and members (who were called co-operative's staffs) and are working directly at the co-operative. Collective sector includes:

Co-operatives in agriculture, handicraft, construction, transportation, services, etc.
Production enterprises are managed as co-operative rules.
Joint venture companies funded by staffs' family members of offices, union and mass organizations
Joint venture companies between one or more collective enterprises and one foreign company or organization or individual.

A person who is defined as working for collective sector has code "2".

3. Private: includes enterprises which were founded and managed by private enterprise law. Private enterprise is a business unit with its recurrent capital not less than its legal established capital and is managed by one individual who has guaranteed all of his/her assets for the company's activities.

A private enterprise should have:

Company's name, stamp (with its own company's logo), bank account.
Official address and business office.
Registering production or business or services
Private sector can be a joint venture between one or more Vietnamese private companies and one foreign company or organization or individual. Persons who are managers or workers of private companies are all defined in "private sector" and coded "3".

4. Self-employed: includes household production enterprises or household business and are not in satisfactory conditions to open private company. They organize as small and private household productions and services.

If a person is defined as self-employed, interviewers select code "4" and ask the next person (if it is a complete census) or ask question 19 and skip questions 18b and 18c (if it is a sampling census).

5. Mixed: includes economic units which were joint ventures of companies in different economic sectors. These companies are managed by company's law (such as Joint Stock Company and limited company).

A company should have its name, stamp (with logo of a joint stock company or limited company), and business office.

Mixed economic sector includes:

Joint stock companies
Limited companies
Joint venture companies between one or more Vietnamese companies in mixed economic sector and one foreign company or organization or individual.

A person who is defined as working for mixed sector has code "5".

6. Foreign:

Enterprises with 100% of foreign capital
Representative offices of foreign companies, enterprises, and factories.
International and foreign organizations

A person who is defined as working for foreign economic sector has code "5".

Question 18b. What is the name of the office/enterprise where (name) works?

This question is only asked of persons who have code "1" or "2", or "3", or "5", or "6" in question 18a.

Office/enterprise and unit of production where a person works are places where respondent is currently working at and name of the intermediate management unit (if any) of that unit.

Question 18c. What is the main function/product of the office/enterprise where (name) works?
This question is only for persons who reply to question 18b.

Main function/product of the office/enterprise is the main task of that office/enterprise which is assigned by the subsidiary management unit or by higher authorities. Main function/product of the office/enterprise is often linked with its main product or service.

The investigator records the main function of the work unit where the subject is employed on the two lines and the three blank boxes. For example, if a person reports that the main function of the unit where he or she works is to produce cement, then record as following: [Omitted.]

Directions for investigating births and deaths
(These directions are for investigators who are responsible for collecting data regarding births and deaths)

Questions 19 and 20: For women who were born between April 1949 and March 1984 only (15 to 49 years old) (For women who were born in 1949 and 1984, if the month of birth "**" code in Question 4 cannot be verified, the following questions must also be asked):
Because the subjects are women, the investigator in the sample areas must select women (preferably those who have been married)

Question 19(*): (This question must be asked during the interview process)In order to accurately obtain the women's childbearing history, the investigator must meet them in person and ask the women directly. The investigator may not ask other people in the household. Before asking items a, b, c, and d, the investigator must read the opening section "Now I would like to ask, please let me know:"

Question 19.a): How many children are currently living with you?
The number of children currently living with the subject are those the subject actually gave birth to, and are identified as residing in the same household as the mother, regardless of whether the children are part of the marriage, or whether the children belong to a previous husband or the current husband. However, adopted children or stepchildren will not be counted. The investigator records the number of children currently living with the subject on the line available next to item a). [An example has been omitted.]

19.b) The number of children who are currently living somewhere else?
The number of children who are currently living somewhere else are the children the subject gave birth to but who currently (at the time of the investigation) are not residing in the same household. These include birth children of the subject who have already married and moved out to a separate household, who are on business trips, or who have become adopted children, etc. The investigator records the number of children living somewhere else on the line available in this item.

