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Vietnam Census 1989
Enumerator's Manual

A. Filling-in for household

[On the left top of the enumeration form:]

Province, City ____District ____
Commune, ward ____

Interviewers may fill in the name of the province (city), district (district town), and commune (ward) before entering every household.

Location number
Fill in the location number on the next box. This number is listed in the "list of house and household numbers" that interviewers already have. Location numbers must be two digits, single-digit location numbers must have a 0 first, for example 01, 02, etc.

If the enumerated household is a household, then fill in the box with "1"

Household [ ] 1

If the enumerated household is a collective household, then fill in the box with "2"

Collective household [ ] 2

After filling in the individual form for everyone in the household, the interviewer must write down in the next box the total number of people in the household, and the total number of females in the household.

Total number of people in household [ ]
Total number of females in household [ ]

[On the middle top of the enumeration form:]

First and surname of the head of the household
The head of the household is the household representative who is recognized as such by all household members.

Fill in the household head's surname and first name as listed in the household list. If the head of the household has other name, that name should be written in parenthesis.

For collective households, fill in the surname and first name of the head of the collective household and the name of the office or firm managing the unit as listed in the household list.

Household's address
In rural areas: fill in the blank with the name of the village, etc. This line requires filling in information of the administrative unit below the commune level.
In urban areas: fill in the number of the house, street name, etc.

B. Filling-in for individuals

a) Method: there are 2 types of questions in the enumeration form: fixed-option questions and open-ended questions.

b) Procedures for interviewing and filling the enumeration form:

When the interviewers visit every household, s/he needs to follow the procedure described below:

1. Redefining the number of households
2. Counting the actual number of residents in the household
3. Filling out all the questions in the enumeration form

First, redefining the number of households:
In order to define the correct number of households in every house (or every apartment, room), interviewers should rely on the number of households in their household list. In addition, s/he needs to use the definition of a household and ask several questions to redefine the actual number, as below:

"Dear ..., how many households are in this house (or apartment, room)?"

If the respondent is not sure or does not give a clear answer, then the interviewers can ask,

"Do all people in this house eat together?" or "how many kitchens do you have in this house?" etc.

If the interviewer knows for sure that there is only one household, s/he can skip those questions.

After defining the number of households, interviewers ask the following questions to define the head of each household:

Please tell me who the head of the household is.

If the respondent cannot define it, interviewers can ask:

Who take the most responsibility in the household?
In the household, who can inform me about characteristics (age, education, occupation) of all household members?

Second, defining the actual number of residents in the household:
In order to define the actual number of residents in the household, interviewers need to use rules for defining interviewees and ask these questions:

1. Please tell me about all the people who live in the household
2. Has anyone who used to live here already moved out of the household?
If yes, then ask: how long did this person move out?
a. More than 6 months: ask about the type of movement
b. If temporarily absent from the household (as in the rules for defining interviewees)-that person is a resident
c. Moving out of the household-skip
d. Less than 6 months: ask question 3
3. In the next 6 months, will this person return to the family?
Yes-resident
No-moved; skip
4. Is there anyone living here for less than 6 months?
If yes, will this person continue to live here for more than 6 months?
Yes-resident
No-temporary stay; skip
5. Please check if you have reported all the persons in the household? Is there any child missing? Does your household have any maids or renters?

Third, filling out all the information in the enumeration form.

c) Filling the information for every person, method of interview, and filling out the enumeration form.

1. Surname and first name of every actual resident in the household

Who can be listed? All persons who are actual residents of the household, as defined in the section above.

Each person is listed in one column in the enumeration form. The household's head or the person in charge of giving the household's information is placed in the column "the 1st person". All other household members are listed in the rest of the columns of the enumeration form. The order should be ascending from the oldest person to the youngest person.

Before filling in the names of the head of the household on the "1st person" column, interviewers need to make sure if the person in the 1st column is eligible for the enumeration. If that person is not eligible (already moved, or is a policeman, or is in the army, etc.), the head can be substituted by the oldest member of the household, etc. In this case, the name of the head of the household in the column "the 1st person" is different from the name of the head in the middle top of the enumeration form.

2. Relationship to head of householdAll persons in the household answer this question.

2. Relationship to the head of household

[] 1 Head of household
[] 2 Husband/Wife
[] 3 Child
[] 4 Father/Mother
[] 5 Grand child
[] 6 Other family relative
[] 7 Non family relation

Relationship with the head of the household is one of the seven given relationships above. Interviewers only need to fill in the corresponding blank box.

Head: If the interviewee is the head of the household, interviewer can fill in "x" on box 1 for the 1st person column.