19.c) What is the number of children who have died?
The number of children who are deceased is the number of "live birth children" to whom the subject gave birth, but who have died before the investigation. Then what is the number of "live birth children"?
Live births are all the children to whom the woman gave birth and were alive up to the time of the investigation (meaning that when the child was born, it had vital signs like crying, breathing, a heartbeat, the vibration of the umbilical cord, etc.; and excluding stillborn babies). [These are counted as live births] regardless of whether the children are part of a marriage, or belong to a current husband or a previous husband. [These are counted as live births] whether or not the children are currently (at the time of the investigation) still alive, and whether the children are currently living in the same household with the subject, or living somewhere else. The investigator records the number of the subject's live births that passed away before the time of the investigation in the two boxes on line 19.c.

19.d) How many children did you give birth to in total?
After asking items 19.a., 19.b., and 19.c., the investigator must ask the subject the total number of live births the subject gave birth to up to the time of the investigation. Then compare the answer to the total of the results recorded in 19.a, 19.b, and 19.c. If they are the same, the investigator writes that total number of children in the two designated boxes. If the subject's answer for the total number of live births is not the same as the total of 19.a + 19.b + 19.c, then the investigator needs to ask further questions to verify and adjust the results. The investigator cannot just add the results of 19.a, 19.b, and 19.c and record the result here.

Note: + If the answer for item a, b, or c is "zero", then the investigator only needs to write "00" on the adjacent line or in the equivalent boxes.

+ If the subject has never given birth (write "00" in item 19.d), then the investigator skips Question 20 and goes to the next person. If there is no one else in the household, then the investigator skips to the household deaths section.

Question 20: The last time the subject gave birthOnly ask this question of women whose total number of children is other than "00", recorded in 19.d.

The last childbirth (also referred to as "the most recent childbirth") of the subject is the birth closest to the time of the investigation, and is one live birth (or more than one, if twins or triplets), regardless of whether that child is alive at the time of the investigation.
If a woman who gave birth for the first time, it is also "the most recent childbirth".

20.a) Month, year (Gregorian calendar) of the latest childbirth?The process of asking this question is very similar to that of asking Question 4 (Gregorian calendar month, year of each member of the household). However, the investigator may not record the code "**" for the birth month of the latest childbirth as recorded in Question 4, and must record the birth month for this item (even if it is only an estimate).
The investigator writes the month of the most recent childbirth in the two available boxes on the line "month" in two digits; using 0 in the left box if the birth month number is smaller than 10. Write the last 2 digits of the birth year in the two boxes on the line "year".

20.b) Did you give birth to boy or girl this time?The investigator writes the number of the most recent live-birth boys and girls of the subject in the appropriate boxes (if "one child", there is only one boy or one girl). If "none", then "0" must also be recorded in the appropriate box; the box may not be left blank. For example, a woman reports that during the last childbirth she gave birth to twin boys. It must be recorded as follows: [An example has been omitted.]

20.c) Are the children currently alive?In the appropriate box, the investigator writes down the most recent childbirth that died before the investigation. For example, a woman reports that she gave birth to boy and girl twins in the most recent childbirth, but the boy died at three months, and only the girl is currently alive, the record should show: [An example has been omitted.]

The number of people who died in the household since the 30th of Chinese new year last year (1/27/1998) until now (question 1 to 6)
This item is asked generally for the whole household. The form was designed to record up to a maximum of eight deceased members per household. In cases where a household has nine deceased members or more, the investigator has to use a second form to continue to record. If the whole household died, write "The whole household is deceased" on the cover of the form, under "Investigation Form".

In order to accurately collect the information concerning the number of household members who have died, the investigator needs to directly ask the question to the head of the household or the representative of the household: "Since the 30th of the Chinese New Year last year (on 1/27/1998 of the Gregorian calendar) until now, did anyone or any child die in the household?"