Husband/wife: If a person is the husband or wife of the head of the household interviewers fill in the 2nd box. Fill in the 2nd box even if they are not married, but they have lived together, including concubines. If the head of the household lives with 2 or more wives, all of his wives can be considered as his wives and fill in box 2.

Child: Children of the head of the household include biological children, adopted children, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and stepchildren.

Father/mother: Includes biological parents, adopted parents and parents-in-law of the head of the household.

Grandchild: If the interviewee is a grandchild of the head of the household, interviewers fill in box 5.

Other relatives: If interviewees have other family relationships, such as brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles etc., interviewers fill in box 6.

Non-relatives: If the interviewee is a servant, guest, friend, etc., without any family relationship to the head of the household, interviewers fill in box 7.

If the head of the household (or the substituted head) in column "the 1st person" is different from the name in the middle top of the enumeration form, interviewers should define relationship with the head of household with the 1st person.

3. SexAll persons responding question 1 should answer this question.

Interviewers can easily identify the sex of the interviewees. In cases of young children or absentees, interviewers should ask the head of the household about their sexes. Do not guess any person's gender based on their names.

4. Month and year of birthAll persons responding question 1 should answer this question.

Interviewers should ask and fill out the actual month and year of birth for every person based on the solar calendar. Persons who have an incorrect date of birth in their legal documents (e.g. personal identification certificate, household registration, birth certification, etc.) can report their correct date of birth in the enumeration form.

If a person does not remember her/his date of birth in the solar calendar, but s/he remembers her/his age and date of birth in the lunar calendar, interviewers can check the calendar conversion table (in the appendix) in order to get the correct year of birth in the solar calendar.

In case that a person does not remember the month of birth but s/he knows her/his age by the lunar calendar, his/her estimated year of birth is, as follow:

Year of birth (solar calendar) = year of census (1989) - age (by lunar calendar) +1

If a person does not remember the date of birth or his/her own age or that for other household members, interviewers can ask several questions to find out estimated dates of birth.

If a person cannot remember his/her age or year of birth, interviewers can look at their appearance and ask them to estimate their own ages and use the calendar conversion table to fill in the year of birth by the solar calendar.

For children, if the interviewee does not remember his date of birth, interviewers can ask months of age and calculate the month and year of birth of the child.

5. EthnicityAll persons responding question 1 should answer this question.

Interviewers can use the information given by the head of the household to fill out the ethnicity column for the rest of the household members.

Children of a couple who does not have the same ethnicity, or an adopted child who does not have the same ethnicity than that of the adopting parents, or if any of the parents is a foreigner, respondents can define their own ethnicity if they are 18 years of age or older. If they are younger than 18 years old, their ethnicity can be defined either by the father or the mother.

For those who are naturalized Vietnamese, they need to fill out box 2 and write down their original nationality in the blank space.

6. Place where usually live on 4/1/1984 (5 years ago):Persons who were born before April 1st, 1984 (5 years of age and older) answer this section.

6. Place where you usually lived on 1-4-1984 (i.e. 5 years ago)

[] 1 The same district
[] 2 Another district of the same province
_ _ Name of the district
[] 3 Another province
_ _ Name of the province
[] 4 Abroad

7. Literacy (read and write)Persons who were born before April 1st, 1984 (5 years of age and older) answer this question.

7. Literacy

[] 1 Yes
[] 2 No

Literate persons are those who can read and write simple sentences in Vietnamese, their own ethnic language, or a foreign language.

Illiterate persons are defined as follow:

Cannot read or write simple sentences in Vietnamese, their own ethnic language, or a foreign language.
Were able to read or write before, but are currently not able to read or write for some reason.

There are only two choices ("yes" or "no") and interviewers should fill out only one box.

If a person can read and write, interviewers fill out box 1 "[] 1 Yes"
If a person cannot read and write, interviewers fill out box 2 "[] 2 No"

If interviewers don't know for sure that a person can read and write, interviewers can ask two separate questions "do you know how to read?" and "do you know how to write?". If that person answers "being able to read" and "being able to write", interviewers fill out box 1. If that person answers "being able to read but not able to write", interviewers fill out box 2.

8. a) School attendance (or equivalent) Persons who were born before April 1st, 1984 (5 years of age and older) answer this question.

School is defined as general education or equivalent, for example continuing education school, evening general education school, evening continuation class, Chinese school, etc.

"Attending now", "attended in the past", and "never attended" refer to persons who are currently enrolled, or have not entered in general education schools or equivalent as stated above.

Persons who are currently enrolled or have already dropped out of other types of schools such as kindergarten or professional training schools, are not listed as "attended" in this question.