Death information of the population is usually hard to collect, especially information about deceased or stillborn children. Therefore, in order to collect this information fully and accurately, the investigator needs to ask the questions skillfully to obtain the necessary information.

Question 1: From the 30th of Chinese New Year last year until now (on 1/27/1998 of the Gregorian calendar), did anyone or any children in the household die?If the answer is "yes" then the investigator circles "1", and asks Question 2. If the answer is "no", then the investigator needs to ask additional questions to verify the number of infants who died before circling "2". If no one in the household died in the above period, the investigator circles "2", and goes to the questions in Section II to obtain information about the house.

Information for each person who died in the household

Question 2: Full name of each person who died?
The investigator prints completely the full name of each person who died on the appropriate line. In cases where the infant died before a name was given, the investigator writes the name of the father (or mother) followed by [an ellipsis].

Question 3: Is (name) male or female?The investigator circles "1" if the person who died is "male", and "2" if that person is "female".

Question 4: The date when (name) passed away, in the Gregorian calendar?The investigator writes down the month that person died as two digits in the appropriate boxes, using 0 in the left box for the first nine months. Write the last digit of the year in the appropriate box (8 or 9).

Question 5: Date (name) was born, in the Gregorian calendar?To obtain information concerning the birth date of each person who died, the investigator has to use the interview process and a recording method similar to that used in Question 4. The investigator must write the birth month of the deceased person in the two available boxes matching with the line for the birth month, and last three digits of the birth year in the three boxes matching with the line for the birth year. In cases when the birth month of the deceased person is not available, write "**" in the appropriate boxes with the line for the birth month (mark one "*" in each box). In cases when the birth year of the deceased person is not available, leave the three boxes blank for the "birth year", and go to Question 6.

Verifying question 5: The investigator to verify Question 5 if:

- The subject remembers both the birth month and year, or can only remember the birth year of the deceased person. In this case, ask about the next deceased person. If there is no other deceased person in the household, then ask about the residence of the household.
- The subject cannot remember the birth year of the deceased person (leave blank three boxes on the birth year line), then skip to Question 6.
Question 6: How old was (name) when he/she died?Only ask Question 6 when the birth year in Question 5 cannot be verified. The investigator must ask to verify and record the complete age (excluding the additional months) of the deceased person. The investigator may not leave the line for this question blank, or write "no verification" on it. If all measures have been used, and the subject still cannot verify accurately the age of the deceased person, then estimate the age of the deceased person at the time of death and record the answer for this question (see instruction in Question 4).

Note:

During the period between Chinese New Year of last year (1/27/1998 in the Gregorian calendar) and the end of 3/1999, if it is discovered that the area has cases in which a whole household died, then the investigator must ask indirectly (like through key local officers, relatives of the deceased people, or through local legal status documents) to record everyone who died in the household in Questions 1 through 6 (the section "Information for Each Person Who Died in the Household"), and leave the remaining questions blank. Only fill out the name section on the cover of the form. Leave blank the items "Household Number" through "Total Number of Females". The respondent signs "Signature of Head of Household." Under the line "Investigation Form" of the cover write, "The whole household is deceased".

Section II: Investigation of the Residence

1. Scope, subject, unit and investigation method
a) Scope, subject of investigation: Include all the residences that are occupied at the time of the investigation.

An investigation will not be done for houses that are built to live in but are not being used at the time of the investigation.

b) Investigation unit: Residential unit.
A housing unit is a house/apartment that is an independent and separate structure, and is being used by one or more people to live in at the time of the investigation.

The housing unit is verified by column 1 "house sequence number" on "List of number of houses, number of households, and number of people".

In cases where the household has many places to live in, the place that is verified as the permanent residence will be investigated.

c) Investigation method: Personal interviews plus visual inspection of the house/apartment of the household. The investigator will proceed with the interviewing and recording of these details immediately after concluding the population interviews.