8b) Highest grade completed Please write down the highest completed and passed grade or graduation from a certain level of general education.

For those who are currently enrolled (or drop out) in a certain grade, for example, the 9th grade, interviewers fill in the next lower completed grade in the form, (e.g. the 8th grade). Persons who are in the 1st grade are at 0/12.

Persons who completed primary or secondary training curriculums but did not pass the final exam at each level of education are considered to complete the next lower grade at each level of education: the 8th grade of 12 or the 6th grade of 10 for primary school, or the 11th grade of 12 (or the 9th of 10) for secondary school.

Similarly, persons who completed training curriculum at each grade (such as the 5th grade of 12), but do not have passing scores for that class, would have the highest grade completed at the lower grade (e.g. the 4th grade of 12).

All other types of equivalent classes, such as at continuing education school, evening general education school, etc. are equivalent with classes at formal general education school.

Persons who studied abroad should report the grade and name of the country where they received education. Persons who attended French schools before the country's independence should report their grade and level of education.

9. a) Highest qualification or trade

Persons born before April 1st, 1976 (aged 13 and older) answer this question.

Only one box can be filled for this question. At the time of interview, interviewers do not need to ask for actual certificate.

9. a/ Highest qualification or trade

[] 1 None
[] 2 Technical worker with certificate
[] 3 Technical worker no certificate
[] 4 Middle vocational education
[] 5 College/ university degree
[] 6 Post-graduate
Technical workers: are persons with certain knowledge and skills to implement technical jobs.

Persons who do not study at any technical training schools (do not have training certificate) but have some experience in their fields can be considered as technical workers.

Criteria to consider as technical workers without certificate are, as below:

In the public sector: persons with the 3rd technical level and higher.
In the collective and private sectors: persons who have worked for at least 5 years.
Note: technical workers who are at the 1st or 2nd technical levels in the public sector, or have worked in that job less than 5 years in the collective and private sectors are not considered as technical workers without certificate, interviewers fill out box 1.
Middle vocational education, college, university, and post graduate
Doctor of philosophy or equivalent academic degrees is in box 6.
Persons who received on-the-job training or did an internship after university graduation are not considered as post graduate.
Persons with multi-degree: record his/her highest educational qualification.

9. b) Field of study Persons who have some working skills (corresponding with 5 boxes from box number 2 to 6 in question 9a) answer this question.

For technical workers: Fill out the field of study at the formal training school, or at the factory's training class, or field where the worker has experience. Each person only has one main field. If a person is trained for multiple disciplines or learned from their own experiences in several fields, interviewers only report the current field of work.

For scientists, technicians, and managers with middle vocational education, college, university, and postgraduate degrees:
Fill the person's field of study in the blank for those who have their certificate of middle vocational education, college, university, and postgraduate. Each person can only have one field of study.

If a person has multiple fields of study in different levels of training, interviewers fill out the highest field of study which s/he has a certificate.

If a person has several fields of study with the same level of training (e.g. double majors at college level), interviewers fill out the field of study which s/he is currently working or the field of study that the person wants to report.

10. Marital statusPersons borne before April 1st, 1976 answer this question.

Single: single persons are never married, including those who are single mothers/fathers.
Married: married persons are those who currently have a wife or a husband. They are in any of the following situations:

Having a marriage certificate
Having a wedding ceremony
Do not have a marriage certificate or had an organized wedding ceremony, but they publicly live together in the same house.
Widowed: persons who their husband/wife already passed away and they have not married another person.
Divorced: persons who were previously married, but already separated and finalized their marriage by a court order, and are currently not marry to anyone.

Note: persons who were widowed or divorced and are currently married are defined as "married".
Separated: persons who are currently married and live separately due to some reasons (e.g. waiting for divorced paperwork, the wife/husband is living abroad as a refugee, etc.).

11. Usual activities in the last 12 monthsPersons born before April 1st, 1976 (aged 13 and older) answer this question.

11. Usual activity in the last 12 months

[] 1 Worked 6 months and over
[] 2 Worked permanently less than 6 months
[] 3 Worked temporarily less than 6 months
[] 4 Unemployed
[] 5 Student
[] 6 Household duties
[] 7 Invalid
[] 8 Other
Worked 6 months and over: a person is considered to be working for 6 months and over if s/he works 6 months or over during the last 12 months in one or more jobs.

Work permanently less than 6 months: a person is considered to be working permanently less than 6 months if s/he works less than 6 months in the last 12 months, but this job is permanent and s/he will work on this job for a long term.

Work temporarily less than 6 months: a person is considered to be working temporarily less than 6 months if s/he works less than 6 months in the last 12 months, and it is a temporarily job, or s/he already quitted the job in less than 1 month from the date of interview.

Unemployed: Unemployed persons are those who are in need to have a job, but are currently unable to find a job. Persons who have worked only less than 1 month in the last 12 months and currently do not have job are unemployed.

Studying: Persons who are currently studying at general education schools or other types of schools for 6 months and over in the last 12 months. Therefore, persons who are in continuing education programs or have studied less than 6 months in the last 12 months, or are enrolled in evening general education schools are not considered as "studying".

Household chores: Persons who perform their own household chores, for example: cooking, child rearing, washing cloths, etc., and have worked on these tasks for 6 months and over in the last 12 months.

If a person is doing both, household chores and other income-generated activity, such as gardening, breeding, etc., interviewers should calculate the time spent on each type of work to define if that person is doing "household chores" or working for 6 months and over, or working less than 6 months.

Persons who are doing household chores for other households, or receive paid income from this work are not considered as doing "household chores". Depending on the duration of work in the last 12 months, interviewers can define if that person works 6 months or more or less than 6 months.

Unable to work: Person who are unable to work are those who are not able to work due to health reasons and receive subsides from relatives or from social welfares. These persons are often disable, aesthetic, in serious health or mental illness, etc., and unable to work.

Other situation: Includes persons who are able to work but do not need to work (they have supports from parents, children, relatives, or use their own savings, etc.) and retired persons who are not doing any additional work for pay.

12. Main occupationPersons who work 6 months or more or have permanent job less than 6 months, work temporarily less than 6 months answer this question.

Main occupation is a job that occupies most of the person's time in the last 12 months. If a person has various income generating activities, interviewers write down the job of which the person works the longest time.

For persons who just started a new job and plan to keep that job for a long time, interviewers fill out that new job.

For commune's (ward's) cadres, if they do not participate in any other productive activities, interviewers fill out their current positions or jobs, such as secretary of the commune's communist party, president, vice-president, health care staff, etc. If the commune's (ward's) cadres work on other productive activities besides their work at the commune's (ward's) people committee, interviewers write down the activity occupying the longest time. For example, a commune's statistical staff usually works for 4 days on his/her statistic job and spends 2 days for his/her own family farming activities, that person's main job is "statistics".

Cadres who are permanent government employees and are assigned to work at the commune's level report their own profession.

For management levels, head (vice-head) of the department/bureau and higher positions at the Communist party institutions, government offices, mass organizations, other parties; head (vice head) of departments in factories, should report both their main occupation and current main positions.

Main occupations should be reported with as much detail as possible, do not put in very general activity. For example,

For farmers, do not just write down as "farming" or "working in rice-field" or "cultivation", interviewers need to write specific activities, such as "cultivating rice", "growing tea leaves", and "raising pigs", etc.
For workers, do not write down "textile worker" or "weaving", interviewers need to write "operating textile machine", "reeling threat fiber", "making silk", etc.
For service and commercial employees, do not just write down "seller" or "repairing", interviewers need to write down "casher in super market", "selling hardware", "repairing bicycle", "repairing glasses", etc.
For workers in private sectors, do not just write down "hired" or "worker", interviewers need to write down "nanny", "cook", etc.

13. Did you work in the last 12 months?
[Picture suppressed]

The aim of the question is to classify occupations into economic sectors and industry.
This question is only asked to persons reporting their main occupation in question 12.

a. Name of establishment where person works
Interviewers need to find out the respondent's work place, address, province/city and economic sector and fill in the correct box.

For the private sector: Write down the name of the establishment or shop, and the name of the province/city where the respondent works.

If a person works in the private sector, but does not have his own shop, interviewers fill out "No" in this line and write down the name of the province/city.

For collective sector: Write down the name of the collective, group, etc. and the name of the province/city where respondent works.

For the public sector, public and private joint ventures, and private factories: write down the name of the office or factory, and the name of the province/city.

For those who are members of the commune's (ward's) people committee whose main occupation is to work for the commune's people committee, interviewers write down "commune's people committee".

b. Function and product of establishment: For the private sector: fill out the main occupation as in question 12.
For production units in the collective sector: provide the main function or production activity of the establishment in the last 12 months (one year before the census).
For the public sector, public and private joint ventures, and private factories: write down the main function or production activity of that office in the last 12 months.

c. Economic sector:Write one of the five economic sectors, as follow:

For persons working in the private sector write down "private"
For persons working in a collective farm or production cod-operative write down "collective"
For persons working in a public office or factory write down "public"
For persons workings in a public-private joint venture factory write down "public-private joint venture"
For persons working in a private factory write down "private factory"

Filling-in questions on mortality and fertility
Question 14
In order to have correct information on women's fertility, interviewers should interview directly women in the sample, who are in reproductive ages from 15 to 49 years old (those who were born between April 1, 1939 and March 31, 1974). Please do not ask indirectly via their husbands or other household members.