2. Ways to ask and record standard housing investigation

Question 1: Does your household have a house to live in?The investigator must ask the head of the household to verify if the household has a house.

- Households with a house: These include households with a house to live in, no matter what type of house it is, when it was built, or to whom it belongs. The investigator circles "1" if the household has a place to live, then proceeds to Question 2.
- Household without a house: These include households living in places like street can be verified that the household doesn't have a house to live in, and concludes the interview.

Question 2: Does your household live with another household?The investigator circles number "2" (No) if only one household lives in one house/apartment.

In cases where more than one household lives in the same house/apartment, the investigator circles "1" (yes), and at the same time asks to verify that the household being interviewed is the representative household. If it is the representative household, circle "1", then proceed to Question 3. If it is not the representative household (and the representative household has already reported) then circle number "2", and record the full name of the head of the representative household, and the sequence number of the representative household. Then go to Question 7.

Question 3: What type of house is this (main) house/apartment?In considering the current condition of the house, the sturdiness of the house depends on the materials used to construct it, and how long it has been occupied. Houses are divided into the following four main types:

- Solid houses: These include villas, multilevel houses or multilevel apartments, multilevel concrete houses, and flat roof houses. The investigator circles number "1" if the main house/apartment that the household currently uses is verified to be solid house.
- Semi-solid houses: These include houses with built/plywood/wooden frame walls, and tile/metal/shingle roofs, etc., or are built with equivalent materials. The investigator circles "2" if the main house/apartment the household currently uses is verified as semi-solid house.
- Sturdy wood frame, dried-leaves roof houses: These include houses with wood frames (wood poles completely supporting the roof), with limited use of over 15 years, and with roofs made of thatch/bamboo/oil-paper, etc. The investigator circles number "3" if the main house/apartment the household currently uses is verified as sturdy wood frame, dried-leaves roof house.
- Simple houses: These include houses that do not belong to one of the two groups above. This type of house has simple structure and is constructed with coarse materials. The wall of this type of house is usually made of clay/leaves etc. (not built walls, or wood frames) and the roof is usually made of thatch/bamboo/oil-paper etc.

All the tents, temporary camps, shelters under bridges, boxes that are used to live in, houses that are abandoned, uninhabitable, heavily damaged, and condemned but are still being used to live in at the time of the investigation, as well as mobile homes (tents, boats, carriages, etc.) are classified in this category.

The investigator circles "4" if the main house/apartment the household currently uses is verified to be a "simple house". Then ask and record Question 7, and skip Questions 4, 5, and 6.

Note: If a household's residence is a structure made up of different types (e.g. part of it is a solid house, another part is semi-solid, etc.), then designate the house type according to the part with the largest area.

Question 4: What is the total area in square meters of these houses/apartments?The total living area of a household is the total area in square meters of the dining room, bed rooms, living room, and study.

The living area includes the main living area, plus any addition that is used to live with a roof and secured walls.

For enclosed houses/apartments, also include toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens.
Count 50% of the area if the house has an attic that can be used to live in. Do not count the area of the attic that is used to store family things.

Note:

1) Each living area/loggia/attic (and toilets, bathrooms, and dining rooms -- for the above enclosed house/apartment) must meet the requirement of having walls at least two meters high, and floors of at least 4 square meters.

2) Do not include in the total living area any basement storage areas, common areas of apartment (like hallway, staircase, etc.), and do not count areas that are used for breeding livestock, production, or business. Do not count parts of the house/apartments that are verified to be "simple houses".

The investigator asks the head of the household for the area of the above rooms, and observes it in person, to verify the total living area of the house, and records the calculated result in the three boxes. For example: A person reports the total living area of the house he/she currently lives in as 45 square meters, then records it as follows: [An example has been omitted.]

Question 5: This (main) house/apartment belongs to whom?The ownership of the house is categorized according to the following 6 groups:

1) Private houses of the households: These include houses/apartments that the household has built, bought, inherited, or been given, and currently occupies.