Question a): Number of your children living with you
This figure counts the number of the respondent's biological children at the time of the census (zero hours of April 1, 1989). These children must be current residents and must live together with the woman in the household.

Including:

"Temporarily absent" children due to some reasons, such as traveling, vacation, hospital admittance, etc.
Both, children in a married union or out-of-wedlock
Children with her current husband and with the previous husband(s)

Not including:

Stepchildren

Question b: Number of your children living elsewhere
This is the number of the respondent's biological children who are currently living elsewhere, such as: grown-up children who already marry and have their own household (counted as a separate household in the census); on business, studying away from home, or adopted by another person, etc.

Question c: Number of your children that are not aliveThis figure reports the number of the respondent's biological children who are not alive at the time of census (died before April 1, 1989); including newborns who were born alive and died a few minutes, or a few days after their birth.

The definition of a newborn alive is a child who was born under these conditions:

The mother was pregnant over 28 weeks (7 months)
Having signs of living after being born:
Crying
Breathing
Heart is slowly beating
The mother naturally delivers the baby or had a C-section.

Notes: Interviewers should pay attention to the number of newborns that died after a few minutes or days of their delivery, and for whom the mother did not filed a birth certificate and/or dead certificate. Abortion, miscarriage, and stillbirth are not considered as birth or dead.

Question d: Total number of biological childrenInterviewers sum up the number of children in questions a, b and c: the number of biological children living in the household, the number of biological children living elsewhere, and the number of children not alive.

Question e): month and year of the most recent birthFill in the month and year of the youngest child for mothers who have several children.
If the child is her first child (she only has 1 child), fill in this question.

Question f: is it a boy or a girl?This question is only for the most recent birth in question e).
If the child is a boy, fill in the box for boy.
In the case of twins:

if the last birth is twins with two boys, fill in "2" in the box for "boy"
if the last birth is twins with two girls, fill in "2" in the box for "girl"
if the last birth is twins with one boy and one girl, fill in "1" in the box for "boy" and "1" in the box for "girl"
in case of triplets: similar to the above case

Question g): is the child still alive?This question is only for the most recent birth in question e) in order to collect information if this child is dead or alive at the time of census on April 1, 1989. This question is also for children who were born alive and lived just for a few minutes or days.

In a case of one child (normal birth), fill in the box "alive" if the child is still alive at the time of census. If the child is dead, fill in the box "dead".

In the case of twins:

if both children are still alive, fill in "2" in the box "alive"
if both children are dead, fill in "2" in the box "dead"
if one child is dead and the other is alive, fill in "1" in the box "alive" and "1" in the box "dead"
in case of triplets: similar to the above case

Question 15In order to get correct information for question 15, interviewers should ask the head of the household this question:

"Since the Vietnamese traditional new year (Tet) of 1988 (year of dragon) and until March 31, 1989, was there any death in the household?"

[] Yes
[] No

If the household's head replies "yes", interviewers continue to ask the other sections in question 15.

a) First name and last name of the dead person: In case a newborn died before being given a name, interviewers fill out the father's (or mother's) surname followed by three dots (. . .)

b) Sex

c) Month and year of deathInterviewers fill out the month and year of death using a solar calendar.
Year of death is only either 1988 or 1989.

Usually, the head of the household and other members remember the month and year of death by the lunar calendar (dead anniversary), interviewers need to convert the lunar calendar's month into the solar calendar's month.

d) Date of birth Interviewers fill out the month and year of birth of the dead person in this section.

Notes:
1. Persons who passed away during the period of the Vietnamese new year (Tet) of 1988 and March 31, 1989 are not eligible for counting in the census (do not fill in questions 1 to 13 of the enumeration form for these persons); however, these persons are included in the sample survey and interviewers should fill out their information for question 15.

2. In case an infant was born during the period of the Vietnamese new year (Tet) of 1988 and March 31, 1989 and was the woman's youngest child (fill in question 14e) and died by the time of census in April 1, 1989 (fill in question 14g), this dead person should be reported in question 15.

3. If the entire household was dead, interviewers should indirectly ask key staffs in the commune, relatives, or get information from the household registration system for the deceases' information and fill in question 15 of the enumeration form. Each form records 4 dead persons.

4. If the household has more than 4 deaths, use 2 or 3 forms. In this case, interviewers leave questions 1 to 14 in blank. Interviewers fill in the top of the enumeration form (below first name and last name of head of household) "All household died".