2) Houses that are rented from the government: These include houses/apartments for which the households have contracts to rent from the government, based on the time and price that both sides have agreed to. Also included are houses/apartments the government built and distributed to officials and workers for use as residences.

Houses/apartments that the officers rent or lease from the government, organizations, enterprises etc., but have now been rented or sold at a discount to other officials, are also considered to be "Houses that are rented from the government."

3) Houses that are rented from private parties: These include houses/apartments that are rented or borrowed from private parties and are actually lived in, based on the time and price both sides agree to.

4) Houses that belong to groups/religious groups: These include houses/apartments that are built by groups and corporations, by religious groups or managed by religious groups, and are distributed to members of these organizations to live and actually lived in.

5) Houses that are jointly built by the government and people: These include houses/apartments that were partially built with government funds and private capital, and these were distributed to households that contributed and are being used as residences.

6) Houses with unknown owners: These include houses/apartments that do not belong to groups 1 to 5 above, houses/apartments taken from the government/groups/individuals, and houses over which people are fighting to gain ownership and are under arbitration.

Question 6: What year did this (main) house/apartment become available for occupancy?The investigator records the year the house was completed and began to be occupied. In cases where the household residence includes many parts, and each part was completed and occupied in different years, then only record the year the main part (with the largest area) of that house was constructed and was occupied.

If the house/apartment that the household currently lives in is completed and began to be occupied before 1976, then the investigator circles number "1". If the house/apartment that the household currently lives in is completed and began to be occupied from 1976 onward, then the investigator circles number "2", and at the same time write the last two digits of the year the house was completed and began to be used in the two designated boxes. For example, if a person reports that the house was completed and began to be occupied in 1987, then the record should be as follows: [An example has been omitted.]

Question 7: Do you use electricity for lighting?The household uses electricity for lighting from such sources as the national power grid, the locally managed power grid, electricity that comes from local power generators, personal power generators or small family hydroelectric station; and the time that the household uses the electricity is 15 days or more in the month before the investigation. Households that only use batteries or solar energy for lighting are not considered to "use electricity for lighting".

Question 8: What is the main source of water for your household?The main source of water is the principle water source the household uses the most during the year for eating and drinking. It does not take in account where that source came from, nor whether it belongs to the household or to someone else. Based on the answer, the investigator will circle one of "1", "2", "3" or "4".

Note: For water sources with "filtering system or wells that guarantee hygiene" ("3"), only count the sources that meet the following requirements:

Water is colorless, odorless, and has no strange taste
The water source must be at least seven meters from contaminated areas (cattle barns, toilets, cemeteries, etc.)

If the household uses many different water sources, then verify that the main water source has the highest volume of usage.

Question 9: What type of latrine system do you use?Circle the appropriate number for the type of latrine the household is using. Note that this question obtains information up to the time of the investigation, regardless of who owns the latrine. If the household uses more than one type of latrine, then only record the type of latrine that is being used the most.

The types of latrine the household is using are categorized into the following 4 types:

1) Self disposal or semi self disposal latrine: This type of latrine uses water to move feces through the sewer to the tank (also referred to as septic tank), regardless whether the water is poured into the tank through a line or the water is poured into the tank using barrels/pails/basins.

2) Suilabh toilet (also referred to as absorption latrine): This type of latrine destroys feces using water absorption mechanism.

3) Simple latrine: This includes latrines with one compartment, two compartments, or a simple hole that was dug/covered/built. Latrines that use water but no tank, or latrines that use barrels, cat holes, fishing bridges etc., also belong to this type.

4) No latrine: This is the case where the household uses no latrine, but must go to the toilet out in the fields/hills/mountains/an empty piece of land/thick bushes etc.

Question 10: Do you have a television set?If the household being investigated has a television set, the investigator circles "1"; if the household has no television set, the investigator circles "2".

Question 11: Do you have a radio?If the household being investigated has a radio, the investigator circles "1"; if the household has no radio the investigator circles "2".